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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e053032, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685589

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Determine whether augmentation of oestrogen in postmenopausal women decreases the risk of death following COVID-19. DESIGN: Nationwide registry-based study in Sweden based on registries from the Swedish Public Health Agency (all individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2); Statistics Sweden (socioeconomical variables) and the National Board of Health and Welfare (causes of death). PARTICIPANTS: Postmenopausal women between 50 and 80 years of age with verified COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: Pharmaceutical modulation of oestrogen as defined by (1) women with previously diagnosed breast cancer and receiving endocrine therapy (decreased systemic oestrogen levels); (2) women receiving hormone replacement therapy (increased systemic oestrogen levels) and (3) a control group not fulfilling requirements for group 1 or 2 (postmenopausal oestrogen levels). Adjustments were made for potential confounders such as age, annual disposable income (richest group as the reference category), highest level of education (primary, secondary and tertiary (reference)) and the weighted Charlson Comorbidity Index (wCCI). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Death following COVID-19. RESULTS: From a nationwide cohort consisting of 49 853 women diagnosed with COVID-19 between 4 February and 14 September 2020 in Sweden, 16 693 were between 50 and 80 years of age. We included 14 685 women in the study with 11 923 (81%) in the control group, 227 (2%) women in group 1 and 2535 (17%) women in group 2. The unadjusted ORs for death following COVID-19 were 2.35 (95% CI 1.51 to 3.65) for group 1 and 0.45 (0.34 to 0.6) for group 2. Only the adjusted OR for death remained significant for group 2 with OR 0.47 (0.34 to 0.63). Absolute risk of death was 4.6% for the control group vs 10.1% and 2.1%, for the decreased and increased oestrogen groups, respectively. The risk of death due to COVID-19 was significantly associated with: age, OR 1.15 (1.14 to 1.17); annual income, poorest 2.79 (1.96 to 3.97), poor 2.43 (91.71 to 3.46) and middle 1.64 (1.11 to 2.41); and education (primary 1.4 (1.07 to 1.81)) and wCCI 1.13 (1.1 to 1.16). CONCLUSIONS: Oestrogen supplementation in postmenopausal women is associated with a decreased risk of dying from COVID-19 in this nationwide cohort study. These findings are limited by the retrospective and non-randomised design. Further randomised intervention trials are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Cohort Studies , Estrogens , Female , Humans , Postmenopause , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweden/epidemiology
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2146461, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669325

ABSTRACT

Importance: Social isolation and loneliness are increasing public health concerns and have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among older adults. Objective: To examine the associations of social isolation and loneliness with incident CVD in a large cohort of postmenopausal women and whether social support moderated these associations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study, conducted from March 2011 through March 2019, included community-living US women aged 65 to 99 years from the Women's Health Initiative Extension Study II who had no history of myocardial infarction, stroke, or coronary heart disease. Exposures: Social isolation and loneliness were ascertained using validated questionnaires. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was major CVD, which was physician adjudicated using medical records and included coronary heart disease, stroke, and death from CVD. Continuous scores of social isolation and loneliness were analyzed. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for CVD were calculated for women with high social isolation and loneliness scores (midpoint of the upper half of the distribution) vs those with low scores (midpoint of the lower half of the distribution) using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusting for age, race and ethnicity, educational level, and depression and then adding relevant health behavior and health status variables. Questionnaire-assessed social support was tested as a potential effect modifier. Results: Among 57 825 women (mean [SD] age, 79.0 [6.1] years; 89.1% White), 1599 major CVD events occurred over 186 762 person-years. The HR for the association of high vs low social isolation scores with CVD was 1.18 (95% CI, 1.13-1.23), and the HR for the association of high vs low loneliness scores with CVD was 1.14 (95% CI, 1.10-1.18). The HRs after additional adjustment for health behaviors and health status were 1.08 (95% CI, 1.03-1.12; 8.0% higher risk) for social isolation and 1.05 (95% CI, 1.01-1.09; 5.0% higher risk) for loneliness. Women with both high social isolation and high loneliness scores had a 13.0% to 27.0% higher risk of incident CVD than did women with low social isolation and low loneliness scores. Social support was not a significant effect modifier of the associations (social isolation × social support: r, -0.18; P = .86; loneliness × social support: r, 0.78; P = .48). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, social isolation and loneliness were independently associated with modestly higher risk of CVD among postmenopausal women in the US, and women with both social isolation and loneliness had greater CVD risk than did those with either exposure alone. The findings suggest that these prevalent psychosocial processes merit increased attention for prevention of CVD in older women, particularly in the era of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/psychology , Loneliness , Social Isolation , Social Support , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Postmenopause , Prospective Studies , United States , Women's Health
3.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(18): 21903-21913, 2021 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436455

