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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613761

ABSTRACT

As the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic hit Portugal, it forced the country to reintroduce lockdown measures due to hospitals reaching their full capacities. Under these circumstances, environmental contamination by SARS-CoV-2 in different areas of one of Portugal's major Hospitals was assessed between 21 January and 11 February 2021. Air samples (n = 44) were collected from eleven different areas of the Hospital (four COVID-19 and seven non-COVID-19 areas) using Coriolis® µ and Coriolis® Compact cyclone air sampling devices. Surface sampling was also performed (n = 17) on four areas (one COVID-19 and three non-COVID-19 areas). RNA extraction followed by a one-step RT-qPCR adapted for quantitative purposes were performed. Of the 44 air samples, two were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA (6575 copies/m3 and 6662.5 copies/m3, respectively). Of the 17 surface samples, three were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA (200.6 copies/cm2, 179.2 copies/cm2, and 201.7 copies/cm2, respectively). SARS-CoV-2 environmental contamination was found both in air and on surfaces in both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 areas. Moreover, our results suggest that longer collection sessions are needed to detect point contaminations. This reinforces the need to remain cautious at all times, not only when in close contact with infected individuals. Hand hygiene and other standard transmission-prevention guidelines should be continuously followed to avoid nosocomial COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , Portugal , RNA, Viral
2.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3360-3368, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: COVID-19-related acute neurological phenotypes are being increasingly recognised, with neurological complications reported in more than 30% of hospitalised patients. However, multicentric studies providing a population-based perspective are lacking. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective multicentric study at five hospitals in Northern Portugal, representing 45.1% of all hospitalised patients in this region, between 1 March and 30 June 2020. RESULTS: Among 1261 hospitalised COVID-19 patients, 457 (36.2%) presented neurological manifestations, corresponding to a rate of 357 per 1000 in the North Region. Patients with neurologic manifestations were younger (68.0 vs. 71.2 years, p = 0.002), and the most frequent neurological symptoms were headache (13.4%), delirium (10.1%), and impairment of consciousness (9.7%). Acute well-defined central nervous system (CNS) involvement was found in 19.1% of patients, corresponding to a rate of 217 per 1000 hospitalised patients in the whole region. Assuming that all patients with severe neurological events were hospitalised, we extrapolated our results to all COVID-19 patients in the region, estimating that 116 will have a severe neurological event, corresponding to a rate of nine per 1000 (95% CI = 7-11). Overall case fatality in patients presenting neurological manifestations was 19.8%, increasing to 32.6% among those with acute well-defined CNS involvement. CONCLUSIONS: We characterised the population of hospitalised COVID-19 patients in Northern Portugal and found that neurological symptoms are common and associated with a high degree of disability at discharge. CNS involvement with criteria for in-hospital admission was observed in a significant proportion of patients. This knowledge provides the tools for adequate health planning and for improving COVID-19 multidisciplinary patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Portugal/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580790

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had significant psychological impact on vulnerable groups, particularly students. The present study aims to investigate the mental and psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated factors in a sample of Portuguese higher education students. An online cross-sectional study was conducted among 1522 higher education students selected by convenience sampling. The survey assessed mental health symptoms as well as sociodemographic variables, health-related perceptions, and psychological factors. Results were fitted to binary and multivariable logistic regression models. The overall prevalences of stress, anxiety, and depression were 35.7%, 36.2%, and 28.5%, respectively. Poor mental health outcomes were related with being female, having no children, living with someone with chronic disease, facing hopelessness, and lacking resilient coping. Future studies focusing on better ways to promote mental health and wellbeing among students are warranted. It is necessary to gather more evidence on the post-pandemic mental health using robust study designs and standardized assessment tools.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Portugal/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Students
4.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin (Engl Ed) ; 40(1): 28-31, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587898

