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1.
Braz J Anesthesiol ; 71(5): 576-578, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293601

ABSTRACT

A primigravida at 32 weeks of gestation presented to us with eclampsia and Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) along with SARS COVID-19 pneumonia. Immediate termination of pregnancy was done under general anesthesia and patient was electively ventilated in view of increased oxygen requirements. Further therapy using magnesium sulphate, antihypertensives, steroids, and convalescent plasma was carried out. The condition of the patient steadily improved leading to her extubation on the 4th postoperative day and subsequent discharge on the 8th day of admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Eclampsia/diagnosis , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Eclampsia/therapy , Female , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Outcome
3.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(3): 19, 2021 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100995

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an updated discussion on the clinical presentation, diagnosis and radiographic features, mechanisms, associations and epidemiology, treatment, and prognosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Headache is common in PRES, though headache associated with PRES was not identified as a separate entity in the 2018 International Classification of Headache Disorders. Here, we review the relevant literature and suggest criteria for consideration of its inclusion. RECENT FINDINGS: COVID-19 has been identified as a potential risk factor for PRES, with a prevalence of 1-4% in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection undergoing neuroimaging, thus making a discussion of its identification and treatment particularly timely given the ongoing global pandemic at the time of this writing. PRES is a neuro-clinical syndrome with specific imaging findings. The clinical manifestations of PRES include headache, seizures, encephalopathy, visual disturbances, and focal neurologic deficits. Associations with PRES include renal failure, preeclampsia and eclampsia, autoimmune conditions, and immunosuppression. PRES is theorized to be a syndrome of disordered autoregulation and endothelial dysfunction resulting in preferential hyperperfusion of the posterior circulation. Treatment typically focuses on treating the underlying cause and removal of the offending agents.


Subject(s)
Endothelium/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/physiopathology , Seizures/physiopathology , Vision Disorders/physiopathology , Acute Chest Syndrome/epidemiology , Aminolevulinic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Brain Edema/diagnostic imaging , Brain Edema/physiopathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Eclampsia/epidemiology , Female , Homeostasis/physiology , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/epidemiology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/therapy , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Prognosis , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasospasm, Intracranial/physiopathology
4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105357, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796956

ABSTRACT

Encephalopathy in COVID-19 has been widely reported with several reports of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) speculated to be due to an abrupt surge in blood pressure caused by coronavirus disease. Though peripartum posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is well recognized, its atypical variant with hemorrhage is uncommon. Peripartum atypical posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome with COVID-19 requires early recognition and warrants dedicated inter-disciplinary management. We present a case of postpartum atypical posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome with good maternal and fetal outcome. Our clinical and treatment approach with differential diagnosis are discussed in this hitherto unreported obstetric emergency with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/etiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Emergencies , Female , Humans , Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Devices , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnosis , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/therapy , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Treatment Outcome
5.
Emerg Radiol ; 27(6): 747-754, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-709794

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was declared a global pandemic on March 1, 2020. Neurological manifestations are now being reported worldwide, including emergent presentation with acute neurological changes as well as a comorbidity in hospitalized patients. There is limited knowledge on the neurologic manifestations of COVID-19 at present, with a wide array of neurological complications reported, ranging from ischemic stroke to acute demyelination and encephalitis. We report five cases of COVID-19 presenting to the ER with acute neurological symptoms, over the course of 1 month. This includes two cases of ischemic stroke, one with large-vessel occlusion and one with embolic infarcts. The remainders of the cases include acute tumefactive demyelination, isolated cytotoxic edema of the corpus callosum with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES).


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Emergencies , Neuroimaging/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Brain Diseases/therapy , COVID-19 , Cerebral Angiography , Computed Tomography Angiography , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/therapy , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/therapy , Stroke/virology
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