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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 591, 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957050

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Establishing a healthy lifestyle post-delivery is pivotal to reduce the incidence of chronic diseases. Due to COVID-19 restrictions, access to postpartum health programs has been increasingly difficult. The aim of this study was to inform, develop and evaluate Beyond the Bump (BtB); an online program to improve access to health and wellbeing education and support for physical activity in the postpartum. METHODS: A three-phase mixed-methods design of a 10-week Australia-wide online pilot program during COVID-19 with women less than 1 year postpartum and their primary care health professionals was utilised. Phase-one: needs assessment focus groups and interviews. Phase-two: BtB program implementation pre-post health measures survey, attendance and engagement with the program. Phase-three: program evaluation with feedback surveys and interviews. RESULTS: Women (n = 12) and health professionals (n = 16) expressed strong need for a postpartum program with access to education from experts on exercise, pelvic floor, sleep and baby nutrition. Despite BtB being developed from women's suggestions (including time-of-day 'morning'), attendance to all ten sessions was poor (of 162 registrations; 23% participated in the first session and 5% in the last session). Barriers to attendance included 'too busy',' forgot' and 'topic not relevant for age of child'. 88% of women reported the education as the most enjoyable component of the program. 100% (n = 26) of women interviewed would recommend the program to a friend. CONCLUSIONS: There is a continuing need for postpartum support. Online programs with access to expert education and exercise were reported to be of significant interest and value. However, more research is needed to improve the uptake and value placed on mothers' wellbeing and physical activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Female , Humans , Life Style , Mothers , Pilot Projects , Postpartum Period
2.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 221, 2022 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951175

