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1.
J Virol ; 95(18): e0085321, 2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299218

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an enteric coronavirus causing acute intestinal infection in pigs, with high mortality often seen in neonatal pigs. The newborns rely on innate immune responses against invading pathogens because of lacking adaptive immunity. However, how PEDV disables the innate immunity of newborns toward severe infection remains unknown. We found that PEDV infection led to reduced expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs), especially HDAC1, in porcine IPEC-J2 cells. HDACs are considered important regulators of innate immunity. We hypothesized that PEDV interacts with certain host factors to regulate HDAC1 expression in favor of its replication. We show that HDAC1 acted as a negative regulator of PEDV replication in IPEC-J2 cells, as shown by chemical inhibition, gene knockout, and overexpression. A GC-box (GCCCCACCCCC) within the HDAC1 promoter region was identified for Sp1 binding in IPEC-J2 cells. Treatment of the cells with Sp1 inhibitor mithramycin A inhibited HDAC1 expression, indicating direct regulation of HDAC1 expression by Sp1. Of the viral proteins that were overexpressed in IPEC-J2 cells, the N protein was found to be present in the nuclei and more inhibitory to HDAC1 transcription. The putative nuclear localization sequence 261PKKNKSR267 contributed to its nuclear localization. The N protein interacted with Sp1 and interfered with its binding to the promoter region, thereby inhibiting its transcriptional activity for HDAC1 expression. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism of PEDV evasion of the host responses, offering implications for studying the infection processes of other coronaviruses. IMPORTANCE The enteric coronavirus porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes fatal acute intestinal infection in neonatal pigs that rely on innate immune responses. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play important roles in innate immune regulation. Our study found PEDV suppresses HDAC1 expression via the interaction of its N protein and porcine Sp1, which identified a novel mechanism of PEDV evasion of the host responses to benefit its replication. This study suggests that other coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, also make use of their N proteins to intercept the host immune responses in favor of their infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Epithelial Cells/virology , Histone Deacetylase 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Sp1 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Swine Diseases/virology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , Sp1 Transcription Factor/genetics , Swine , Swine Diseases/metabolism , Swine Diseases/pathology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244042

ABSTRACT

Infection induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-6. Although they facilitate local antiviral immunity, their excessive release leads to life-threatening cytokine release syndrome, exemplified by the severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In this study, we investigated the roles of the integrated stress response (ISR) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) family proteins in regulating coronavirus-induced IL-8 and IL-6 upregulation. The mRNA expression of IL-8 and IL-6 was significantly induced in cells infected with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a gammacoronavirus, and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, an alphacoronavirus. Overexpression of a constitutively active phosphomimetic mutant of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), chemical inhibition of its dephosphorylation, or overexpression of its upstream double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) significantly enhanced IL-8 mRNA expression in IBV-infected cells. Overexpression of the AP-1 protein cJUN or its upstream kinase also increased the IBV-induced IL-8 mRNA expression, which was synergistically enhanced by overexpression of cFOS. Taken together, this study demonstrated the important regulatory roles of ISR and AP-1 proteins in IL-8 production during coronavirus infection, highlighting the complex interactions between cellular stress pathways and the innate immune response.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/genetics , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Unfolded Protein Response/genetics , Alphacoronavirus/metabolism , Alphacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Gammacoronavirus/metabolism , Gammacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Infectious bronchitis virus/metabolism , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Interleukin-8/genetics , Phosphorylation , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun/metabolism , Signal Transduction/genetics , Transcription Factor AP-1/genetics , Transcription Factor AP-1/metabolism , Up-Regulation , Vero Cells , eIF-2 Kinase/genetics , eIF-2 Kinase/metabolism
3.
J Virol ; 94(16)2020 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214962