ABSTRACT

The mortality rate of young female COVID-19 patients is reported to be lower than that of young males but no significant difference in mortality was found between female and male COVID-19 patients aged over 65 years, and the underlying mechanism is unknown. We retrospectively analyzed clinical characteristics and outcomes of severely ill pre- and post-menopausal COVID-19 patients and compared with age-matched males. Of the 459 patients included, 141 aged ≤55, among whom 19 died (16 males vs. 3 females, p<0.005). While for patients >55 years (n=318), 115 died (47 females vs. 68 males, p=0.149). In patients ≤55 years old, the levels of NLR, median LDH, median c-reactive protein and procalcitonin were significantly higher while the median lymphocyte count and LCR were lower in male than in female (all p<0.0001). In patients over 55, these biochemical parameters were far away from related normal/reference values in the vast majority of these patients in both genders which were in contrast to that seen in the young group. It is concluded that the mortality of severely ill pre-menopausal but not post-menopausal COVID-19 female patients is lower than age-matched male. Our findings support the notion that estrogen plays a beneficial role in combating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Estrogens/metabolism , Menopause , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Female , Gender Identity , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/metabolism , Postmenopause , Premenopause , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e050755, 2021 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331813

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Postmenopausal bleeding (PMB), the red flag symptom for endometrial cancer, triggers urgent investigation by transvaginal ultrasound scan, hysteroscopy and/or endometrial biopsy. These investigations are costly, invasive and often painful or distressing for women. In a pilot study, we found that voided urine and non-invasive vaginal samples from women with endometrial cancer contain malignant cells that can be identified by cytology. The aim of the DEveloping Tests for Endometrial Cancer deTection (DETECT) Study is to determine the diagnostic test accuracy of urine and vaginal cytology for endometrial cancer detection in women with PMB. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a multicentre diagnostic accuracy study of women referred to secondary care with PMB. Eligible women will be asked to provide a self-collected voided urine sample and a vaginal sample collected with a Delphi screener before routine clinical procedures. Pairs of specialist cytologists, blinded to participant cancer status, will assess and classify samples independently, with differences settled by consensus review or involving a third cytologist. Results will be compared with clinical outcomes from standard diagnostic tests. A sample size of 2000 women will have 80% power to establish a sensitivity of vaginal samples for endometrial cancer detection by cytology of ≥85%±7%, assuming 5% endometrial cancer prevalence. The primary objective is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of urogenital samples for endometrial cancer detection by cytology. Secondary objectives include the acceptability of urine and vaginal sampling to women. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been approved by the North West-Greater Manchester West Research Ethics Committee (16/NW/0660) and the Health Research Authority. Results will be disseminated through publication in peer-reviewed scientific journals, presentation at conferences and via charity websites. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN58863784.


Subject(s)
Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Endometrial Neoplasms , Endometrial Neoplasms/diagnosis , Endometrium , Female , Humans , Pilot Projects , Postmenopause , Ultrasonography , Uterine Hemorrhage/etiology
5.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 42(3): 301-303, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291550

ABSTRACT

Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) resulting from estrogen deprivation at menopause often results in distressing vaginal dryness and dyspareunia. Fewer than 25% of affected women seek help for this condition citing embarrassment, cultural values, an aging or unavailable partner and concerns about use of estrogens following the Women's Health Initiative. Available non-hormonal treatments, such as moisturizers, while affording some relief can be messy to apply and do not prevent disease progression. A new oral selective estrogen receptor modulator, ospemifene, has been found to have strong estrogenic activity in vaginal tissues without adverse estrogenic effects at other sites.