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the characteristics of suspected coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and the rate of confirmed COVID-19 in a pediatric population at the beginning of the pandemic in Portugal. STUDY DESIGN: Suspected COVID-19 pediatric cases that were tested in a Portuguese hospital between March 17 and April 2 2020 were included in this descriptive retrospective study. The analyzed data included socio-demographic parameters, characteristics of the household, underlying medical conditions and symptoms. RESULTS: Ninety-four patients were included and all of them were symptomatic and treated without hospitalization. The most common symptoms were cough (80%;n=75), rhinorrhea (72%;n=68) and fever (60%;n=56). There was only one positive for SARS-CoV-2 in a five-year-old child with mild illness without epidemiologic linkage. CONCLUSION: This study showed a low rate of confirmed COVID-19 in children. The causes for this low rate can be multifactorial and illustrates how differently this virus spreads in the pediatric population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Pandemics , Portugal/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Arch Pediatr ; 29(1): 27-29, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561682

ABSTRACT

AIM: The COVID-19 pandemic has forced governments to impose lockdown policies, thus impacting patients with chronic diseases, such as type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of lockdown on glycemic control in type 1 diabetes patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated patients using a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion device during the nationwide lockdown. Children and adolescents aged 2-18 years followed up at the Pediatric Endocrinology Unit of Hospitalar São João in Portugal were included in the study. We collected data on the age, weight, insulin doses, and glycemic control of the patients before and after the restrictions. RESULTS: The study included 100 patients, 59 males, with a mean age of 12.5 years. Baseline data showed a suboptimal glycemic control with a median HbA1c of 7.9%. The lockdown was associated with an increase in the body mass index (BMI) of all patients (p = 0.009), particularly girls and older teenagers. Metabolic control deteriorated in the 10-13 age group (p = 0.03), with a 0.4% increase in HbA1c. CONCLUSION: To date, this is the largest study on the impact of lockdown on type 1 diabetes in patients using an insulin pump. The results highlight the importance of physical activity, parental supervision, and continuation of healthcare assistance through telemedicine in young individuals with type 1 diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Glycemic Control/methods , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine , Adolescent , Blood Glucose , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Infusions, Subcutaneous , Insulin Infusion Systems/adverse effects , Male , Portugal/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(1): 936-952, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551673

ABSTRACT

In this work we use simple mathematical models to study the impact of vaccination against COVID-19 in Portugal. First, we fit a SEIR type model without vaccination to the Portuguese data on confirmed cases of COVID-19 by the date of symptom onset, from the beginning of the epidemic until the 23rd January of 2021, to estimate changes in the transmission intensity. Then, by including vaccination in the model we develop different scenarios for the fade-out of the non pharmacological intervention (NPIs) as vaccine coverage increases in the population according to Portuguese vaccination goals. We include a feedback function to mimic the implementation and relaxation of NPIs, according to some disease incidence thresholds defined by the Portuguese health authorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , Portugal , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
7.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S6): e2021459, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1529077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: From March 17 to April 17, 2020, the Portuguese municipality of Ovar was submitted to a cordon sanitaire due to a COVID-19 outbreak. During this period a whole Public Health structure had to be built up to respond to the healthcare needs of the population. The aim of this work is to contribute to the evidence on the efficacy of cordon sanitaire as an epidemic control strategy. METHODS: All the major institutions in Ovar, both health and socially related, were called from the first day to form a Crisis Cabinet. Case tracking was assured by the creation of an online database. A major telephone network oversaw contact tracing, isolation mandates and surveillance. A massive testing structure was built up, and clinical assistance was assured by the local hospital and the Primary Care units. Patient referral to testing and clinical visits were made through online forms that allowed an efficient response and data for epidemiologic research. RESULTS: A decline in the daily number of cases was seen after an incubation period (14 days), confirming lockdown was effective in blocking transmission chains. Besides, neighbouring municipalities were not significantly affected in relation to others. Lethality was bigger in Ovar than in whole Portugal. CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in the incidence, in the reproductive number and the non-affection of neighbouring municipalities appear to prove the cordon sanitaire as an effective Public Health measure to contain epidemics. However, an appropriate mitigation strategy must be adopted to conceal the challenge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Portugal/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Acta Med Port ; 34(11): 761-766, 2021 Nov 02.
Article in Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524744

