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1.
J Biomed Sci ; 29(1): 72, 2022 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064807

ABSTRACT

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a complex neurovascular disorder being recognized during the past two decades. It is characterized by multiple abrupt severe headaches and widespread cerebral vasoconstrictions, with potential complications such as ischemic stroke, convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. The clinical features, imaging findings, and dynamic disease course have been delineated. However, the pathophysiology of RCVS remains elusive. Recent studies have had substantial progress in elucidating its pathogenesis. It is now believed that dysfunction of cerebral vascular tone and impairment of blood-brain barrier may play key roles in the pathophysiology of RCVS, which explains some of the clinical and radiological manifestations of RCVS. Some other potentially important elements include genetic predisposition, sympathetic overactivity, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress, although the detailed molecular mechanisms are yet to be identified. In this review, we will summarize what have been revealed in the literature and elaborate how these factors could contribute to the pathophysiology of RCVS.


Subject(s)
Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome , Vasospasm, Intracranial , Brain , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Humans , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/complications , Vasoconstriction/physiology , Vasospasm, Intracranial/complications
2.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; 22(8): 515-529, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899317

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the neurological complications of dengue virus (DENV) infection and their pathogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: Include recognition of the four different serotypes of DENV and their epidemiology as well as recognition of the expanded dengue syndrome encompassing multisystem involvement in the severe form of the disease including involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). DENV is a neurotropic virus with the ability to infect the supporting cells of the CNS. Neural injury during the acute stage of the infection results from direct neuro-invasion and/or the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement, resulting in plasma leakage and coagulopathy. Immune mechanisms have been implicated in the development of the delayed neurological sequelae through molecular mimicry. A myriad of neurological syndromes has been described as a result of the involvement of the CNS, the peripheral nervous system (PNS), or both. Neurological manifestations in DENV infection are increasingly being recognized, some of which are potentially fatal if not treated promptly. DENV encephalopathy and encephalitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of other acute febrile encephalopathies, autoimmune encephalitides, and in cases of encephalopathy/encephalitis related to SARS-CoV2 infection, especially in dengue-endemic areas. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) may be occasionally encountered. Clinicians should be knowledgeable of the expanded dengue syndrome characterized by the concurrent compromise of cardiac, neurological, gastrointestinal, renal, and hematopopoietic systems. Isolated cranial nerve palsies occur rather uncommonly and are often steroid responsive. These neuropathies may result from the direct involvement of cranial nerve nuclei or nerve involvement or may be immune-mediated. Even if the diagnosis of dengue is confirmed, it is absolutely imperative to exclude other well-known causes of isolated cranial nerve palsies. Ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes may occur following dengue fever. The pathogenesis may be beyond the commonly observed thrombocytopenia and include cerebral vasculitis. Involvement of ocular blood vessels may cause maculopathy or retinal hemorrhages. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is uncommon and possibly related to dysregulated cytokine release phenomena. Lastly, any patient developing acute neuromuscular weakness during the course or within a fortnight of remission from dengue fever must be screened for acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), hypokalemic paralysis, or acute myositis. Rarely, a Miller-Fisher-like syndrome with negative anti-GQ1b antibody may develop.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Dengue , Encephalitis , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome , Dengue/complications , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/pathology , Humans , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/complications , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3289-3302, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The full spectrum of neurological sequelae in COVID-19 is beginning to emerge. SARS-CoV-2 has the potential to cause both direct and indirect brain vascular endothelial damage through infection and inflammation that may result in long-term neurological signs and symptoms. We sought to illuminate persistent neuro-ophthalmological deficits that may be seen following posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) due to COVID-19. METHODS: We identified three individuals with PRES due to COVID-19 in our hospital system. One patient was identified on presentation to our neuro-ophthalmology clinic. The other patients were identified through internal records search. These cases were compared to published reports of PRES in COVID-19 identified through systematic literature search of PubMed/LitCOVID. RESULTS: All three patients were hospitalized with severe COVID-19 and developed altered mental status with new onset seizures that led to the recognition of PRES through diagnostic imaging. During recovery, two patients had persistent visual dysfunction including visual field deficits. One patient also experienced hallucinatory palinopsia and visual hallucinations. Literature search identified 32 other cases of PRES in the context of COVID-19. Visual disturbances were described in 14 cases (40%), with only seven cases (50%) reporting full recovery by the time of publication. CONCLUSIONS: As we learn about enduring neurological complications of COVID-19, it is possible that complications may be underrecognized and underreported. Understanding the range of complications can help in postcare evaluation and management changes in the critical care setting to potentially allow intervention before persistent deficits occur due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome , Critical Care , Humans , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/complications , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Vision Disorders/etiology
5.
J Neurol ; 268(12): 4407-4414, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection has been associated with various neurological manifestations. Since patients affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection present coagulation and immune system dysregulation, ischemic or haemorragic stroke is not uncommon, irrespective of respiratory distress. However, the occurrence of focal neurological deficits together with other symptoms like headache, cortical blindness, seizure and altered mental status should prompt the diagnosis of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES). Antithrombotic treatment, the alteration of endothelial function, and coagulopathy due to COVID-19 and PRES leading to the breakdown of blood-brain barrier may then contribute to the occurrence of a brain haemorrhage. METHODS: We describe the case of a COVID-19 patient who developed bilateral occipital lobe haemorrhages suggestive of haemorrhagic PRES. We then reviewed the available literature about haemorrhagic evolution of PRES in COVID-19. RESULTS: We describe the clinical and radiological features of five COVID-19 patients who developed haemorrhagic PRES. CONCLUSIONS: Coagulopathy and endothelial dysfunction resulting from the massive release of cytokines during the host immune response may be key factors in the pathogenesis of COVID-19-related PRES. Antithrombotic therapy and the leakage of the blood-brain barrier can subsequently increase the risk of haemorrhagic transformation of the lesioned brain tissue. A prompt diagnosis of PRES is mandatory, since the timely interruption/reversal of antithrombotic therapy may be a key determinant for a good prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/complications , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnostic imaging , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/complications , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures
6.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 19(9): 990-993, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315995