ABSTRACT

The 5' cap methylation of viral RNA plays important roles in RNA stability, efficient translation, and immune evasion. Thus, RNA cap methylation is an attractive target for antiviral discovery and development of new live attenuated vaccines. For coronaviruses, RNA cap structure is first methylated at the guanine-N-7 (G-N-7) position by nonstructural protein 14 (nsp14), which facilitates and precedes the subsequent ribose 2'-O methylation by the nsp16-nsp10 complex. Using porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an Alphacoronavirus, as a model, we showed that G-N-7 methyltransferase (G-N-7 MTase) of PEDV nsp14 methylated RNA substrates in a sequence-unspecific manner. PEDV nsp14 can efficiently methylate RNA substrates with various lengths in both neutral and alkaline pH environments and can methylate cap analogs (GpppA and GpppG) and single-nucleotide GTP but not ATP, CTP, or UTP. Mutations to the S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) binding motif in the nsp14 abolished the G-N-7 MTase activity and were lethal to PEDV. However, recombinant rPEDV-D350A with a single mutation (D350A) in nsp14, which retained 29.0% of G-N-7 MTase activity, was viable. Recombinant rPEDV-D350A formed a significantly smaller plaque and had significant defects in viral protein synthesis and viral replication in Vero CCL-81 cells and intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-DQ). Notably, rPEDV-D350A induced significantly higher expression of both type I and III interferons in IPEC-DQ cells than the parental rPEDV. Collectively, our results demonstrate that G-N-7 MTase activity of PEDV modulates viral replication, gene expression, and innate immune responses.IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses (CoVs) include a wide range of important human and animal pathogens. Examples of human CoVs include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and the most recently emerged SARS-CoV-2. Examples of pig CoVs include porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), and swine enteric alphacoronavirus (SeACoV). There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs for most of these viruses. All known CoVs encode a bifunctional nsp14 protein which possesses ExoN and guanine-N-7 methyltransferase (G-N-7 MTase) activities, responsible for replication fidelity and RNA cap G-N-7 methylation, respectively. Here, we biochemically characterized G-N-7 MTase of PEDV nsp14 and found that G-N-7 MTase-deficient PEDV was defective in replication and induced greater responses of type I and III interferons. These findings highlight that CoV G-N-7 MTase may be a novel target for rational design of live attenuated vaccines and antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
Exoribonucleases/metabolism , Interferon Type I/biosynthesis , Interferons/biosynthesis , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , RNA Caps/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Exoribonucleases/genetics , Gene Expression , Guanine/metabolism , Immunity, Innate , Methylation , Mutation , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/enzymology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , RNA, Viral/metabolism , S-Adenosylmethionine/metabolism , Swine , Vero Cells , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3040, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107304

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) cause an enteric disease characterized by diarrhea clinically indistinguishable. Both viruses are simultaneously detected in clinical cases, but a study involving the co-infection has not been reported. The study was therefore conducted to investigate the disease severity following a co-infection with PEDV and PDCoV. In the study, 4-day-old pigs were orally inoculated with PEDV and PDCoV, either alone or in combination. Following challenge, fecal score was monitored on a daily basis. Fecal swabs were collected and assayed for the presence of viruses. Three pigs per group were necropsied at 3 and 5 days post inoculation (dpi). Microscopic lesions and villous height to crypt depth (VH:CD) ratio, together with the presence of PEDV and PDCoV antigens, were evaluated in small intestinal tissues. Expressions of interferon alpha (IFN-α) and interleukin 12 (IL12) were investigated in small intestinal mucosa. The findings indicated that coinoculation increased the disease severity, demonstrated by significantly prolonged fecal score and virus shedding and decreasing VH:CD ratio in the jejunum compared with pigs inoculated with either PEDV or PDCoV alone. Notably, in single-inoculated groups, PEDV and PDCoV antigens were detected only in villous enterocytes wile in the coinoculated group, PDCoV antigen was detected in both villous enterocytes and crypts. IFN-α and IL12 were significantly up-regulated in coinoculated groups in comparison with single-inoculated groups. In conclusion, co-infection with PEDV and PDCoV exacerbate clinical signs and have a synergetic on the regulatory effect inflammatory cytokines compared to a single infection with either virus.


Subject(s)
Deltacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Diarrhea/genetics , Interferon-alpha/genetics , Interleukin-12/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , Animals , Coinfection/genetics , Coinfection/veterinary , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Deltacoronavirus/genetics , Deltacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/virology , Feces/virology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Swine , Swine Diseases/genetics , Swine Diseases/virology
5.
Microb Pathog ; 140: 103922, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-863896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Highly virulent variants of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) have been closely associated with recent outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in China, which have resulted in severe economic losses to the pork industry. METHODS: In the current study, the variant PEDV strain HM2017 was isolated and purified and a viral growth curve was constructed according to the median tissue culture infective dose (TCID50). HM2017 were amplify with RT-PCR and analyzed by phylogeny analysis. Animal pathogenicity experiment was carried to evaluate the HM2017 clinical assessment. RESULTS: Genome-based phylogenetic analysis revealed that PEDV strain HM2017 was clustered into the variant subgroup GII-a that is currently circulating in pig populations in China. The highest median tissue culture infectious dose of strain HM2017 after 15 passages in Vero cells was 1.33 × 107 viral particles/mL. Strain HM2017 was highly virulent to suckling piglets, which exhibited clinical symptoms at 12 h post-infection (hpi) (i.e., weight loss at 12-84 hpi, increased body temperatures at 24-48 hpi, high viral loads in the jejunum and ileum, and 100% mortality by 84 hpi). CONCLUSION: The present study reports a variant subgroup GII-a PEDV HM2017 strain in China and characterize its pathogenicity. PEDV strain HM2017 of subgroup GII-a presents a promising vaccine candidate for the control of PED outbreaks in China.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/isolation & purification , Animals , China/epidemiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Genome, Viral , Phylogeny , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology , Vero Cells , Viral Vaccines/immunology
6.
Virology ; 552: 43-51, 2021 01 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-843443