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 as a pandemic, and Portugal reported its initial cases. In this study, we aimed to determine the impact of COVID-19 on Portuguese individuals aged over 60 years old. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE 8: COVID-19 Survey). We selected a sample of 1080 noninstitutional Portuguese individuals aged ≥ 60 years. RESULTS: The study sample consisted of 605 (56%) women and 475 (44%) men, with a mean age of 70 ± 9.1 years. In total, 80% of the participants experienced higher levels of anxiety, 73% felt more depressed and 30% experienced additional sleep problems comparedto the period before the pandemic. Interestingly, there were no statistically significant differences between the sexes or the two selected age groups (60 - 74 and over 75 years old) regarding the incidence of these changes. Only 23%, of those that were interviewed maintained their walking routines. In addition, only 8% of the participants continued visiting family members as frequently as before. While 8% of the participants were refused some form of medical treatment, 56% claimed that they experienced healthcare delays. However,only 15% of the participants reported that their health status worsened during the pandemic. DISCUSSION: The pandemic has had a significant impact on Portuguese individuals aged ≥ 60 years; which is in agreement with the findings of previous international studies. It changed the participants' routines and increased their anxiety and depression levels. Despite the deterioration of healthcare services, most participants did not experience worsening of their health status. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, a COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on the elderly population, particularly regarding their mental health.


Introdução: Em março de 2020, a COVID-19 foi declarada pandemia pela Organização Mundial da Saúde e Portugal registou os seus primeiros casos. Este estudo visou determinar o impacto da COVID-19 na população portuguesa maior de 60 anos. Material e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo observacional transversal que analisa várias variáveis de saúde, comportamentais, sociais e económicas. Utilizaram-se dados do projecto Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement (SHARE 8: COVID-19 Survey), seleccionando uma amostra de 1080 portugueses não institucionalizados e maiores de 60 anos. Resultados: A amostra englobou 605 mulheres (56%) e 475 homens (44%), com idade média de 70 ± 9,1 anos. No total, 80% dos participantes notou aumento da ansiedade, 73% sentiu-se mais deprimido e 30% considerou que o seu sono piorou em relação ao período anterior à pandemia. Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os sexos ou as duas faixas etárias analisadas (60 - 74 e ≥ 75 anos) quanto à incidência destas alterações. No respeitante a saídas de casa, apenas 23% dos entrevistados manteve os hábitos de passeio e 8% manteve as visitas a familiares no seu padrão habitual. Relativamente ao acesso a cuidados médicos, a 8% foi negado algum tratamento e 56% queixou-se do adiamento dos cuidados. Apenas 13% referiu um agravamento do seu estado de saúde durante a pandemia. Discussão: Este trabalho mostra que esta pandemia impactou a população portuguesa com mais de 60 anos, o que está em linha com o reportado noutros estudos internacionais. Os hábitos alteraram-se, e a ansiedade e depressão aumentaram. Apesar da deterioração dos cuidados de saúde, a maioria dos participantes não notou agravamento do seu estado de saúde. Conclusão: Em conclusão, a pandemia por COVID-19 teve um impacto significativo na população idosa particularmente no que concerne à sua saúde mental.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aging , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Portugal/epidemiology , Retirement , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Euro Surveill ; 26(38)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496926

ABSTRACT

Through deterministic data linkage of health registries, mRNA vaccine effectiveness (VE) against COVID-19-related hospitalisations and deaths was measured in 1,880,351 older adults. VE against hospitalisations was 94% (95% confidence interval (CI): 88-97) and 82% (95% CI: 72-89) for those 65-79 and ≥ 80 years old, with no evidence of waning 98 days after dose two. VE against mortality was 96% (95% CI: 92-98) and 81% (95% CI: 74-87) in these two age groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval , Portugal/epidemiology , RNA, Messenger , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21336, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493226

ABSTRACT

Air quality improvements pollution changes due to COVID-19 restrictions have been reported for many urban developments and large metropolitan areas, but the respective impacts at rural and remote zones are less frequently analysed. This study evaluated air pollution changes across all Portugal (68 stations) considering all urban, suburban and rural zones. PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, ozone was analysed in pre-, during, and post-lockdown period (January-May 2020) and for a comparison also in 2019. NO2 was the most reduced pollutant in 2020, which coincided with decreased traffic. Significant drop (15-71%) of traffic related NO2 was observed specifically during lockdown period, being 55% for the largest and most populated region in country. PM was affected to a lesser degree (with substantial differences found for largely populated areas (Lisbon region ~ 30%; North region, up to 49%); during lockdown traffic-related PM dropped 10-70%. PM10 daily limit was exceeded 50% less in 2020, with 80% of exceedances before lockdown period. SO2 decreased by 35%, due to suspended industrial productions, whereas ozone concentrations slightly (though not significantly) increased (83 vs. 80 µg m-3).