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most prevalent mental health disorder after childbirth, notably during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, PPD is known to have a long-term influence on the mother and the newborn, and the role of social support network is crucial in early illness recognition. This study aims to evaluate the social support networks' level of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding PPD and examine their sociodemographic variables and exposure to the public information relating to PPD during the COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted via an online Google Form disseminated to people in Klang Valley through WhatsApp, Email, Facebook, Instagram and other available social media among postpartum women's social support networks aged 18 years and living in the Klang Valley area (N = 394). Data were collected from 1 March to 5 July 2021 and analysed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and generalised linear mixed models. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 epidemic in Klang Valley, most participants had good knowledge, negative attitudes and awareness of PPD. Marital status, gender and parity all had significant correlations with the amount of awareness regarding PPD. Ethnicity, gender, parity and educational level showed significant association with attitude towards PPD. No significant relationship was noted between sociodemographic variables and PPD beliefs. Public awareness of PPD was also associated with knowledge and attitude towards it. CONCLUSIONS: A significant positive knowledge, negative attitude and negative awareness level of PPD exist among social support networks for postnatal women. However, no significant effect of belief on PPD awareness level was noted. IMPLICATIONS: Insight campaigns and public education about PPD should be conducted to enhance postnatal mothers' awareness and knowledge. Postnatal care, mental check-ups and counselling sessions for the new mothers are recommended. In future studies, a closer assessment of postpartum social support, variances and similarities across women from diverse racial/ethnic origins is critical. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: This cross-sectional study is one of the early studies on the area of PPD in the Malaysian region during COVID-19. Numerous data have been collected using low-cost approaches using self-administered surveys through Google Forms in this research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Malaysia , Pandemics , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Social Support
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 468, 2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are very few developed countries where physical isolation and low community transmission has been reported for COVID-19 but this has been the experience of Australia. The impact of physical isolation combined with low disease transmission on the mental health of pregnant women is currently unknown and there have been no studies examining the psychological experience for partners of pregnant women during lockdown. The aim of the current study was to examine the impact of the first COVID-19 lockdown in March 2020 and post lockdown from August 2020 on the mental health of pregnant women or postpartum women and their partners. METHODS: Pregnant women and their partners were prospectively recruited to the study before 24 weeks gestation and completed various questionnaires related to mental health and general wellbeing at 24 weeks gestation and then again at 6 weeks postpartum. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were used as outcome measures for the assessment of mental health in women and DASS-21 was administered to their partners. This analysis encompasses 3 time points where families were recruited; before the pandemic (Aug 2018-Feb 2020), during lockdown (Mar-Aug 2020) and after the first lockdown was over (Sept-Dec 2020). RESULTS: There was no significant effect of COVID-19 lockdown and post lockdown on depression or postnatal depression in women when compared to a pre-COVID-19 subgroup. The odds of pregnant women or postpartum women experiencing severe anxiety was more than halved in women during lockdown relative to women in the pre-COVID-19 period (OR = 0.47; 95%CI: 0.27-0.81; P = 0.006). Following lockdown severe anxiety was comparable to the pre-COVID-19 women. Lockdown did not have any substantial effects on stress scores for pregnant and postpartum women. However, a substantial decrease of over 70% in the odds of severe stress was observed post-lockdown relative to pre-COVID-19 levels. Partner's depression, anxiety and stress did not change significantly with lockdown or post lockdown. CONCLUSION: A reproductive age population appear to be able to manage the impact of lockdown and the pandemic with some benefits related to reduced anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Prospective Studies , Queensland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 485, 2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Access to mass media and emerging technologies (e.g., cell phones, the internet, and social media) is a social determinant of health that has been shown to profoundly influence women's health outcomes. In the African region, where women in rural settings with limited access to care are most vulnerable to maternal mortality and other pregnancy-related morbidities, mobile phone access can be an important and life-saving health determinant. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to examine the association between mobile/cellular phone ownership and health behaviors of post-partum mothers in rural Malawi. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited and consented a convenient sample of 174 post-partum mothers of 4- and 5-month-olds who were attending well-child clinics in Gowa, situated in the rural Ntcheu district of Malawi. Using logistic regression models, we hypothesized that compared to non-cell phone owners, mobile phone ownership will be predictive (greater odds) of antenatal visit frequency, exclusive breastfeeding knowledge and practices, health-seeking behaviors, and involvement in motherhood support groups; and protective (lower odds) of infant illnesses, breastfeeding challenges, and post-partum depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Mobile phones were highly prevalent in this rural setting, with 45% (n = 79) of post-partum women indicating they owned at least one cell phone. Cell phone owners tended to have higher levels of education (p < 0.012) and wealth (p < 0.001). Interestingly, mobile phone ownership was only associated with exclusive breastfeeding practices; and phone owners had 75% lower odds of exclusively breastfeeding (adj. OR 0.25; 95% CI: 0.07-0.92, p = 0.038) in multivariable models. Though not statistically significant but clinically meaningful, cell phone ownership was associated with fewer depressive symptoms (adj. OR 0.84; 95% CI: 0.39-1.84, p = 0.67) and more social support (adj. OR 1.14; 95% CI: 0.61-2.13, p = 0.70). CONCLUSIONS: Digital literacy and internet connectivity are social determinants of health, thus delving deeper into mothers' digital experiences to identify and ameliorate their unique barriers to full digital access will be crucial to successful implementation of digital interventions to address post-partum challenges for women in hard-to-reach settings such as ours. Such interventions are of even greater relevance as the Covid-19 pandemic has increased the urgency of reaching vulnerable, marginalized populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell Phone , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Malawi , Mothers , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy
5.
Reprod Health ; 19(1): 164, 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although there is a significant increase of evidence regarding the prevalence and impact of COVID-19 on maternal and perinatal outcomes, data on the effects of the pandemic on the obstetric population in sub-Saharan African countries are still scarce. Therefore, the study aims were to assess the prevalence and impact of COVID-19 on maternal and neonatal outcomes in the obstetric population at Central Hospital of Maputo (HCM), Mozambique. METHODS: Prospective cohort study conducted at teaching and referral maternity, HCM, from 20 October 2020 to 22 July 2021. We collected maternal and perinatal outcomes up to 6 weeks postpartum of eligible women (pregnant and postpartum women-up to the 14th day postpartum) screened for COVID-19 (individual test for symptomatic participants and pool testing for asymptomatic). The primary outcome was maternal death, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. We estimated the COVID-19 prevalence and the unadjusted RR (95% CI) for maternal and perinatal outcomes. We used the chi-square or Fisher's exact test to compare categorical variables (two-sided p-value < 0.05 for statistical significance). RESULTS: We included 239 participants. The overall prevalence of COVID-19 was 9.2% (22/239) and in the symptomatic group was 32.4% (11/34). About 50% of the participants with COVID-19 were symptomatic. Moreover, the most frequent symptoms were dyspnoea (33.3%), cough (28.6%), anosmia (23.8%), and fever (19%). Not having a partner, being pregnant, and alcohol consumption were vulnerability factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes (abortion, foetal death, preterm birth, Apgar, and NICU admission) was not significantly increased with COVID-19. Moreover, we did not observe a significant difference in the primary outcomes (SARS, ICU admission and maternal death) between COVID-19 positive and COVID-19 negative groups. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of COVID-19 in the obstetric population is higher than in the general population, and fifty percent of pregnant and postpartum women with COVID-19 infection are asymptomatic. Not having a partner and alcohol consumption were factors of greatest vulnerability to SARS-COV-2 infection. Moreover, being pregnant versus postpartum was associated with increased vulnerability to COVID-19. Data suggest that pregnant women with COVID-19 may have a higher frequency of  COVID-19 infection, reinforcing the need for universal testing, adequate follow-up for this population, and increasing COVID-19 therapy facilities in Mozambique. Moreover, provide counselling during Antenatal care for COVID-19 preventive measures. However, more prospective and robust studies are needed to assess these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Maternal Death , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Mozambique/epidemiology , Parturition , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 13: 21501319221110421, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The fast spread of COVID-19 can cause some psychological disorders for men. One of the psychological disorders is paternal postpartum depression (PPD). The aim of the present research was to review studies that have investigated paternal postpartum depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this narrative review, databases such as Google Scholar, Scientific Information Databases (SID), Magiran, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched for the full texts of published studies in the Persian and English languages in the period of 2019 to 2021. Finally, 3 articles were selected and reviewed in this study. RESULTS: The results of this review study were classified into 3 main categories such as (1) The psychological status of men during the COVID-19 pandemic, (2) The effect of paternal PPD on children's development and family psychological status during the COVID-19 pandemic, and (3) The role of healthcare providers in the management of paternal PPD. The findings of the studies showed that paternal PPD increases the rate of child maltreatment, maternal depression, and domestic violence. The promotion of the interpersonal skills of healthcare providers with fathers suffering from depression or psychological problems is the determinant factor of successful results. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that paternal PPD has a wide range of consequences in this pandemic. Therefore, it would be recommended that healthcare staff have close contact with families and screen fathers for paternal PPD during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Depression/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Fathers/psychology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Postpartum Period/psychology , Risk Factors
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11758, 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927101