ABSTRACT

The present COVID-19 pandemic is a cause for concern among solid-organ transplant recipients, who are generally at high risk for infection and for whom infection with COVID-19 carries additional risks for complications and mortality that are higher than the COVID-19-associated risks for the general population. We report the case of a liver transplant recipient who presented with COVID-19 and multiple complications. A 39-year-old woman with a liver transplant was diagnosed with COVID-19 within the first week after transplant surgery. Mycophenolate was withheld, and interferon ß was administered for management of COVID-19. She developed thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, acute antibody-mediated rejection, and posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome during hospitalization. All of these complications may be related to COVID-19 or its management modalities. We considered 3 possible causes for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in this patient: the COVID-19 infection itself, immunosuppression treatment with cyclosporine, and treatment with interferon ß. Immunosuppression reduction and interferon treatment may result in antibody-mediated rejection. COVID-19, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, and cyclosporine may play a combined role in the development of posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome. In conclusion, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, antibody-mediated rejection, and posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome may represent a continuum of 3 thrombotic microangiopathy conditions fostered by interplay between the COVID-19 infection and the treatment modalities for COVID-19 management in this patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Graft Rejection/complications , Liver Transplantation , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/complications , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/complications , Adult , Female , Humans , Transplant Recipients
8.
J Neurol Sci ; 416: 117019, 2020 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-643653

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report four patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who developed posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). METHODS: Patient data was abstracted from medical records at Weill Cornell Medical Center. RESULTS: Four patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and PRES were identified. The patients' ages ranged from 64 to 74 years, and two were women. All four patients were admitted to the hospital with acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation. PRES was diagnosed after persistent confusion, lethargy, new focal neurological deficits, or seizures were noted, with evidence of seizures on electroencephalogram for two of the patients. Imaging confirmed the presence of cerebral vasogenic edema. All four patients had elevated blood pressure and renal injury in the days preceding PRES diagnosis, as well as evidence of systemic inflammation and systemic hypercoagulability. Symptoms of PRES improved with blood pressure control. CONCLUSIONS: Our four cases demonstrate the occurrence of PRES in critically-ill patients with COVID-19. PRES should be considered in the differential for acute neurological deficits and seizures in this setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/complications , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
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