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Quarantine/methods , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2 , Suburban Population , Urban Population , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Ozone/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Portugal/epidemiology , Sulfur Dioxide/analysis
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20837, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479820

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D is a fundamental regulator of host defences by activating genes related to innate and adaptive immunity. Previous research shows a correlation between the levels of vitamin D in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and the degree of disease severity. This work investigates the impact of the genetic background related to vitamin D pathways on COVID-19 severity. For the first time, the Portuguese population was characterized regarding the prevalence of high impact variants in genes associated with the vitamin D pathways. This study enrolled 517 patients admitted to two tertiary Portuguese hospitals. The serum concentration of 25 (OH)D, was measured in the hospital at the time of patient admission. Genetic variants, 18 variants, in the genes AMDHD1, CYP2R1, CYP24A1, DHCR7, GC, SEC23A, and VDR were analysed. The results show that polymorphisms in the vitamin D binding protein encoded by the GC gene are related to the infection severity (p = 0.005). There is an association between vitamin D polygenic risk score and the serum concentration of 25 (OH)D (p = 0.04). There is an association between 25 (OH)D levels and the survival and fatal outcomes (p = 1.5e-4). The Portuguese population has a higher prevalence of the DHCR7 RS12785878 variant when compared with its prevalence in the European population (19% versus 10%). This study shows a genetic susceptibility for vitamin D deficiency that might explain higher severity degrees in COVID-19 patients. These results reinforce the relevance of personalized strategies in the context of viral diseases.Trial registration: NCT04370808.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Polymorphism, Genetic , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D/genetics , Aged , Biomarkers , Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase/genetics , Cytochrome P450 Family 2/genetics , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors/genetics , Portugal/epidemiology , Prevalence , Severity of Illness Index , Vesicular Transport Proteins/genetics , Vitamin D-Binding Protein/genetics , Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase/genetics
12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 680726, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477886

ABSTRACT

Introduction/Objective: Pandemic of COVID-19 is a major public health problem. At the time of development of this study, no specific medication/vaccine for this disease was approved. Therefore, preventive measures were the main key to control this pandemic. Health literacy (HL) is the ability to obtain, understand and use the information to make free and informed decisions about the health of an individual and to promote community empowerment. Thus, the HL of COVID-19 is important for community empowerment and the adoption of preventive measures. This article aims to understand possible predictors of HL of COVID-19, functional domain. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed, applying the Questionnaire of COVID-19 (previously designed and submitted to a preliminary pilot testing) through an online platform from April 23 to June 23, 2020. An Index of Health Knowledge of COVID-19 Questionnaire (IHK-COV19) was constructed. Associations between independent variables ("Gender," "Age," "Education," and "Risk Factor" for COVID-19 codified by ICPC-2) and HL were assessed using multivariate analyses (mixed effects models). The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Our sample includes 864 subjects (median age, 44.33 years), mostly women (n = 619; 71.76%), undergraduate (n = 392; 45.37%) and with at least one risk factor for COVID-19 (n = 266; 30.79%). Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated "Age" as a negative predictor of IHK-COV19 and "Education" and "Risk Factor" as positive predictors of IHK-COV19. Conclusions: Health knowledge regarding COVID-19 is associated with the level of education. Future interventions should consider including HL mechanisms in interventions designed to improve communication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Portugal/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 231, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477427