ABSTRACT

Brazil presented a very high number of maternal deaths and evident delays in healthcare. We aimed at evaluating the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated outcomes in the obstetric population. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 15 Brazilian centers including symptomatic pregnant or postpartum women with suspected COVID-19 from Feb/2020 to Feb/2021. Women were followed from suspected infection until the end of pregnancy. We analyzed maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes associated with confirmed COVID-19 infection and SARS, determining unadjusted risk ratios. In total, 729 symptomatic women with suspected COVID-19 were initially included. Among those investigated for COVID-19, 51.3% (n = 289) were confirmed COVID-19 and 48% (n = 270) were negative. Initially (before May 15th), only 52.9% of the suspected cases were tested and it was the period with the highest proportion of ICU admission and maternal deaths. Non-white ethnicity (RR 1.78 [1.04-3.04]), primary schooling or less (RR 2.16 [1.21-3.87]), being overweight (RR 4.34 [1.04-19.01]) or obese (RR 6.55 [1.57-27.37]), having public prenatal care (RR 2.16 [1.01-4.68]), planned pregnancies (RR 2.09 [1.15-3.78]), onset of infection in postpartum period (RR 6.00 [1.37-26.26]), chronic hypertension (RR 2.15 [1.37-4.10]), pre-existing diabetes (RR 3.20 [1.37-7.46]), asthma (RR 2.22 [1.14-4.34]), and anaemia (RR 3.15 [1.14-8.71]) were associated with higher risk for SARS. The availability of tests and maternal outcomes varied throughout the pandemic period of the study; the beginning was the most challenging period, with worse outcomes. Socially vulnerable, postpartum and previously ill women were more likely to present SARS related to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Maternal Death , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 625, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has placed additional stressors on mothers during an already vulnerable lifecourse transition. Initial social distancing restrictions (Timepoint 1; T1) and initial changes to those social distancing restrictions (Timepoint 2; T2) have disrupted postpartum access to practical and emotional support. This qualitative study explores the postpartum psychological experiences of UK women during different phases of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated 'lockdowns'. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 women, approximately 30 days after initial social distancing guidelines were imposed in the UK (22 April 2020). A separate 12 women were interviewed approximately 30 days after the initial easing of social distancing restrictions (10 June 2020). Data were transcribed verbatim, uploaded into NVivo for management and analysis, which followed a recurrent cross-sectional approach to thematic analysis. RESULTS: Two main themes were identified for T1: 'Motherhood is Much Like Lockdown' and 'A Self-Contained Family Unit'. Each main T1 theme contained two sub-themes. Two main themes were also identified for T2: 'Incongruously Held Views of COVID-19' and 'Mothering Amidst the Pandemic'. Each main T2 theme contained three sub-themes. Comparisons between data gathered at each timepoint identified increased emotional distress over time. Current findings call for the improvement of postpartum care by improving accessibility to social support, and prioritising the re-opening of schools, and face-to-face healthcare appointments and visitation. CONCLUSION: Social distancing restrictions associated with COVID-19 have had a cumulative, negative effect on postpartum mental health. Recommendations such as: Allowing mothers to 'bubble' with a primary support provider even at their healthcare appointments; allowing one support partner to attend all necessary healthcare appointments; and providing tailored informational resources, may help to support postpartum emotional wellbeing during this, and similar health crises in the future.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Mothers/psychology , Psychological Distress , Social Support , Adult , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Mental Health Services , Postnatal Care/methods , Postpartum Period/psychology , Qualitative Research
9.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 537, 2022 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1916933

