Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 13 de 13
Filter
1.
Eur J Haematol ; 108(2): 91-98, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488195

ABSTRACT

People with hematologic malignancies are at a high risk of morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. The response to vaccination is highly limited in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Less than half of the patients develop antibody response, suggesting that they remain at risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection even after the vaccination. Reasons for inadequate response to COVID-19 vaccination in chronic lymphocytic leukemia are multifactorial and attributed to disease-related immune dysregulation and patient- and therapy-related factors. The negative predictors of response to vaccination include hypogammaglobulinemia, advanced age, current active treatment, and past treatment anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies. Despite using booster doses and heterologous immunization to improve humoral and cellular immunity, some patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia will fail to respond. Active treatment at the time of vaccination and a recent history of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies use are the strongest predictors of the non-response. Current data support informing patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other hematologic malignancies about the risk of infection regardless of vaccination. These individuals and members of their households should continue extreme preventive actions despite relaxed local regulations. Other emerging non-vaccine preventive strategies include passive and post-exposure prevention with monoclonal antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunocompromised Host , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Pandemics , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Risk Factors , Treatment Failure
2.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5358-5366, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206839

ABSTRACT

Currently available data are consistent with increased severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication at temperatures encountered in the upper airways (25-33°C when breathing room temperature air, 25°C) compared to those in the lower airways (37°C). One factor that may contribute to more rapid viral growth in the upper airways is the exponential increase in SARS-CoV-2 stability that occurs with reductions in temperature, as measured in vitro. Because SARS-CoV-2 frequently initiates infection in the upper airways before spreading through the body, increased upper airway viral growth early in the disease course may result in more rapid progression of disease and potentially contribute to more severe outcomes. Similarly, higher SARS-CoV-2 viral titer in the upper airways likely supports more efficient transmission. Conversely, the possible significance of air temperature to upper airway viral growth suggests that prolonged delivery of heated air might represent a preventative measure and prophylactic treatment for coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Temperature , Trachea/virology , Virus Replication/physiology , Air/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Humidity , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Thermodynamics
4.
Trials ; 22(1): 224, 2021 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147039

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is a well-established strategy for the prevention of infectious diseases, in which recently exposed people take a short course of medication to prevent infection. The primary objective of the COVID-19 Ring-based Prevention Trial with lopinavir/ritonavir (CORIPREV-LR) is to evaluate the efficacy of a 14-day course of oral lopinavir/ritonavir as PEP against COVID-19 among individuals with a high-risk exposure to a confirmed case. METHODS: This is an open-label, multicenter, 1:1 cluster-randomized trial of LPV/r 800/200 mg twice daily for 14 days (intervention arm) versus no intervention (control arm), using an adaptive approach to sample size calculation. Participants will be individuals aged > 6 months with a high-risk exposure to a confirmed COVID-19 case within the past 7 days. A combination of remote and in-person study visits at days 1, 7, 14, 35, and 90 includes comprehensive epidemiological, clinical, microbiologic, and serologic sampling. The primary outcome is microbiologically confirmed COVID-19 infection within 14 days after exposure, defined as a positive respiratory tract specimen for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction. Secondary outcomes include safety, symptomatic COVID-19, seropositivity, hospitalization, respiratory failure requiring ventilator support, mortality, psychological impact, and health-related quality of life. Additional analyses will examine the impact of LPV/r on these outcomes in the subset of participants who test positive for SARS-CoV-2 at baseline. To detect a relative risk reduction of 40% with 80% power at α = 0.05, assuming the secondary attack rate in ring members (p0) = 15%, 5 contacts per case and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.05, we require 110 clusters per arm, or 220 clusters overall and approximately 1220 enrollees after accounting for 10% loss-to-follow-up. We will modify the sample size target after 60 clusters, based on preliminary estimates of p0, ICC, and cluster size and consider switching to an alternative drug after interim analyses and as new data emerges. The primary analysis will be a generalized linear mixed model with logit link to estimate the effect of LPV/r on the probability of infection. Participants who test positive at baseline will be excluded from the primary analysis but will be maintained for additional analyses to examine the impact of LPV/r on early treatment. DISCUSSION: Harnessing safe, existing drugs such as LPV/r as PEP could provide an important tool for control of the COVID-19 pandemic. Novel aspects of our design include the ring-based prevention approach, and the incorporation of remote strategies for conducting study visits and biospecimen collection. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT04321174 ) on March 25, 2020.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Hospitalization , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
5.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e040110, 2020 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922574