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence indicates that the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic had immediate health and social impact, disproportionately affecting certain socioeconomic groups. Assessing inequalities in risk of exposure and in adversities faced during the pandemic is critical to inform targeted actions that effectively prevent disproportionate spread and reduce social and health inequities. This study examines i) the socioeconomic and mental health characteristics of individuals working in the workplace, thus at increased risk of COVID-19 exposure, and ii) individual income losses resulting from the pandemic across socioeconomic subgroups of a working population, during the first confinement in Portugal. METHODS: This study uses data from 'COVID-19 Barometer: Social Opinion', a community-based online survey in Portugal. The sample for analysis comprised n = 129,078 workers. Logistic regressions were performed to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (AOR) of factors associated with working in the workplace during the confinement period and with having lost income due to the pandemic. RESULTS: Over a third of the participants reported working in the workplace during the first confinement. This was more likely among those with lower income [AOR = 2.93 (2.64-3.25)], lower education [AOR = 3.17 (3.04-3.30)] and working as employee [AOR = 1.09 (1.04-1.15)]. Working in the workplace was positively associated with frequent feelings of agitation, anxiety or sadness [AOR = 1.14 (1.09-1.20)] and perception of high risk of infection [AOR = 11.06 (10.53-11.61)]. About 43% of the respondents reported having lost income due to the pandemic. The economic consequences affected greatly the groups at increased risk of COVID-19 exposure, namely those with lower education [AOR = 1.36 (1.19-1.56)] and lower income [AOR = 3.13 (2.47-3.96)]. CONCLUSIONS: The social gradient in risk of exposure and in economic impact of the pandemic can result in an accumulated vulnerability for socioeconomic deprived populations. The COVID-19 pandemic seems to have a double effect in these groups, contributing to heightened disparities and poor health outcomes, including in mental health. Protecting the most vulnerable populations is key to prevent the spread of the disease and mitigate the deepening of social and health disparities. Action is needed to develop policies and more extensive measures for reducing disproportionate experiences of adversity from the COVID-19 pandemic among most vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Income , Portugal/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Acta Med Port ; 34(10): 650-656, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478807

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Guidance for pregnant women has been particularly problematic since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and outcomes of pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection and their newborns. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Case review of clinical records of pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted for delivery and their newborns from April to December 2020 at a hospital in the Lisbon metropolitan area. RESULTS: From 1755 births, 81 (4.6%) were from SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers. Most (83.9%) were term newborns. Almost 16% were preterm, while there was an overall prematurity rate of 9.9%. Most women (88.6%) were asymptomatic. Rooming-in occurred in 80.8% cases and 19.2% newborns were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. From the total, 56.7% newborns were breastfed from birth and 43% had mixed feeding. None of the newborns had symptoms related to COVID-19 infection, and all had negative rt-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 at birth and at 48 hours of life. The majority (85.2%) was discharged home with their mothers. DISCUSSION: Pregnant women with COVID-19 have shown immune characteristics resembling healthy pregnancies, and it is not yet clear if SARS-CoV-2 can be vertically transmitted. Recent updates on neonatal guidance now recommend rooming-in and support the relative safety of breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: This study supports other published articles regarding maternal and neonatal outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infected pregnant women, including the absence of short-term adverse outcomes with rooming-in and breastfeeding.


Introdução: Desde o início da pandemia COVID-19, tem sido particularmente dificil obter orientações relativas a mulheres grávidas. Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever as características e resultados clínicos das grávidas com SARS-CoV-2 e dos seus recém--nascidos. Material e Métodos: Revisão de processos clínicos de grávidas com infecção por SARS-CoV-2 admitidas para o parto, e dos seus recém-nascidos, no período de abril a dezembro de 2020 num hospital da área metropolitana de Lisboa. Resultados: De um total de 1755 nascimentos, 81 (4,6%) foram de mães positivas para SARS-CoV-2. A maioria eram recém-nascidos de termo; 16% eram prematuros, sendo a taxa geral de prematuridade 9,9%. A maioria das grávidas (88,6%) foi assintomática. O alojamento conjunto ocorreu em 80,8% dos casos e 19,2% dos recém-nascidos foram admitidos na Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatais. A maioria dos recém-nascidos (56,7%) fez leite materno desde o nascimento e 43% fez aleitamento misto. Nenhum recém--nascido apresentou sintomas relacionados com a infeção por COVID-19 e todos foram negativos por rt-PCR para SARS-CoV-2 ao nascimento e às 48 horas. Do total, 85,2% dos recém-nascidos tiveram alta para o domicílio com a mãe. Discussão: As grávidas com COVID-19 apresentam características imunológicas semelhantes a grávidas saudáveis e ainda não é clara a transmissão vertical do SARS-CoV-2. Atualizações recentes sobre as orientações neonatais recomendam o alojamento conjunto e apoiam a segurança da amamentação. Conclusão: Este estudo corrobora resultados maternos e neonatais anteriores incluindo a ausência de resultados adversos a curto prazo com alojamento conjunto e amamentação.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Mothers , Pandemics , Portugal/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19617, 2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450290