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has posed profound challenges for pregnant patients and their families. Studies conducted early in the pandemic found that pregnant individuals reported increased mental health concerns in response to pandemic-related stress. Many obstetric practices changed their healthcare delivery models, further impacting the experiences of pregnant patients. We conducted a survey study to explore the ways in which COVID-19 impacted the lives of pregnant and newly postpartum people. METHODS: A mixed-methods survey was distributed to all patients ≥18 years old who were pregnant between January 1st, 2020 - April 28, 2021 in a large Midwest health system. Open-ended survey responses were analyzed for common themes using standard qualitative methodology. RESULTS: Among the 1182 survey respondents, 647 women provided an open-ended response. Of these, 77% were in the postpartum period. The majority of respondents identified as white, were partnered or married, and owned their own home. Respondents reported feeling greater uncertainty, social isolation, as though they had limited social and practical support, and negative mental health effects as a result of the pandemic. Many cited sudden or arbitrary changes to their medical care as a contributing factor. Though in the minority, some respondents also reported benefits from the changes to daily life, including perceived improvements to medical care, better work-life balance, and opportunities for new perspectives. CONCLUSIONS: This large qualitative dataset provides insight into how healthcare policy and lifestyle changes impacted pregnant and postpartum people. Respondents expressed similar levels of uncertainty and mental health concerns compared to other cohorts but less overall positivity. Our findings suggest greater attention be given to the impact of pandemic-related stress on pregnant and postpartum women. As the pandemic continues, these data identify areas where investment in additional support may have the greatest impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Menopause , Mental Health , Pandemics , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Women in the postpartum period may be particularly vulnerable to the psychological effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on postpartum depression and anxiety levels and the role of the fear of COVID-19 in its development. METHODS: Women who delivered at the Bissaya Barreto Maternity Hospital, between 16 March and 16 June 2020 (Group 1: Birth in COVID-19 period, n = 207), recruited in the postpartum period, filled in a set of self-reported validated questionnaires: Perinatal Depression Screening Scale, Perinatal Anxiety Screening Scale, Profile of Mood States, Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire, Dysfunctional Beliefs Towards Maternity Scale, and the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. Levels of depressive and anxious symptomatology, negative affect, negative repetitive thinking, and the dysfunctional beliefs towards motherhood of these women were compared with data from samples of previous studies that included women whose delivery had occurred at the same Maternity Hospital before the COVID-19 pandemic period (Group 2: Birth before the COVID-19 period, n = 212). RESULTS: Based on the cutoff points of the screening scales, the prevalence of clinically relevant depressive and anxious symptoms in Group 1 was 40.1% and 36.2%, respectively. Women in Group 1 had significantly higher levels of anxious and depressive symptoms, negative affect, negative repetitive thinking, and dysfunctional beliefs towards motherhood than women in Group 2 (p < 0.05). Fear of COVID-19 in the postpartum period was a predictor of depressive (ß = 0.262) and anxious (ß = 0.371) symptoms, explaining 6.9% and 13.7% of their variability, respectively (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, women in the postpartum period present greater depressive and anxious symptomatology, as well as increased risk factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy
11.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 56: e20210556, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902718