Subject(s)
Atrophy/drug therapy , Menopause , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators/administration & dosage , Tamoxifen/analogs & derivatives , Vagina/drug effects , Vulva/drug effects , Aged , Atrophy/pathology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dyspareunia/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Menopause/physiology , Middle Aged , Postmenopause , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators/therapeutic use , Tamoxifen/administration & dosage , Tamoxifen/therapeutic use , Vagina/pathology , Vulva/pathology
6.
Health Care Women Int ; 41(11-12): 1240-1254, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263595

ABSTRACT

In this study, researchers aimed to determine exercise habits, physical activity (PA) levels and anxiety levels of postmenopausal women (PMw) during the self-quarantine period of the COVID-19 pandemic. 104 PMw (59.00 ± 6.61 years old) participated in the study. It was found that PMw who had exercise habits before the pandemic period had higher PA levels, and the women with high anxiety levels during the pandemic had lower PA levels (p < .05). Anxiety levels and PA were negatively associated with each other. Numbers of grandchildren also affected the PA and anxiety levels of the PMw negatively. Women should be encouraged to initiate or maintain PA levels in all circumstances.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise/psychology , Postmenopause/psychology , Aged , Cyprus/epidemiology , Female , Habits , Humans , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 109(1): 1-11, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130753

ABSTRACT

Periods of absence from supervised group exercise while maintaining physical activity might be a frequent pattern in adults' exercise habits. The aim of the present study was to determine detraining effects on musculoskeletal outcomes after a 3-month detraining period in early post-menopausal, osteopenic women. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we terminated the 18-month randomized controlled ACTLIFE exercise intervention immediately after the 13-month follow-up assessment. This put an abrupt stop to the high-intensity aerobic and resistance group exercise sessions undertaken three times per week by the exercise group (EG: n = 27) and the gentle exercise program performed once per week for the attention control group (CG: n = 27); but both groups were permitted to conduct individual outdoor activity for the 3-month lock-down period. Study endpoints were lean body mass (LBM), bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (LS), maximum hip-/leg extension strength and power. Detraining-induced reductions of LBM, hip/leg strength and power (but not BMD-LS) were significantly greater (p < 0.001 to p = 0.044) compared with the CG. Significant exercise effects, i.e. differences between EG and CG, present after 13 months of exercise, were lost after 3 months of detraining for LBM (p = 0.157) and BMD-LS (p = 0.065), but not for strength (p < 0.001) and power (p < 0.001). Of note, self-reported individual outdoor activities and exercise increased by about 40% in both groups during the lock-down period. Three months' absence from a supervised group exercise protocol resulted in considerable detraining effects for musculoskeletal parameters. Thus, exercise programs for adults should be continuous rather than intermittent.Trial registration number: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04420806, 06.05.2020.


Subject(s)
Bone Density , Exercise , Musculoskeletal System , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal , Adult , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Postmenopause
8.
Clin Interv Aging ; 16: 83-96, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067507

ABSTRACT

The menopausal transition is a critical period in women's lives. Exercise might be the most promising non-pharmaceutic intervention to address the large variety of risk factors related to the pronounced estradiol decline during peri- and early-postmenopause. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an 18-month multipurpose exercise program on risk factors and symptoms related to the menopausal transition. Fifty-four women 1-5 years postmenopause with osteopenia or osteoporosis were randomly assigned 1) to a high impact weight-bearing/high-intensity/velocity resistance training group (EG: n=27) exercising three times a week or 2) to an attendance control group (CG: n=27) that performed low-intensity exercise once a week. Both groups were supplemented with cholecalciferol and calcium. The primary study endpoint was bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine (LS) and total hip, secondary outcomes were lean body mass (LBM), total and abdominal body percentage, metabolic syndrome Z-Score (MetS-Z), menopausal symptoms and muscle strength and power. Due to COVID-19, the study was stopped after 13 months. We observed significant effects for BMD-LS (EG: 0.002±.018 versus CG: -.009±0.018 mg/cm2, p=0.027) but not for BMD total hip (EG: -0.01±.016 versus CG: -.009±0.020 mg/cm2, p=0.129). LBM improved significantly in the EG and decreased in the CG (0.39±1.08 vs -0.37±1.34 kg, p=0.026). Total and abdominal body fat improved significantly in the EG and was maintained in the CG (-1.44±1.49 vs -0.02±1.55 kg, p=0.002 and -1.50±2.33 vs 0.08±2.07 kg, p=0.011). Significant effects in favor of the EG were also determined for menopausal symptoms (p=0.029), hip/leg extension strength (p<0.001) and power (p<0.001). However, changes of the MetS-Z did not differ significantly (p=0.149) between EG and CG. In summary, with minor exceptions, we demonstrated the effectiveness of a multipurpose exercise protocol dedicated to early-postmenopausal women on various risk factors and complaints related to the menopausal transition.