ABSTRACT

Successive generalisations of the basic SEIR model have been proposed to accommodate the different needs of the organisations handling the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. These generalisations have not been able until today to represent the potential of the epidemic to overwhelm hospital capacity until today. This work builds on previous generalisations, including a new compartment for hospital occupancy that allows accounting for the infected patients that need specialised medical attention. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the hospitalisations rate and probability as well as of the recovery rates for hospitalised and non-hospitalised individuals is achieved, offering new information and predictions of crucial importance for the planning of the health systems and global epidemic response. Additionally, a new methodology to calibrate epidemic flows between compartments is proposed. We conclude that the two-step calibration procedure is able to recalibrate non-error-free data and showed crucial to reconstruct the series in a specific situation characterised by significant errors over the official recovery cases. The performed modelling also allowed us to understand how effective the several interventions (lockdown or other mobility restriction measures) were, offering insight for helping public authorities to set the timing and intensity of the measures in order to avoid the implosion of the health systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Models, Statistical , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Portugal/epidemiology , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
17.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e205, 2021 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413043

ABSTRACT

On 16-17 January 2020, four suspected mumps cases were reported to the local Public Health Authorities with an epidemiological link to a local school and football club. Of 18 suspected cases identified, 14 were included in this study. Laboratory results confirmed mumps virus as the cause and further sequencing identified genotype G. Our findings highlight that even with a high MMR vaccine coverage, mumps outbreaks in children and young adults can occur. Since most of the cases had documented immunity for mumps, we hypothesise that waning immunity or discordant mumps virus strains are likely explanations for this outbreak.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/administration & dosage , Mumps virus/immunology , Mumps/epidemiology , Adolescent , Child , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Female , Genotype , Humans , Male , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/genetics , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Mumps/prevention & control , Mumps/virology , Mumps virus/genetics , Mumps virus/pathogenicity , Portugal/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150264, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401855

ABSTRACT

The presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in wastewater produced interest in its use for sentinel surveillance at a community level and as a complementary approach to syndromic surveillance. With this work, we set the foundations for wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) in Portugal by monitoring the trends of SARS-CoV-2 RNA circulation in the community, on a nationwide perspective during different epidemiological phases of the pandemic. The Charité assays (E_Sarbecco, RdRP, and N_Sarbecco) were applied to monitor, over 32-weeks (April to December 2020), the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 RNA at the inlet of five wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), which together serve more than two million people in Portugal. Raw wastewater from three Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reference hospitals was also analyzed during this period. In total, more than 600 samples were tested. For the first weeks, detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was sporadic, with concentrations varying from 103 to 105 genome copies per liter (GC/L). Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA increased steeply by the end of May into late June, mainly in Lisboa e Vale do Tejo region (LVT), during the reopening phase. After the summer, with the reopening of schools in mid-September and return to partial face-to-face work, a pronounced increase of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater was detected. In the LVT area, SARS-CoV-2 RNA load agreed with reported trends in hotspots of infection. Synchrony between trends of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in raw wastewater and daily new COVID-19 cases highlights the value of WBE as a surveillance tool, particularly after the phasing out of the epidemiological curve and when hotspots of disease re-emerge in the population which might be difficult to spot based solely on syndromic surveillance and contact tracing. This is the first study crossing several epidemiological stages highlighting the long-term use of WBE for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , Humans , Portugal/epidemiology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Water
19.
Acta Med Port ; 34(9): 601-607, 2021 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399710