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to identify how the COVID-19 pandemic has influenced postpartum women in breastfeeding. METHOD: a scoping review, with a search in seven databases. Studies available in full, in English, Portuguese or Spanish, published from December/2019-April/2021 were included. The analysis was carried out by categorizing common themes. RESULTS: 25 studies were included, grouped into five categories, presenting the influence of the pandemic: in the routine of breastfeeding care, evidencing preventive measures against COVID-19; in breastfeeding rates, highlighting changes in dietary practices; in the support network for breastfeeding, indicating a lack of service care; in the postpartum women's emotions, with predominance of concern and stress; in the use of technology to support breastfeeding, with teleservice facilitating care. CONCLUSION: the COVID-19 pandemic has influenced new forms of care, in the offer and duration of breastfeeding, in emotional health and in the support network fragility. It is expected to contribute so that health professionals provide care with greater assertiveness in the face of this new situation.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , COVID-19 , Breast Feeding/psychology , Emotions , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Postpartum Period/psychology
12.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 31(6): 772-778, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901041

ABSTRACT

Objective: Studies examining the impact of natural disasters noted that in the setting of stable rates of depression, postpartum depression (PPD) increased in vulnerable subgroups. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may similarly impact maternal health. This study aimed to characterize the effect of COVID-19 on the incidence of PPD and to identify vulnerable subgroups. Methods: Retrospective chart review of maternal-newborn dyads was conducted over two epochs: pre-COVID-19 (January 1-June 1, 2019) and during-COVID-19 (January 1-June 1, 2020). PPD was defined as an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of ≧ 10 at any postnatal appointment. Prevalence of depression and anxiety was recorded. Data were analyzed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and t-tests. Results: Among 1061 dyads (557 in the 2019 epoch, 504 in the 2020 epoch), the epochs had similar clinical and demographic characteristics. Incidence proportion of PPD was similar (16.9% to 18.1%, p = 0.67). In subgroup analyses, this outcome was also similar among primiparous mothers (17.4% to 22.2%, p = 0.22) and publicly insured mothers (23.9% to 25.9%, p = 0.78). The 2020 epoch exhibited higher prevalence of current depression (9.9% to 14.3%, p = 0.03) and anxiety (10.1% to 18.7%, p < 0.001). However, incidence proportion of PPD decreased among women with current mental health diagnoses (41.5% to 31.3%, p = 0.19). Conclusions: A stable PPD incidence despite increased prevalence of current mood disorders highlights the complexity of the biopsychosocial milieu contributing to PPD. Further study of psychiatric care access and treatment is an important next step in understanding relationships between current mood disorders and PPD during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Mothers/psychology , Pandemics , Postpartum Period/psychology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
13.
Matern Child Health J ; 26(8): 1732-1740, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899239

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In Coatepec, Mexico, the immediate postpartum is considered a special time, called the cuarentena, when postpartum women receive critical social support and observe diet and activity pre- and proscriptions-all intended to enhance maternal-child health. This study examined how public health mandates aimed at containing COVID-19, which instructed people to socially isolate, affected women's postpartum experiences, including observing the cuarentena. METHODS: We recruited first-time mothers from the local public health clinic and collected qualitative data via a verbally administered survey that covered knowledge/perceived threat of COVID-19 and its effect on the cuarentena and maternal mood. We used content analysis to analyze the data. RESULTS: We conducted 33 telephonic interviews from March to December 2020. Overall, women were knowledgeable about and receptive to public health messaging regarding COVID-19 risks and safety measures. Despite knowledge and receptivity, most followed their original cuarentena plans to observe culturally prescribed postpartum practices, even when doing so contradicted public health mandates. However, the mandates that limited socialization with friends and extended family during the cuarentena negatively affected maternal mood. DISCUSSION: Postpartum women, especially in under-studied low- and middle-income countries, merit research attention. Emergent from this study is that public health messaging should speak to its target audience in a way that makes sense within local contexts, which includes consideration of highly valued health practices. Future studies aimed at understanding how to achieve this goal will facilitate development of stronger programs that address public health needs and protect individual well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mothers , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Pandemics , Postpartum Period
14.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270150, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896493