Subject(s)
Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , High-Intensity Interval Training/methods , Metabolic Syndrome/prevention & control , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal , Postmenopause , Bone Density , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/diagnosis , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Lumbar Vertebrae/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/diagnosis , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/therapy , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Risk Factors , Risk Reduction Behavior
9.
Biol Sex Differ ; 12(1): 16, 2021 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the growing number of studies on the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), little is known about the association of menopausal status with COVID-19 outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, we included 336 COVID-19 inpatients between February 15, 2020 and April 30, 2020 at the Taikang Tongji Hospital (Wuhan), China. Electronic medical records including patient demographics, laboratory results, and chest computed tomography (CT) images were reviewed. RESULTS: In total, 300 patients with complete clinical outcomes were included for analysis. The mean age was 65.3 years, and most patients were women (n = 167, 55.7%). Over 50% of patients presented with comorbidities, with hypertension (63.5%) being the most common comorbidity. After propensity score matching, results showed that men had significantly higher odds than premenopausal women for developing severe disease type (23.7% vs. 0%, OR 17.12, 95% CI 1.00-293.60; p = 0.003) and bilateral lung infiltration (86.1% vs. 64.7%, OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.08-10.64; p = 0.04), but not for mortality (2.0% vs. 0%, OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.04-19.12, p = 1.00). However, non-significant difference was observed among men and postmenopausal women in the percentage of severe disease type (32.7% vs. 41.7%, OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.37-1.24, p = 0.21), bilateral lung infiltration (86.1% vs. 91.7%, OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.22-1.47, p = 0.24), and mortality (2.0% vs. 6.0%, OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.06-1.69, p = 0.25). CONCLUSIONS: Men had higher disease severity than premenopausal women, while the differences disappeared between postmenopausal women and men. These findings support aggressive treatment for the poor prognosis of postmenopausal women in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Postmenopause , Premenopause , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Treatment Outcome
10.
Menopause ; 28(5): 573-575, 2021 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028141

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the rates of COVID-19 infection and death in women versus men differ with age. METHODS: From data provided by the Italian National Institute of Statistics, we calculated the respective proportions of women among COVID-infected versus noninfected populations and male versus female infection and death rates, stratifying the results into 10-year age groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of COVID-19 infection was 3.6% higher in women than in the general population from 20 to 59 years of age, then decreased to -13.3% below that of the general population between 60 and 89 years of age. Death rates among infected women showed the opposite age-related trend. In infected women, the mortality rate was -77.4% lower than that of men aged 20 to 59 years. Between 60 and 89 years of age, the difference in women decreases to -34.5% below that of men. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate opposing age-related trends among women in infection and death rates due to COVID-19. Further studies are needed to examine the contribution of the phases of the female reproductive cycle to the observed variations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Postmenopause , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
11.
Menopause ; 27(12): 1382-1387, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003826

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine responder rates and vasomotor symptom-free days with oral 17ß-estradiol/progesterone (E2/P4; TX-001HR) versus placebo in the REPLENISH trial. METHODS: REPLENISH (NCT01942668) was a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial, evaluating single, oral, softgel E2/P4 capsules in postmenopausal women (40-65 y) with a uterus and vasomotor symptoms (VMS). Women with moderate to severe hot flushes (≥7/d or ≥50/wk) were randomized (VMS substudy) to daily E2/P4 (mg/mg) of 1/100, 0.5/100, 0.5/50, 0.25/50, or placebo. Proportions of women with ≥50% or ≥75% reductions in moderate to severe VMS (responders), and those with no severe VMS as well as the weekly number of days without moderate to severe VMS with TX-001HR versus placebo were determined. Mixed model repeated measures was used to analyze data and Fisher exact test was employed to compare E2/P4 versus placebo. RESULTS: Seven hundred twenty-six women were eligible for the VMS efficacy analysis (E2/P4 1/100 [n = 141], 0.5/100 [n = 149], 0.5/50 [n = 147], 0.25/50 [n = 154], or placebo [n = 135]). Significantly more women treated with all E2/P4 doses versus placebo were ≥50% responders and ≥75% responders at weeks 4 and 12 (P < 0.05) and also had significantly more days per week without moderate to severe VMS at week 12 (1.9-3.0 d for E2/P4 versus 1.3 d for placebo; P < 0.05). The proportion of women without severe hot flushes at week 12 was 43% to 56% for all E2/P4 doses versus 26% for placebo (P ≤ 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Women treated with E2/P4 had a greater response to treatment with more VMS-free days than with placebo. The E2/P4 1/100 dose (Bijuva [E2 and P4] capsules) represents an oral treatment option for postmenopausal women with moderate to severe VMS and a uterus.