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) has been proposed as repurposed drugs for pre-exposure and postexposure prophylaxis as well as therapy of COVID-19. Coronavirus postexposure prophylaxis (COPEP) trial aims at assessing their efficacy as postexposure ring-prophylaxis among adults exposed to SARS-CoV-2. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: COPEP is a two-arm open-label cluster-randomised trial conducted in three cantons of Switzerland. Asymptomatic contacts (≥16 years) of individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 will be randomised (2:1) to either LPV/r (400 mg/100 mg two times per day) for 5 days, or a standard of care arm (no treatment). Asymptomatic individuals may be either SARS-CoV-2 positive or negative. Contacts living in the single household will form a cluster and will be randomised into the same arm. All participants will be followed-up for 21 days and undergo daily monitoring for COVID-19 symptoms. The primary endpoint is 21-day incidence of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 with ≥1 compatible symptom, analysed in an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. The secondary endpoints include the 21-day incidence of COVID-19 as well as SARS-CoV-2 infection in a modified ITT analysis, excluding participants who had a positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR from oropharyngeal swab and/or a positive SARS-CoV-2 IgG serology at baseline. Assuming a 21-day incidence for COVID-19 of 20% among contacts without postexposure chemoprophylaxis, to detect a relative risk reduction of 60% (ie, translating in an absolute reduction from 20% to 8%), with a power of 80%, an alpha of 5%. Accounting for design effect of cluster design of circa 1.1, we plan to enrol 200 participants to the LPV/r arm and 100 to the standard of care arm, 300 participants in total. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval has been granted by the Commission Cantonale d'Ethique de la Recherche, Ethikkommission Nordwest- und Zentralschweiz and Comitato Etico Cantonale (ref 2020-00864) and Swissmedic (2020DR3056). Results from this trial will be disseminated via journal articles and presentations at national and international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Clinicaltrials.gov Registry (NCT04364022); Swiss National Clinical Trial Portal Registry (SNCTP 000003732). REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER: CCER 2020-0864.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Drug Combinations , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland
6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(16): 1815-1826, 2020 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-849705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thromboembolic disease is common in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). There is limited evidence on the association of in-hospital anticoagulation (AC) with outcomes and postmortem findings. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine association of AC with in-hospital outcomes and describe thromboembolic findings on autopsies. METHODS: This retrospective analysis examined the association of AC with mortality, intubation, and major bleeding. Subanalyses were also conducted on the association of therapeutic versus prophylactic AC initiated ≤48 h from admission. Thromboembolic disease was contextualized by premortem AC among consecutive autopsies. RESULTS: Among 4,389 patients, median age was 65 years with 44% women. Compared with no AC (n = 1,530; 34.9%), therapeutic AC (n = 900; 20.5%) and prophylactic AC (n = 1,959; 44.6%) were associated with lower in-hospital mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45 to 0.62 and aHR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.57, respectively), and intubation (aHR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.94 and aHR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.58 to 0.89, respectively). When initiated ≤48 h from admission, there was no statistically significant difference between therapeutic (n = 766) versus prophylactic AC (n = 1,860) (aHR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.73 to 1.02; p = 0.08). Overall, 89 patients (2%) had major bleeding adjudicated by clinician review, with 27 of 900 (3.0%) on therapeutic, 33 of 1,959 (1.7%) on prophylactic, and 29 of 1,530 (1.9%) on no AC. Of 26 autopsies, 11 (42%) had thromboembolic disease not clinically suspected and 3 of 11 (27%) were on therapeutic AC. CONCLUSIONS: AC was associated with lower mortality and intubation among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Compared with prophylactic AC, therapeutic AC was associated with lower mortality, although not statistically significant. Autopsies revealed frequent thromboembolic disease. These data may inform trials to determine optimal AC regimens.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Autopsy/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis , Thromboembolism , Aged , Anticoagulants/classification , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , New York City/epidemiology , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Risk Adjustment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/mortality , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Thromboembolism/virology
7.
Trials ; 21(1): 748, 2020 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first case of a coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infection in a Sri Lankan was reported on March 11, 2020. The situation in Sri Lanka changed with the rapid increase of personnel contracting COVID-19 in a naval base camp that housed more than 4000 people. This provided a unique opportunity to study the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), while taking stringent, non-pharmacologic, public health measures to prevent spread. Our aim is to study the effectiveness and safety of HCQ for PEP among naval personnel with exposure to COVID-19-positive patients. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a placebo-controlled, randomized, clinical trial carried out in the naval base camp and quarantine centers of the Sri Lanka Navy, Ministry of Defense, Sri Lanka. Navy personnel who are exposed to a patient with confirmed COVID-19 infection but test negative for the virus on reverse real-time polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) at recruitment will be randomized, 200 to each arm, to receive HCQ or placebo and monitored for the development of symptoms or rRT-PCR positivity for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus for 14 days. DISCUSSION: This trial will provide high-quality evidence of the effectiveness and safety of HCQ as PEP for COVID-19. The study design is unique due to the circumstances of the outbreak in a confined area among otherwise healthy adults, at a relatively early stage of its spread. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Sri Lanka Clinical Trials Registry (SLCTR) SLCTR/2020/011 . Registered on 04 May 2020.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Military Personnel , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Double-Blind Method , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sri Lanka
8.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1623, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-687023