ABSTRACT

We urgently need answers to basic epidemiological questions regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant and postpartum women and its effect on their newborns. While many national registries, health facilities, and research groups are collecting relevant data, we need a collaborative and methodologically rigorous approach to better combine these data and address knowledge gaps, especially those related to rare outcomes. We propose that using a sequential, prospective meta-analysis (PMA) is the best approach to generate data for policy- and practice-oriented guidelines. As the pandemic evolves, additional studies identified retrospectively by the steering committee or through living systematic reviews will be invited to participate in this PMA. Investigators can contribute to the PMA by either submitting individual patient data or running standardized code to generate aggregate data estimates. For the primary analysis, we will pool data using two-stage meta-analysis methods. The meta-analyses will be updated as additional data accrue in each contributing study and as additional studies meet study-specific time or data accrual thresholds for sharing. At the time of publication, investigators of 25 studies, including more than 76,000 pregnancies, in 41 countries had agreed to share data for this analysis. Among the included studies, 12 have a contemporaneous comparison group of pregnancies without COVID-19, and four studies include a comparison group of non-pregnant women of reproductive age with COVID-19. Protocols and updates will be maintained publicly. Results will be shared with key stakeholders, including the World Health Organization (WHO) Maternal, Newborn, Child, and Adolescent Health (MNCAH) Research Working Group. Data contributors will share results with local stakeholders. Scientific publications will be published in open-access journals on an ongoing basis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Aquichan ; 22(2): e2227, may. 13, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1893208

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify and analyze the scientific evidence on the mental health of postpartum women during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: This integrative review was carried out using the VHL, CINAHL, PubCovid, Scopus, and Web of Science databases, whose research question was "What is the scientific evidence on the mental health of postpartum women during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic?" Results: Ten articles in English were included, identifying a higher frequency of cross-sectional research (n = 4), publications in November 2020 (n = 3), conducted in Italy (n = 3), with level VI evidence (n = 6). The study found that postpartum women feel depressed, lonely, and afraid; attention is drawn to the worsening risk of postpartum depression with significant prevalence values. It points out factors that negatively influence the mental health of this population in the current pandemic and discloses care measures. Conclusions: In addition to previous characteristics, socioeconomic conditions (e.g., living in highly infected areas, unemployment) and elements inherent to this pandemic (e.g., distance and fear of contagion) negatively influence the mental health of postpartum women. Means of dealing with the conditions imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic are available, such as relaxation techniques, physical exercise, and professional support. The relevance and need for research on this theme, mostly nationally, are highlighted.


Objetivo: identificar e analisar as evidências científicas sobre a saúde mental de puérperas durante a pandemia da covid-19. Método: revisão integrativa nas bases de dados BVS, CINAHL, PubCovid, Scopus e Web of Science, na qual se considerou a pergunta de pesquisa "Quais as evidências científicas sobre a saúde mental das puérperas na pandemia do Sars-CoV-2?" Resultados: foram incluídos 10 artigos, em língua inglesa, e foi identificada maior frequência em pesquisas transversais (n = 4), publicações em novembro de 2020 (n = 3), realizadas na Itália (n = 3), com nível VI de evidência (n = 6). Demonstrou-se que as puérperas se sentem deprimidas, solitárias e com medo; atentam para a piora no risco de depressão pós-parto com valores importantes de prevalência. Apontam fatores que influenciam negativamente a saúde mental dessa população na atual pandemia e revelam ações de cuidado. Conclusões: além de características pregressas, há condições socioeconômicas ­ como residir em áreas de maior contaminação, desemprego ­ e elementos inerentes a essa pandemia ­ como distanciamento e medo da contaminação ­ que influenciam negativamente a saúde mental de puérperas. Há meios de lidar com as condições impostas pela pandemia da covid-19, como técnicas de relaxamento, prática de exercício físico e apoio profissional. Salientam-se a importância e a necessidade de pesquisas nacionais, principalmente, e internacionais nessa temática.


