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Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 4(4): 100637, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes for both the mother and fetus. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has significantly reduced the risk for symptomatic disease. Several studies have reported on the safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination during pregnancy, with no adverse effects on the obstetrical outcomes. However, data regarding the obstetrical outcomes following a booster dose of the SARS CoV-2 vaccination during pregnancy have not yet to be published. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between the booster dose of the SARS CoV-2 vaccination during pregnancy and obstetrical outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of women who delivered between July and October 2021 at a large tertiary medical center. We compared women who received the booster vaccination dose during pregnancy with women who were not vaccinated and with those who only received 2 vaccination doses. Primary outcomes were the incidence of preterm labor and of small for gestational age neonates. Secondary outcomes were other maternal and neonatal complications. A secondary analysis investigating the association between the time from vaccination to delivery and the outcomes was also performed. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to adjust for potential confounders. RESULTS: There were 6507 women who met the inclusion criteria: 294 women received 3 doses of the vaccination, 2845 women received only 2 doses, and 3368 were unvaccinated. Patients receiving 3 doses of the vaccine were older and more likely to smoke than unvaccinated patients. No differences were noted among the triple-vaccinated, twice-vaccinated, and unvaccinated groups with regards to preterm birth and the incidence of small for gestational age neonates. Regarding the secondary outcomes, women in the triple-vaccinated group had higher rates of postpartum hemorrhage (9.5% vs 3.21%; P<.001) and gestational diabetes mellitus (12.2% vs 8.3%; P=.02) and were less likely to have hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (0% vs 1.4%; P=.041) than the unvaccinated group. Compared with the twice-vaccinated patients, patients with 3 doses of the vaccine were more likely to experience postpartum hemorrhage (9.5% vs 3.5%; P<.001) and were less likely to have a low umbilical artery pH (0.7% vs 6.1%; P<.001). In the sensitivity analysis comparing patients who delivered within 2 weeks of the third vaccination dose (n=53) with those who delivered at least 6 weeks after vaccination (n=96), there were no differences in the rates of small for gestational age neonates, preterm birth, postpartum hemorrhage, or cesarean delivery. CONCLUSION: Receiving the booster dose of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination during pregnancy was not associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes when compared with unvaccinated or twice-vaccinated women. However, higher rates of postpartum hemorrhage were observed. Further studies on a larger scale are needed to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cesarean Section , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/adverse effects , Infant, Newborn , Postpartum Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Postpartum Hemorrhage/etiology , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
JAMA ; 327(15): 1478-1487, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756509

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is limited comparative epidemiological evidence on outcomes associated with COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy; monitoring pregnancy outcomes in large populations is required. Objective: To evaluate peripartum outcomes following COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based retrospective cohort study in Ontario, Canada, using a birth registry linked with the provincial COVID-19 immunization database. All births between December 14, 2020, and September 30, 2021, were included. Exposures: COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy, COVID-19 vaccination after pregnancy, and no vaccination. Main Outcomes and Measures: Postpartum hemorrhage, chorioamnionitis, cesarean delivery (overall and emergency cesarean delivery), admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and low newborn 5-minute Apgar score (<7). Linear and robust Poisson regression was used to generate adjusted risk differences (aRDs) and risk ratios (aRRs), respectively, comparing cumulative incidence of outcomes in those who received COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy with those vaccinated after pregnancy and those with no record of COVID-19 vaccination at any point. Inverse probability of treatment weights were used to adjust for confounding. Results: Among 97 590 individuals (mean [SD] age, 31.9 [4.9] years), 22 660 (23%) received at least 1 dose of COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy (63.6% received dose 1 in the third trimester; 99.8% received an mRNA vaccine). Comparing those vaccinated during vs after pregnancy (n = 44 815), there were no significantly increased risks of postpartum hemorrhage (incidence: 3.0% vs 3.0%; aRD, -0.28 per 100 individuals [95% CI, -0.59 to 0.03]; aRR, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.82-1.02]), chorioamnionitis (0.5% vs 0.5%; aRD, -0.04 per 100 individuals [95% CI, -0.17 to 0.09]; aRR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.70-1.21]), cesarean delivery (30.8% vs 32.2%; aRD, -2.73 per 100 individuals [95% CI, -3.59 to -1.88]; aRR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.89-0.95]), NICU admission (11.0% vs 13.3%; aRD, -1.89 per 100 newborns [95% CI, -2.49 to -1.30]; aRR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.80-0.90]), or low Apgar score (1.8% vs 2.0%; aRD, -0.31 per 100 newborns [95% CI, -0.56 to -0.06]; aRR, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.73-0.97]). Findings were qualitatively similar when compared with individuals who did not receive COVID-19 vaccination at any point (n = 30 115). Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada, COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy, compared with vaccination after pregnancy and with no vaccination, was not significantly associated with increased risk of adverse peripartum outcomes. Study interpretation should consider that the vaccinations received during pregnancy were primarily mRNA vaccines administered in the second and third trimester.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Chorioamnionitis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Postpartum Hemorrhage , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Chorioamnionitis/epidemiology , Chorioamnionitis/etiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Ontario/epidemiology , Peripartum Period , Postpartum Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Postpartum Hemorrhage/etiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic
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