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Long-term health impairments are often experienced among survivors of critical illness, which may have a negative impact on their quality of life. The aim of this study was to characterize COVID-19 survivors of critical illness and to evaluate health-related quality of life and disability following hospital discharge. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a retrospective case-series study that included COVID-19 survivors admitted to the Intensive Care Medicine Department of a University Hospital. Follow-up evaluation was performed between the 30th and the 90th day after discharge. Quality of life was explored using the five-level version of the EQ-5D instrument (EQ-5D-5L) and functionality using the 12-question World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0). RESULTS: Forty-five survivors were enrolled, 28 (62.2%) men, median age 63.0 years. The EQ-5D-5L questionnaire showed moderate to extreme problems in some dimension in 29 patients (64.4%): mobility in six (13.3%), self-care in seven (13.3%), usual activities in 23 (51.1%), pain/discomfort in 14 (31.1%) and anxiety/depression in 17 (37.8%). When using the 12-question WHODAS 2.0 questionnaire, moderate to extreme disability was reported in some question in 37 patients (82.2%): 19 (42.2%) in standing for long periods, 18 (40.0%) in long-distance walking; 14 (31.1%) on taking care of household responsibilities and 17 (37.8%) in their day-to-day work; 23 (51.1%) felt emotionally affected by their health problems. DISCUSSION: Based on COVID-19 survivors-reported outcomes after critical illness, mobility, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression were the main problems that persisted one to three months after hospital discharge. CONCLUSION: An organized follow-up structure is crucial to improve health-related quality of life in critical COVID-19 survivors.


Introdução: Os sobreviventes de doença crítica apresentam frequentemente sequelas a longo prazo. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar os sobreviventes da COVID-19 grave e avaliar a qualidade de vida após a alta hospitalar. Material e Métodos: Série de casos que inclui sobreviventes COVID-19 admitidos no Serviço de Medicina Intensiva de um Hospital Universitário. A consulta de seguimento foi realizada entre o 30º e o 90º dia após alta hospitalar. A qualidade de vida foi avaliada através do questionário EQ-5D com cinco níveis (EQ-5D-5L) e a funcionalidade através do instrumento World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) de 12 questões. Resultados: Foram incluídos 45 sobreviventes, 28 homens (62,2%), idade mediana de 63,0 anos. No questionário EQ-5D-5L 29 sobreviventes (64,4%) mostraram problemas moderados a extremos em alguma dimensão: seis (13,3%) na mobilidade, sete (13,3%) nos cuidados pessoais, 23 (51,1%) nas atividades habituais, 14 (31,1%) na dor/desconforto e 17 (37,8%) na ansiedade/depressão. No WHODAS 2.0 37 sobreviventes (82,2%) revelaram alterações funcionais moderadas a extremas em alguma questão: 19 (42,2%) em permanecer de pé por longos períodos, 18 (40,0%) em percorrer longas distâncias, 14 (31,1%) em cuidar das responsabilidades domésticas e 17 (37,8%) no dia-a-dia no trabalho; 23 (51,1%) mostraram-se emocionalmente afetados pelos seus problemas de saúde. Discussão: A avaliação dos sobreviventes COVID-19 após a doença crítica demonstra que a mobilidade, a dor/desconforto e a ansiedade/depressão são os principais problemas que persistem um a três meses após a alta hospitalar. Conclusão: O acompanhamento estruturado após alta poderá ter impacto significativo na qualidade de vida destes doentes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Portugal , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
20.
J Affect Disord ; 295: 797-803, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385798

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 and the physical isolation measures taken by the governments to reduce its propagation might have negative psychological consequences on the population. In this study, we aimed to explore, for the first time, how mental health status fluctuated along the weeks of the emergency state in Portugal, and to identify which factors may shape these changes in mental health outcomes. METHODS: To this end, we conducted an online survey to evaluate demographic, lifestyle and mental health variables (DASS-21 and quality of life) in the Portuguese population at three different time-points. 748 participants (mean age = 39.52, % females = 79.95) provided data at all time-points. RESULTS: We observed that depression, anxiety and stress symptoms seemed to improve as the weeks passed during the state of emergency, while the perception of quality of life and sleep got worse. In particular, being female, younger, actively working, and extroverted appear to be protective factors of mental health adaptability during this particular period. On the contrary, having a psychiatric diagnosis or physical illness, and higher neuroticism seem to be risk factors for mental health worsening. LIMITATIONS: The lack of a more diverse sample could limit the generalizability of our results, and other factors that were not considered in our analysis might also have a significant impact on mental health. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide relevant and novel insights about the course of mental health changes and its predictors during the outbreak of COVID-19, which may help identify potential vulnerability groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Life Style , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Portugal/epidemiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
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