Objetivo: identificar y analizar las evidencias científicas sobre la salud mental de puérperas durante la pandemia de la covid-19. Método: revisión integradora en las bases de datos BVS, CINAHL, PubCovid, Scopus y Web of Science, en la que se consideró la pregunta de investigación "¿Cuáles son las evidencias científicas sobre la salud mental de las puérperas en la pandemia del SARS-CoV-2?" Resultados: se incluyeron diez artículos, en inglés, y se identificó más frecuencia en investigaciones trasversales (n = 4), publicaciones en noviembre de 2020 (n = 3), realizadas en Italia (n = 3), con nivel VI de evidencia (n = 6). Se demostró que las puérperas se sienten deprimidas, solitarias y con miedo, lo cual agrava el riesgo de depresión posparto con valores importantes de prevalencia. Se señalan factores que influyen de forma negativa en la salud mental de esta población y se evidencian acciones de cuidado. Conclusiones: además de las características anteriores, algunas condiciones socio-económicas (como vivir en áreas de más infección, desempleo) y elementos inherentes a esta pandemia (como distanciamiento y miedo de contagiarse) influyen de forma negativa en la salud mental de puérperas. Hay formas de manejar las condiciones impuestas por la pandemia de covid-19, como técnicas de relajación, práctica de ejercicio físico y soporte profesional. Se destacan la importancia y la necesidad de investigaciones nacionales, principalmente, e internacionales en esta temática.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Postpartum Period , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
16.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269091, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892321

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics associated with vaccination against Covid-19 in pregnant and postpartum women with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in Brazil and to investigate a possible association between vaccination and the clinical course and outcome of the disease. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of hospitalized pregnant and postpartum women diagnosed with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) by SARS-CoV-2, presenting onset of signs and symptoms between May and October 2021. Secondary data were used, available in the Influenza Epidemiological Surveillance Information System (SIVEP-Gripe). Data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical program, medians were applied to present continuous variables and frequencies, and proportions were calculated for categorical variables, using logistic and multivariate regression analysis. RESULTS: The final study population included 3,585 pregnant and postpartum women, of whom 596 (16.6) were vaccinated: 443 (74.3%) received one dose and 153 (25.7%) received two doses. They were factors associated with non-vaccination against Covid-19 age ≤ 19 anos (OR: 2.57; IC95% 1.40;4.71), non-white women (OR: 1.34; IC95% 1.07;1.67) and those who required ventilatory support (OR: 1.51; IC95% 1.19;1.90) and invasive ventilation (OR: 2.05; IC95% 1.37;3.08). On the other hand, vaccination was associated with advanced maternal age (OR: 0.60; IC95% 0.48;0.76), presence of comorbidities (OR: 0.57; IC95% 0.45;0.72) and loss of taste (OR: 0.63; IC95% 0.48;0.82). CONCLUSIONS: Demographic, ethnic-racial and clinical characteristics were associated with the vaccination status of pregnant and postpartum women with SARS by SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil. Vaccination against Covid-19 in the obstetric population has already shown positive results in the evolution of severe cases, which reiterates its importance. It is essential that health services advance vaccination against Covid-19 in the obstetric population, especially adolescentes and non-white women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnant Women , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e055830, 2022 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891825

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether use of expressed human milk in the first two weeks postpartum is associated with cessation of human milk feeding and non-exclusive human milk feeding up to 6 months. DESIGN: Pooled data from two prospective cohort studies SETTING: Three Canada Prenatal Nutrition Program (CPNP) sites serving vulnerable families in Toronto, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 337 registered CPNP clients enrolled prenatally from 2017 to 2020; 315 (93%) were retained to 6 months postpartum. EXCLUSIONS: pregnancy loss or participation in prior related study; Study B: preterm birth (<34 weeks); plan to move outside Toronto; not intending to feed human milk; hospitalisation of mother or baby at 2 weeks postpartum. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Main exposure variable: any use of expressed human milk at 2 weeks postpartum. OUTCOMES: cessation of human milk feeding by 6 months; non-exclusive human milk feeding to 4 months and 6 months postpartum. RESULTS: All participants initiated human milk feeding and 80% continued for 6 months. Exclusive human milk feeding was practiced postdischarge to 4 months by 28% and to 6 months by 16%. At 2 weeks postpartum, 34% reported use of expressed human milk. Any use of expressed human milk at 2 weeks was associated with cessation of human milk feeding before 6 months postpartum (aOR 2.66; 95% CI 1.41 to 5.05) and with non-exclusive human milk feeding to 4 months (aOR 2.19; 95% CI 1.16 to 4.14) and 6 months (aOR 3.65; 95% CI 1.50 to 8.84). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: NCT03400605, NCT03589963.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Milk, Human , Aftercare , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Patient Discharge , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Premature Birth , Prospective Studies
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884111