ABSTRACT

This study focused on intestinal restitution including phenotype switching of absorptive enterocytes and the abundance of different enterocyte subtypes in weaned pigs after porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection. At 10 days post-PEDV-inoculation, the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in both jejunum and ileum had restored, and the PEDV antigen was not detectable. However, enterocytes at the villus tips revealed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the jejunum in which E-cadherin expression decreased while expression of N-cadherin, vimentin, and Snail increased. Additionally, there was reduced expression of actin in microvilli and Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in tight junctions. Moreover, the protein concentration of transforming growth factor ß1 (TGFß1), which mediates EMT and cytoskeleton alteration, was increased. We also found a decreased number of Peyer's patch M cells in the ileum. These results reveal incomplete restitution of enterocytes in the jejunum and potentially impaired immune surveillance in the ileum after PEDV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Enterocytes/pathology , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/pathology , Peyer's Patches/pathology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , Animals , Cadherins/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/immunology , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/virology , Ileum/immunology , Ileum/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Jejunum/immunology , Jejunum/pathology , Microvilli/pathology , Swine , Tight Junctions/pathology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Weaning
7.
Viruses ; 12(2)2020 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-831427

ABSTRACT

The genomes of coronaviruses carry accessory genes known to be associated with viral virulence. The single accessory gene of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), ORF3, is dispensable for virus replication in vitro, while viral mutants carrying ORF3 truncations exhibit an attenuated phenotype of which the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here, we studied the effect of ORF3 deletion on the proliferation of PEDV in Vero cells. To this end, four recombinant porcine epidemic diarrhea viruses (PEDVs) were rescued using targeted RNA recombination, three carrying the full-length ORF3 gene from different PEDV strains, and one from which the ORF3 gene had been deleted entirely. Our results showed that PEDVs with intact or naturally truncated ORF3 replicated to significantly higher titers than PEDV without an ORF3. Further characterization revealed that the extent of apoptosis induced by PEDV infection was significantly lower with the viruses carrying an intact or C-terminally truncated ORF3 than with the virus lacking ORF3, indicating that the ORF3 protein as well as its truncated form interfered with the apoptosis process. Collectively, we conclude that PEDV ORF3 protein promotes virus proliferation by inhibiting cell apoptosis caused by virus infection. Our findings provide important insight into the role of ORF3 protein in the pathogenicity of PEDV.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , Viral Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication , Animals , Cell Proliferation , Chlorocebus aethiops , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Vero Cells , Virulence
8.
Vet Microbiol ; 244: 108684, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-827805

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has caused, and continues to cause, severe economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. The pathogenic mechanism and immune regulatory interactions between PEDV and the host remain largely unknown. In this study, the interaction between autophagy and PEDV replication in intestinal porcine epithelial (IPEC-J2) cells was investigated. The effects of the structural and nonstructural proteins of PEDV on the autophagy process and the autophagy-related signaling pathways were also examined. The results shown that PEDV replication increased the autophagy flux in IPEC-J2 cells, and that autophagy was beneficial to PEDV replication, which may be one of the reasons for the rapid damage to intestinal epithelial cells and the enhanced virulence of PEDV in both newborn piglets and finishing pigs. When autophagy was pharmacologically induced by rapamycin, PEDV replication increased from 8.5 × 105 TCID50/mL to 8.8 × 106 TCID50/mL in IPEC-J2 cells. When autophagy was pharmacologically suppressed by hydroxychloroquine, PEDV replication decreased from 8.5 × 105 TCID50/mL to 7.9 × 104 TCID50/mL. To identify which PEDV proteins were the key inducers of autophagy, all 4 structural proteins and 17 nonstructural proteins of PEDV were eukaryotic expressed. It was found that the nonstructural protein 6 (nsp6) and ORF3 of PEDV were able to induce significant autophagy in IPEC-J2 cells, but the other proteins were unable to induce autophagy. It was indicated that nsp6-induced autophagy mainly occurred via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. The results accelerate the understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of PEDV infection and provide new insights into the development of effective therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication , Animals , Cell Line , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Intestines/cytology , Intestines/virology , Oncogene Protein v-akt/genetics , Oncogene Protein v-akt/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Swine , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
9.
Microb Pathog ; 149: 104553, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808667

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes an emerging and re-emerging coronavirus disease characterized by vomiting, acute diarrhea, dehydration, and up to 100% mortality in neonatal suckling piglets, leading to huge economic losses in the global swine industry. Vaccination remains the most promising and effective way to prevent and control PEDV. However, effective vaccines for PEDV are still under development. Understanding the genomic structure and function of PEDV and the influence of the viral components on innate immunity is essential for developing effective vaccines. In the current review, we systematically describe the recent developments in vaccine against PEDV and the roles of structural proteins, non-structural proteins and accessory proteins of PEDV in affecting viral virulence and regulating innate immunity, which will provide insight into the rational design of effective and safe vaccines for PEDV or other coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Swine Diseases/immunology , Swine Diseases/virology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Immunity, Innate , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , Swine , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Vaccination/veterinary , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Virulence
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