Subject(s)
Postmenopause , Progesterone , Capsules , Double-Blind Method , Estradiol , Female , Hot Flashes/drug therapy , Humans , Treatment Outcome
12.
Climacteric ; 23(6): 525-527, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949550

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome due to coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has affected millions of individuals worldwide, causing high mortality rates and severe physical sequelae, with a negative impact on society, economy, health care, lifestyle and personal relationships. Studies have confirmed this infection has sex and age differences in terms of disease severity and immune response, with a particular relationship with the anti-Müllerian hormone, a marker of aging, and estradiol, a marker of ovarian function. Postmenopausal women seem to present a more severe infection as compared to premenopausal ones. Estradiol protects the vascular system, mediating with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, whereas testosterone enhances the levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme and the transmembrane protease serine-type 2, thus delaying viral clearance in men as compared to women. This new infection will stay among us, transforming our social, economic and daily lifestyle, and hence medical and health care as well as the use of menopause hormone therapy will need redefining, considering both preventive and curative perspectives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Postmenopause/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Women's Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Status , Humans , Middle Aged , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism
14.
Post Reprod Health ; 26(4): 227-228, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-805141

ABSTRACT

The way in which gynaecology services are provided in the UK has drastically changed within a short space of time due to the global COVID-19 pandemic. Gynaecologists are not considered front-line staff in the treatment of the novel coronavirus unlike our intensive care or accident and emergency colleagues. However, the impact this is having on those with chronic problems is significant, and the morbidity associated with missed malignancies could be problematic. This article summarises the strategies developed at King's College Hospital to remodel services to best provide optimum treatment to patients in this new era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital/organization & administration , Postmenopause , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Women's Health Services/organization & administration , Female , Humans
15.
Maturitas ; 144: 4-10, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-799119

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of confinement due to the coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and resilience in peri- and postmenopausal women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used an online questionnaire which was sent between April 30th and May 13th, 2020 to women aged 40-70 years who were peri- or postmenopausal according to STRAW criteria. We used the 16-item Cervantes short-form scale (Cervantes-SF) to measure HRQoL, and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS-14) to measure resilience. High scores on the Cervantes-SF indicate low HRQoL and high scores on the RS-14 indicate high levels of resilience. Covid-19 status, sociodemographic descriptors, and lifestyle variables were also evaluated. RESULTS: We included 2430 peri- and postmenopausal women with valid questionnaires. All items of the Cervantes-SF were completed in 2151 cases, whilst the RS-14 was completed in 2413 cases. There was a negative correlation between scores on the Cervantes-SF and RS-14 scales (Rho -0.350; p < 0.0001). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed a statistically significant association between Cervantes-SF scores and living with others (ß-coefficient -10.2; p < 0.001), use of antidepressants (ß 9.3; p < 0.001), physical activity (ß -8.6; p < 0.001) and sexual activity (ß -2.7; p < 0.001). Resilience was associated with the use of antidepressants (ß -5.9; p < 0.001), physical activity (ß 3.2; p < 0.001) and sexual activity (ß 1.7; p = 0.005). According to the multivariate analysis, there were no associations between either Covid-19 or menopausal status and HRQoL or resilience scores. CONCLUSIONS: During the period of mandatory Covid-19 confinement, peri- and postmenopausal women who engaged in physical and sexual activity had higher HRQoL and higher levels of resilience, whilst women who were using antidepressants had lower HRQoL and lower levels of resilience. HRQoL was greater in women who lived with others.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Perimenopause/psychology , Postmenopause/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise/psychology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Trends Endocrinol Metab ; 31(12): 918-927, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-791591

ABSTRACT

The recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic showed a different severity in the disease between males and females. Men have been becoming severely ill at a higher rate than women. These data along with an age-dependent disease susceptibility and mortality in the elderly suggest that sex hormones are the main factors in determining the clinical course of the infection. The differences in aging males versus females and the role of sex hormones in key phenotypes of COVID-19 infection are described in this review. Recommendations based on a dimorphic approach for males and females suggest a sex-specific management the disease.


Subject(s)
Androgens/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Estrogens/metabolism , Sex Factors , Age Factors , Androgens/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Estrogen Replacement Therapy , Estrogens/immunology , Estrogens/therapeutic use , Female , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Postmenopause/metabolism , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Sex Distribution , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
17.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 30(12): 2352-2363, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740266

ABSTRACT

This pilot study compared the effects of acute high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) on post-exercise VO2 , fat utilization, and 24-hours energy balance to understand the mechanism of higher fat mass reduction observed after high-intensity interval training in post-menopausal women with overweight/obesity. 12 fasted women (59.5 ± 5.8 years; BMI: 28.9 ± 3.9 kg·m-2 ) completed three isoenergetic cycling exercise sessions in a counterbalanced, randomized order: (a) MICE [35 minutes at 60%-65% of peak heart rate, HRmax ], (b) HIIE 1 [60 × (8-s cycling-12-s recovery) at 80%-90% of HRmax ], and (c) HIIE 2 [10 × 1min at 80%-90% of HRmax  - 1-min recovery]. Then, VO2 and fat utilization measured at rest and during the 2 hours post-exercise, enjoyment, perceived exertion, and appetite recorded during the session and energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE) assessed over the next 24 hours were compared for the three modalities. Overall, fat utilization increased after exercise. No modality effect or time-modality interaction was observed concerning VO2 and fat oxidation rate during the 2 hours post-exercise. The two exercise modalities did not induce specific EI and EE adaptations, but perceived appetite scores at 1 hour post-exercise were lower after HIIE 1 and HIIE 2 than MICE. Perceived exertion was higher during HIIE 1 and HIIE 2 than MICE, but enjoyment did not differ among modalities. The acute HIIE responses did not allow explaining the greater fat mass loss observed after regular high-intensity interval training in post-menopausal women with overweight/obesity. More studies are needed to understand the mechanisms involved in such adaptations.


Subject(s)
Energy Metabolism , Exercise/physiology , High-Intensity Interval Training , Lipid Metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Overweight/metabolism , Oxygen Consumption , Postmenopause/physiology , Appetite , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Body Fat Distribution , Female , Heart Rate , Humans , Middle Aged , Perception/physiology , Physical Exertion/physiology , Pilot Projects , Pleasure , Pulmonary Gas Exchange
18.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 184(2): 637-647, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716322

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted early breast cancer (EBC) treatment worldwide. This study analyzed how Brazilian breast specialists are managing EBC. METHODS: An electronic survey was conducted with members of the Brazilian Society of Breast Cancer Specialists (SBM) between April 30 and May 11, 2020. Bivariate analysis was used to describe changes in how specialists managed EBC at the beginning and during the pandemic, according to breast cancer subtype and oncoplastic surgery. RESULTS: The response rate was 34.4% (503/1462 specialists). Most of the respondents (324; 64.4%) lived in a state capital city, were board-certified as breast specialists (395; 78.5%) and either worked in an academic institute or one associated with breast cancer treatment (390; 77.5%). The best response rate was from the southeast of the country (240; 47.7%) followed by the northeast (128; 25.4%). At the beginning of the pandemic, 43% changed their management approach. As the outbreak progressed, this proportion increased to 69.8% (p < 0.001). The southeast of the country (p = 0.005) and the state capital cities (p < 0.001) were associated with changes at the beginning of the pandemic, while being female (p = 0.001) was associated with changes during the pandemic. For hormone receptor-positive tumors with the best prognosis (Ki-67 < 20%), 47.9% and 17.7% of specialists would recommend neoadjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal and premenopausal women, respectively. For tumors with poorer prognosis (Ki-67 > 30%), 34% and 10.9% would recommend it for postmenopausal and premenopausal women, respectively. Menopausal status significantly affected whether the specialists changed their approach (p < 0.00001). For tumors ≥ 1.0 cm, 42.9% of respondents would recommend neoadjuvant systemic therapy for triple-negative tumors and 39.6% for HER2 + tumors. Overall, 63.4% would recommend immediate total breast reconstruction, while only 3.4% would recommend autologous reconstruction. In breast-conserving surgery, 75% would recommend partial breast reconstruction; however, 54.1% would contraindicate mammoplasty. Furthermore, 84.9% of respondents would not recommend prophylactic mastectomy in cases of BRCA mutation. CONCLUSIONS: Important changes occurred in EBC treatment, particularly for hormone receptor-positive tumors, as the outbreak progressed in each region. Systematic monitoring could assure appropriate breast cancer treatment, mitigating the impact of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Coronavirus Infections , Mammaplasty , Mastectomy , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Brazil , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Disease Management , Female , Genes, BRCA1 , Genes, BRCA2 , Humans , Male , Mastectomy, Segmental , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Postmenopause , Premenopause , Prophylactic Mastectomy , Receptor, ErbB-2/metabolism , Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism , Receptors, Progesterone/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tumor Burden
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