ABSTRACT

The transition from pregnancy through early postpartum can be a particularly vulnerable time for women as they adjust to the changes of motherhood. This study aimed to provide a detailed account of additional health challenges that mothers are facing throughout motherhood during the pandemic. Data obtained can be utilized to create tailored interventions to aid women during their reproductive years. A sequential approach was utilized, collecting health-related information via survey and subsequent focus groups or interviews to further examine health experiences during pregnancy or postpartum. Fifty-seven participants completed the online survey, 73.5% were postpartum. The healthy eating index of the cohort was low, 50.5 ± 10.3%. Prior to pregnancy, 54.5% were classified as overweight/obese. Following pregnancy, 71.1% were classified as overweight or obese. Emergent qualitative themes from focus groups (n = 3) and interviews (n = 6) included (1) value and desire for healthy eating, (2) desire to make well-informed health-based decisions, and (3) role of social networks during pregnancy and postpartum. Pregnant/postpartum women desire to lead a healthy lifestyle but experience barriers to accomplishing intended goals. Upstream resources and policies that promote healthy living for pregnant/postpartum women can reduce chronic disease throughout the lifespan following childbirth.


Subject(s)
Overweight , Postpartum Period , Female , Healthy Lifestyle , Humans , Mothers , Obesity , Pregnancy
19.
EBioMedicine ; 77: 103940, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881926

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited knowledge exists in post-partum women regarding durability of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced antibody responses and their neutralising ability against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC). METHODS: We elucidated longitudinal mRNA vaccination-induced antibody profiles of 13 post-partum and 13 non-post-partum women (control). FINDINGS: The antibody neutralisation titres against SARS-CoV-2 WA-1 strain were comparable between post-partum and non-post-partum women and these levels were sustained up to four months post-second vaccination in both groups. However, neutralisation titers declined against several VOCs, including Beta and Delta. Higher antibody binding was observed against SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) mutants with key VOC amino acids when tested with post-second vaccination plasma from post-partum women compared with controls. Importantly, post-vaccination plasma antibody affinity against VOCs RBDs was significantly higher in post-partum women compared with controls. INTERPRETATION: This study demonstrates that there is a differential vaccination-induced immune responses in post-partum women compared with non-post-partum women, which could help inform future vaccination strategies for these groups. FUNDING: The antibody characterisation work described in this manuscript was supported by FDA's Medical Countermeasures Initiative (MCMi) grant #OCET 2021-1565 to S.K and intramural FDA-CBER COVID-19 supplemental funds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Affinity , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Postpartum Period , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic
20.
MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs ; 46(1): 30-35, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878846

ABSTRACT

For new families giving birth in a hospital setting, the COVID-19 pandemic has presented numerous challenges to their birth, breastfeeding, and postpartum experiences. We present experiences of three first-time, healthy mothers and their babies, as they gave birth in the hospital and were breastfeeding during the start of the pandemic in Philadelphia, PA. Each case is framed in the mother's prenatal goals, infant feeding intentions, birth, breastfeeding, and postpartum experiences. Shared concerns and experiences among the three participants are described in five key areas: 1) Recommendations changing every day, 2) Guilt, concern, and stress, 3) In-person versus telehealth visits, 4) Missing time with family and friends, and 5) Silver linings. Through these mothers' experiences, nurses and other health care providers can learn from their perceptions and events and proactively work to ensure we provide sound anticipatory guidance, enhance our communication, and improve provision of evidence-based lactation care and support.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Postnatal Care/psychology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Labor, Obstetric , Pregnancy , Self Concept
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