ABSTRACT

Countries worldwide have confirmed a staggering number of COVID-19 cases, and it is now clear that no country is immune to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Resource-poor countries with weaker health systems are struggling with epidemics of their own and are now in a more uncertain situation with this rapidly spreading infection. Frontline healthcare workers are succumbing to the infection in their efforts to save lives. There is an urgency to develop treatments for COVID-19, yet there is limited clinical data on the efficacy of potential drug treatments. Countries worldwide implemented a stay-at-home order to "flatten the curve" and relieve the pressure on the health system, but it is uncertain how this will unfold after the economy reopens. Trehalose, a natural glucose disaccharide, is known to impair viral function through the autophagy system. Here, we propose trehalose as a potential preventative treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Trehalose/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Asymptomatic Diseases , Autophagy/drug effects , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Trehalose/pharmacology , Virus Replication/drug effects
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1288: 1-3, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-291527

ABSTRACT

The global crisis provoked by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, and the economic and social consequences associated to the essential policies applied to contain it, necessitates the expedited development of therapeutic solutions. It is a priority to produce data both rapidly and accurately in order to identify current therapies that can be repurposed to offer protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection. As healthcare workers are both at high risk for infection and able to be readily diagnosed, they offer a potential wealth of data to be analyzed. A systematic data analysis of exposure and infection rates among healthcare workers could yield patterns identifying common protective factors, such as medications with prophylactic potential against SARS-CoV-2, that can be fast-tracked into available therapies. With results suggesting their activity against other coronaviruses and their widespread adoption, Antiretroviral cocktails could be a promising initial target for such large-scale data analysis approach.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Data Analysis , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Can J Anaesth ; 67(9): 1201-1211, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-275845

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in December 2019 causing the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Currently, there is a lack of evidence-based therapies to prevent COVID-19 following exposure to the virus, or to prevent worsening of symptoms following confirmed infection. We describe the design of a clinical trial of hydroxychloroquine for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-emptive therapy (PET) for COVID-19. METHODS: We will conduct two nested multicentre international double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials of hydroxychloroquine for: 1) PEP of asymptomatic household contacts or healthcare workers exposed to COVID-19 within the past four days, and 2) PET for symptomatic outpatients with COVID-19 showing symptoms for less than four days. We will recruit 1,500 patients each for the PEP and PET trials. Participants will be randomized 1:1 to receive five days of hydroxychloroquine or placebo. The primary PEP trial outcome will be the incidence of symptomatic COVID-19. The primary PET trial outcome will be an ordinal scale of disease severity (not hospitalized, hospitalized without intensive care, hospitalization with intensive care, or death). Participant screening, informed consent, and follow-up will be exclusively internet-based with appropriate regulatory and research ethics board approvals in Canada and the United States. DISCUSSION: These complementary randomized-controlled trials are innovatively designed and adequately powered to rapidly answer urgent questions regarding the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine to reduce virus transmission and disease severity of COVID-19 during a pandemic. In-person participant follow-up will not be conducted to facilitate social distancing strategies and reduce risks of exposure to study personnel. Innovative trial approaches are needed to urgently assess therapeutic options to mitigate the global impact of this pandemic. TRIALS REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04308668); registered 16 March, 2020.


RéSUMé: CONTEXTE: Le syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère du coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) est apparu en décembre 2019, provoquant la pandémie de la COVID-19. À l'heure actuelle, il n'existe aucun traitement fondé sur des données probantes permettant de prévenir la COVID-19 suite à une exposition au virus ou de prévenir l'aggravation des symptômes suite à une infection confirmée. Nous décrivons la conception d'une étude clinique examinant l'utilisation d'hydroxychloroquine en tant que prophylaxie post-exposition (PPE) et de traitement préventif (TP) pour la COVID-19. MéTHODE: Nous réaliserons deux études cliniques imbriquées contrôlées par placebo, randomisées, à double insu, internationales et multicentriques examinant l'utilisation d'hydroxychloroquine pour : 1) la prophylaxie post-exposition des contacts asymptomatiques dans un même foyer ou les travailleurs de la santé exposés à la COVID-19 au cours des quatre derniers jours, et 2) le traitement préventif des patients symptomatiques en ambulatoire atteints de COVID-19 et présentant des symptômes pour une durée totale de moins de quatre jours. Nous recruterons 1500 patients pour chaque bras de l'étude (PPE et TP). Les participants seront randomisés à un ratio de 1 : 1 pour recevoir cinq jours d'hydroxychloroquine ou de placebo. Le critère d'évaluation principal de l'étude PPE sera l'incidence de COVID-19 symptomatique. Le critère d'évaluation principal de l'étude TP consistera en une échelle ordinale de la gravité de la maladie (pas d'hospitalisation, hospitalisation sans soins intensifs, hospitalisation avec soins intensifs, ou décès). La sélection des participants, le consentement éclairé et le suivi se feront exclusivement en ligne après avoir obtenu les consentements réglementaires et des comités d'éthique de la recherche appropriés au Canada et aux États-Unis. DISCUSSION: Ces études randomisées contrôlées complémentaires sont conçues de façon innovatrice et disposent de la puissance nécessaire pour répondre rapidement aux questions urgentes quant à l'efficacité de l'hydroxychloroquine pour réduire la transmission et la gravité de la maladie de la COVID-19 pendant une pandémie. Le suivi des participants ne sera pas réalisé en personne afin de faciliter les stratégies de distanciation sociale et de réduire le risque d'exposition du personnel de l'étude. Des approches innovatrices d'études sont nécessaires afin d'évaluer rapidement les options thérapeutiques pour mitiger l'impact global de cette pandémie. ENREGISTREMENT DE L'éTUDE: clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04308668); enregistrées le 16 mars 2020.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 55(6): 105988, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-142757

ABSTRACT

In the context of the ongoing global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), management of exposure events is a concern. Long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) are particularly vulnerable to cluster outbreaks because facilities for patient isolation and healthcare personnel to care for these patients in isolation are difficult to arrange in a large outbreak situation. Although several drugs have been proposed as treatment options, there are no data on the effectiveness and safety of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for COVID-19. After a large COVID-19 exposure event in an LTCH in Korea, PEP using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was administered to 211 individuals, including 189 patients and 22 careworkers, whose baseline polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for COVID-19 were negative. PEP was completed in 184 (97.4%) patients and 21 (95.5%) careworkers without serious adverse events. At the end of 14 days of quarantine, all follow-up PCR tests were negative. Based on our experience, further clinical studies are recommended for COVID-19 PEP.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , COVID-19 , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitals , Humans , Long-Term Care , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 879-881, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-66421

ABSTRACT

Investigators are employing unprecedented innovation in the design of clinical trials to rapidly and rigorously assess potentially promising therapies for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); this is in stark contrast to the continued near-universal regressive practice of exclusion of pregnant and breastfeeding women from these trials. The few trials that allow their inclusion focus on postexposure prophylaxis or outpatient treatment of milder disease, limiting the options available to pregnant women with severe COVID-19 to compassionate use of remdesivir, or off-label drug use of hydroxychloroquine or other therapies. These restrictions were put in place despite experience with these drugs in pregnant women. In this Viewpoint, we call attention to the need and urgency to engage pregnant women in COVID-19 treatment trials now in order to develop data-driven recommendations regarding the risks and benefits of therapies in this unique but not uncommon population.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Breast Feeding , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Off-Label Use , Outpatients , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL