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1.
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 26(4): 531-541, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244641

ABSTRACT

Social support is an influential component of postpartum recovery, adjustment, and bonding, which was disrupted by social distancing recommendations related to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study reports on changes in the availability of social support for postpartum women during the pandemic, investigates how those changes may have contributed to postpartum mental health, and probes how specific types of social support buffered against poor postpartum mental health and maternal-infant bonding impairment. Participants were 833 pregnant patients receiving prenatal care in an urban USA setting and using an electronic patient portal to access self-report surveys at two time points, during pregnancy (April-July 2020) and at ~12 weeks postpartum (August 2020-March 2021). Measures included an assessment of COVID-19 pandemic-related change in social support, sources of social support, ratings of emotional and practical support, and postpartum outcomes including depression, anxiety, and maternal-infant bonding. Overall self-reported social support decreased during the pandemic. Decreased social support was associated with an increased risk of postpartum depression, postpartum anxiety, and impaired parent-infant bonding. Among women reporting low practical support, emotional support appeared to protect against clinically significant depressive symptoms and impaired bonding with the infant. Decreases in social support are associated with a risk for poor postpartum mental health outcomes and impaired maternal-infant bonding. Evaluation and promotion of social support are recommended for healthy adjustment and functioning of postpartum women and families.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Pregnancy , Infant , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Mother-Child Relations/psychology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , Social Support , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Depression/psychology
2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 304, 2023 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317124

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The interrelationship of psychological and social factors in the current COVID-19 pandemic has been highlighted in research mainly focused on the global north. The impact of lockdowns can exacerbate psychological distress and affect access to services. Less is known about the psychosocial impact on women in the context of lower-middle income countries (LMICs); the aim of this study was to capture the impact of COVID-19 on women's experiences of pregnancy, birth and postpartum in Indonesia. METHODS: We conducted a rapid cross-sectional online survey of women across all 34 provinces in Indonesia to capture participants' experiences. Data were collected between 10th July to 9th August 2020 including demographics, effects on general and mental health and impact on service use. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were used to analyse responses, including those women who self-identified with a pre-existing mental health problem. RESULTS: Responses were obtained from 1137 women, this included pregnant women (n = 842) and postpartum women (n = 295). The majority of women (97%) had accessed antenatal care during their pregnancy, but 84% of women reporting feeling fearful and anxious about attending visits, resulting in some women not attending or changing provider. A small number (13%) were denied the presence of a birth companion, with 28% of women reporting that their babies had been removed at birth due to protocols or baby's health. Feeling anxious was a common experience among women (62%) during their pregnancy, birth or postnatal period, with a small number (9%) feeling depressed. Lockdown measures led to tensions within personal and family relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Women in Indonesia reported that the pandemic added an increased burden in pregnancy, birth and post-partum period: physically, psychologically, spiritually and financially. Maternity services were disrupted and health insurance cover lacked responsiveness, which either directly or indirectly impacted on women's choices, and equal access to care. Given the longevity of the current pandemic there is a need to develop tailored supportive interventions for women and their families and develop bespoke training for midwives and other relevant health professionals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Indonesia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Parturition/psychology , Postpartum Period/psychology
3.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0284773, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316365

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted public and private health systems around the world, impairing good practices in women's health care. However, little is known about the experiences, knowledge, and feelings of Brazilian women in this period. The objective was to analyze the experiences of women, seen at maternity hospitals accredited by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS, acronym in Portuguese), regarding health care during pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum periods, their interpersonal relationships, and perceptions and feelings about the pandemic. This was a qualitative, exploratory research, carried out in three Brazilian municipalities with women hospitalized in 2020, during pregnancy, childbirth, or postpartum period, with COVID-19 or not. For data collection, semi-structured individual interviews (in person, by telephone, or by digital platform) were conducted, recorded and transcribed. The content analysis of thematic modalities was displayed as per the following axes: i) Knowledge about the disease; ii) Search for health care in prenatal, childbirth, and postpartum periods; iii) Experience of suffering from COVID-19; iv) Income and work; and v) Family dynamics and social support network. A total of 46 women were interviewed in São Luís-MA, Pelotas-RS, and Niterói-RJ. Use of media was important to convey information and fight fake news. The pandemic negatively impacted access to health care in the prenatal, childbirth, and postpartum periods, contributing to worsening of the population's social and economic vulnerabilities. Women experienced diverse manifestations of the disease, and psychic disorders were very frequent. Social isolation during the pandemic disrupted the support network of these women, who found social support strategies in communication technologies. Women-centered care-including qualified listening and mental health support-can reduce the severity of COVID-19 cases in pregnant, parturient, and postpartum women. Sustainable employment and income maintenance policies are essential to mitigate social vulnerabilities and reduce risks for these women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities , Postnatal Care , COVID-19/epidemiology , Parturition/psychology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Qualitative Research
4.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 56: e20210556, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304071

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to identify how the COVID-19 pandemic has influenced postpartum women in breastfeeding. METHOD: a scoping review, with a search in seven databases. Studies available in full, in English, Portuguese or Spanish, published from December/2019-April/2021 were included. The analysis was carried out by categorizing common themes. RESULTS: 25 studies were included, grouped into five categories, presenting the influence of the pandemic: in the routine of breastfeeding care, evidencing preventive measures against COVID-19; in breastfeeding rates, highlighting changes in dietary practices; in the support network for breastfeeding, indicating a lack of service care; in the postpartum women's emotions, with predominance of concern and stress; in the use of technology to support breastfeeding, with teleservice facilitating care. CONCLUSION: the COVID-19 pandemic has influenced new forms of care, in the offer and duration of breastfeeding, in emotional health and in the support network fragility. It is expected to contribute so that health professionals provide care with greater assertiveness in the face of this new situation.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , COVID-19 , Breast Feeding/psychology , Emotions , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Postpartum Period/psychology
5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 251, 2023 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299015

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak, the incidence of mental health problems in perinatal women has been high, and particularly prominent in China which was the first country affected by COVID-19. This paper aims to investigate the current situation and the related factors of maternal coping difficulties after discharge during COVID-19. METHODS: General information questionnaires (the Perinatal Maternal Health Literacy Scale, Postpartum Social Support Scale and Post-Discharge Coping Difficulty Scale-New Mother Form) were used to investigate 226 puerperal women in the third week of puerperium. The influencing factors were analyzed by single factor analysis, correlation and multiple linear regression. RESULTS: The total score of coping difficulties after discharge was 48.92 ± 12.05. At the third week after delivery, the scores of health literacy and social support were 21.34 ± 5.18 and 47.96 ± 12.71. There were negative correlations among health literacy, social support and coping difficulties after discharge (r = -0.34, r = -0.38, P < 0.001). Primipara, family income, health literacy and social support were the main factors influencing maternal coping difficulties after discharge. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, puerperal women in a low- and middle-income city had moderate coping difficulties after discharge and were affected by many factors. To meet the different needs of parturients and improve their psychological coping ability, medical staff should perform adequate assessment of social resources relevant to parturients and their families when they are discharged, so they can smoothly adapt to the role of mothers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Aftercare , Postpartum Period/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Mothers/psychology
6.
Midwifery ; 121: 103655, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277362

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress in pregnant women are generally highest in the first trimester and then decrease throughout pregnancy, reaching their lowest point in the postpartum period. Pregnant women are a high-risk population for mortality and mental health symptoms due to COVID-19. However, the extent to which the chronic stress of the COVID-19 pandemic alters the trajectory of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in pregnant/postpartum women is unknown. METHODS: Women (N=127) who were pregnant or who had given birth less than one month prior were recruited via online advertising during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were assessed up to three times during the pregnancy and at 1-month postpartum for depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), anxiety, and stress (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21). Random intercepts models examined symptom change over time as well as predictors of elevated postpartum psychopathology. RESULTS: On average, women completed their surveys at 8.5 weeks (first trimester), 21 weeks (second trimester), 32 weeks (third trimester) and 7-weeks postpartum. Women reported mild-moderate levels of depression, anxiety, and stress throughout pregnancy. There was a significant change in symptoms of depression and anxiety over time which was best represented by a quadratic rather than linear trajectory: symptoms increased until week 23-25 and then decreased. Stress levels remained consistently elevated over time. Higher symptom levels at 1-month postpartum were predicted by younger age, lower social support, and worry about going to a healthcare facility. Change in routine due to COVID-19 was not predictive of symptom trajectory from pregnancy to postpartum. CONCLUSIONS: During COVID-19, symptoms of depression and anxiety increased from early to mid-pregnancy but then declined slightly while stress levels remained elevated. Observed reductions in symptoms were small. Given the substantial persistent impact of perinatal distress and poor mental health on maternal and fetal health, providers should be aware of heightened levels of these symptoms in pregnant women during large-scale external health stressors such as COVID-19, and should implement screening procedures to identify and appropriately intervene with at-risk women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depression/diagnosis , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Anxiety/diagnosis , Postpartum Period/psychology , Parturition , Depression, Postpartum/psychology
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 197, 2023 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276164

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Traumatic events are associated with psychological and physical health problems for women in the perinatal period (i.e., pregnancy-12-months after childbirth). Despite the negative impact of trauma on perinatal women, the long-term impact of such diverse trauma and women's experience during the perinatal period remains understudied. METHODS: This study explored two research questions: 1) What are the psychological experiences of perinatal women who have experienced interpersonal traumatic events? And 2) What are the service needs and gaps expressed by women relating to perinatal medical protocols and psychological services? These questions were addressed via in-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews with nine perinatal women (one pregnant and eight postpartum) residing in central Canada who reported experiencing interpersonal traumatic events occurring from adolescence to the perinatal period. Recruitment and data collection occurred from October 2020 to June 2021. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed according to constructivist grounded theory. RESULTS: The emergent grounded theory model revealed the central theme of the role of prior trauma in shaping women's perinatal experiences, with four related main themes including perinatal experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic, the role of social support in women's perinatal experiences, the barriers that women experienced while seeking psychological and medical services prior to the perinatal period and during the perinatal period, and the specific needs of perinatal women with a history of interpersonal trauma. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of this research highlight the negative and long-lasting impact of traumatic events experienced on women's psychological health and psychosocial functioning during the perinatal period, as well as perinatal women's unmet psychological and medical service needs. A call to action for perinatal researchers and clinicians is imperative in furthering this important area of research and practicing person-centered and trauma-informed care with this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Maternal Health Services , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Parturition/psychology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Qualitative Research
8.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 223, 2023 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 and efforts to manage widespread infection may compromise HIV care engagement. The COVID-19-related factors linked to reduced HIV engagement have not been assessed among postpartum women with HIV, who are at heightened risk of attrition under non-pandemic circumstances. To mitigate the effects of the pandemic on care engagement and to prepare for future public health crises, it is critical to understand how COVID-19 has impacted (1) engagement in care and (2) factors that may act as barriers to care engagement. METHODS: A quantitative assessment of COVID-19-related experiences was added to a longitudinal cohort study assessing predictors of postpartum attrition from HIV care among women in South Africa. Participants (N = 266) completed the assessment at 6, 12, 18, or 24 months postpartum between June and November of 2020. Those who endorsed one or more challenge related to engagement in care (making or keeping HIV care appointments, procuring HIV medications, procuring contraception, and/or accessing immunization services for infants; n = 55) were invited to complete a brief qualitative interview, which explored the specific factors driving these challenges, as well as other impacts of COVID-19 on care engagement. Within this subset, 53 participants completed an interview; qualitative data were analyzed via rapid analysis. RESULTS: Participants described key challenges that reduced their engagement in HIV care and identified four other domains of COVID-19-related impacts: physical health, mental health, relationship with a partner or with the father of the baby, and motherhood/caring for the new baby. Within these domains, specific themes and subthemes emerged, with some positive impacts of COVID-19 also reported (e.g., increased quality time, improved communication with partner, HIV disclosure). Coping strategies for COVID-19-related challenges (e.g., acceptance, spirituality, distraction) were also discussed. CONCLUSIONS: About one in five participants reported challenges accessing HIV care, medications, or services, and they faced complex, multilayered barriers to remaining engaged. Physical health, mental health, relationships with partners, and ability to care for their infant were also affected. Given the dynamic nature of the pandemic and general uncertainty about its course, ongoing assessment of pandemic-related challenges among postpartum women is needed to avoid HIV care disruptions and to support wellbeing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Infant , Female , Humans , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Longitudinal Studies , Parenting , South Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Health Status
9.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 32(5): 583-591, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243509

ABSTRACT

Background: Evidence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms related to the COVID-19 pandemic during the perinatal period and the associated risk factors are still limited. Thus, we aimed to investigate the PTSD symptoms associated with the COVID-19 pandemic in a large sample of both pregnant and postpartum women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 3319 pregnant and up to 6-month postpartum women from Spain. An online survey was completed between June 2020 and January 2021. The assessment included measures of PTSD symptoms associated with COVID-19 (evaluated with 10 questions from the PTSD checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition), pandemic-related concerns and health background (assessed by the Coronavirus Perinatal Experiences-Impact Survey), and demographic characteristics. Results: We found that >40% of women suffered from symptoms of PTSD associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Difficulty concentrating and irritability were the most common symptoms, showing marked alterations in arousal and reactivity associated with the traumatic event. Being younger, suffering from pandemic concerns and distress, changes due to the pandemic and previous mental health problems were risk factors associated with PTSD symptoms in perinatal women. In addition, whereas being an immigrant (non-Spanish) was a risk factor for pregnant women, having other children and financial problems were risk factors for postpartum women. COVID-19 infection did not appear to be a risk factor for symptoms of PTSD in perinatal women. Conclusions: The increased risk of PTSD in pregnant and postpartum women highlights the importance of early detection and treatment of PTSD for pregnant and postnatal women, both during and beyond the pandemic. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT04595123).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Child , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology
10.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 87(5): 313-317, oct. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2217993

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Evaluar la percepción de las madres que tuvieron su parto durante la pandemia COVID en relación a la obligación de no recibir visitas en su puerperio, y cuantificar la frecuencia de prematuridad que otros centros del mundo mostraron que se redujo durante la pandemia. Método: Estudio observacional retrospectivo con encuestas realizadas entre el 1 de septiembre y el 31 diciembre 2020, y análisis de estadísticas locales de la Unidad de Maternidad y Neonatología. Resultados: Sobre el 90% de las madres que contestaron la encuesta afirmó haber descansado mejor y preferir un retorno a las visitas con horarios reducidos. La frecuencia de prematuridad se redujo significativamente en nuestra institución (8,08% entre 2014 y 2019 vs. 1,6% en 2020). Conclusiones: La mayoría de las puérperas prefiere un horario reducido para visitas en el posparto. Este hallazgo y la caída en la frecuencia de prematuridad obligan a reflexionar sobre nuestro cuidado prenatal actual.


Objective: To evaluate the perception of mothers who gave birth during the COVID pandemic in relation to the obligation not to receive visits during the puerperium, and to quantify the frequency of prematurity that other centers in the world showed decreased during the pandemic. Method: Retrospective observational study with surveys conducted between September 1st and December 31, 2020, and analysis of local statistics from the Maternity and Neonatal Unit. Results: Over 90% of the mothers who answered the survey stated that they had rested better and preferred a return to visits with reduced hours. The frequency of prematurity was signficantly reduced in our institution ((8.08% between 2014 and 2019 vs 1.6% in 2020). Conclusions: Most postpartum women prefer a reduced schedule for pospartum visits. This finding and the drop in the frequency of prematurity force us to reflect on our current prenatal care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Postpartum Period/psychology , COVID-19 , Obstetric Labor, Premature/epidemiology , Visitors to Patients , Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital/organization & administration , Quarantine , Surveys and Questionnaires , Parturition/psychology , Pandemics
11.
BMJ Open ; 13(1): e063391, 2023 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193766

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the mental health of perinatal women in five European countries during the third pandemic wave and identify risk factors related to depressive and anxiety symptoms. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, online survey-based study. SETTING: Belgium, Norway, Switzerland, the Netherlands and the UK, 10 June 2021-22 August 2021. PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant and up to 3 months postpartum women, older than 18 years of age. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: The Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) and the Generalised Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) were used to assess mental health status. Univariate and multivariate generalised linear models were performed to identify factors associated with poor mental health. RESULTS: 5210 women participated (including 3411 pregnant and 1799 postpartum women). The prevalence of major depressive symptoms (EDS ≥13) was 16.1% in the pregnancy group and 17.0% in the postpartum . Moderate to severe generalised anxiety symptoms (GAD ≥10) were found among 17.3% of the pregnant and 17.7% of the postpartum women. Risk factors associated with poor mental health included having a pre-existing mental illness, a chronic somatic illness, having had COVID-19 or its symptoms, smoking, unplanned pregnancy and country of residence. Among COVID-19 restrictive measures specific to perinatal care, pregnant and postpartum women were most anxious about not having their partner present at the time of delivery, that their partner had to leave the hospital early and to be separated from their newborn after the delivery. CONCLUSION: Approximately one in six pregnant or postpartum women reported major depression or anxiety symptoms during the third wave of the pandemic. These findings suggest a continued need to monitor depression and anxiety in pregnancy and postpartum populations throughout and in the wake of the pandemic. Tailored support and counselling are essential to reduce the burden of the pandemic on perinatal and infant mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Depressive Disorder, Major , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Mental Health , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis
12.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 81: 103452, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165038

ABSTRACT

The study aims to explore the burden of postpartum depression among COVID-19-infected mothers and stressor factors. A single-centre observational cohort study was conducted in South India to evaluate postpartum depression among 106 COVID-19-infected women who delivered from December 2020 to May 2021. Also, stressor factors related to COVID-19 infection were figured out to analyse their role in depression. Almost half of the COVID-19-infected mothers had a global EPDS score ≥ 10 and were at risk of depression during the pandemic. The depressive symptoms were not confined to the immediate postpartum period, but significantly impacted mothers until 6 months following childbirth. SYNOPSIS: COVID-19 infection not only affects the physical well-being but also adversely affects the mental health of the infected persons. Postpartum mothers who require the utmost care and support, are facing social deprivation due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This triggers the already fragile mental state of postpartum women and may worsen the level of depression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Female , Humans , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cohort Studies , Postpartum Period/psychology , Depression
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(23)2022 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To explore the depression and anxiety symptoms in the postpartum period during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and to identify potential risk factors. METHODS: A multicentre observational cohort study including 536 women was performed at three hospitals in Spain. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) Scale, the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS), and the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ) were assessed after birth. Depression (EPDS) and anxiety (STAI) symptoms were measured, and the cut-off scores were set at 10 and 13 for EPDS, and at 40 for STAI. RESULTS: Regarding EPDS, 32.3% (95% CI, 28% to 36.5%) of women had a score ≥ 10, and 17.3% (95% CI, 13.9% to 20.7%) had a score ≥ 13. Women with an STAI score ≥ 40 accounted for 46.8% (95% CI, 42.3% to 51.2%). A lower level of social support (MOS-SSS), a fetal malformation diagnosis and a history of depression (p = 0.000, p = 0.019 and p = 0.043) were independent risk factors for postpartum depression. A lower level of social support and a history of mental health disorders (p = 0.000, p = 0.003) were independent risk factors for postpartum anxiety. CONCLUSION: During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, an increase in symptoms of anxiety and depression were observed during the postpartum period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Female , Humans , Mental Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , Social Support , Cohort Studies
14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 833, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 infection (COVID-19) pandemic is a new global outbreak disease. According to the Taiwan Centers for Diseases Control statement, hospitals had to change their corresponding measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19. The frequency of parental visits to the special care nursery was reduced from three times to once daily. Visiting was not permitted from April 4 to May 10, 2020, and rooming-in with healthy neonates was discontinued, which could increase maternal postpartum distress. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine whether COVID-19 prevention increased maternal psychological distress. METHODS: This prospective study used convenience sampling to enroll healthy mothers who had just delivered via normal spontaneous delivery. Based on the neonates' status and visiting times, mothers were grouped into no-rooming-in, rooming-in, no-visiting, and one-visit/day groups. Mothers' baseline characteristics were compared using the Chi-square or Fisher's exact test and t-test. Salivary cortisol levels and scores of Chinese versions of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were evaluated on postpartum days 1 and 3 and analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and a paired t-test. RESULTS: There were 16, 58, 28, and 47 women categorized as no-rooming-in, rooming-in, no-visit, and one-visit/day groups, respectively. No significant differences were found between groups in mothers' baseline characteristics and postpartum salivary cortisol levels. The PSS on day 3 was significantly higher than on day 1 in every group (p < 0.001). The PSS increasing trend in the no-rooming-in group was significantly greater than that in the no-visit group (p = 0.02) and significantly greater in the rooming-in group than that in the one-visit/day group (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Postpartum stress increased for all mothers and was an even more significant response to the COVID-19 pandemic than the stress associated with neonates' hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pilot Projects , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Prospective Studies , Postpartum Period/psychology , Mothers/psychology
15.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 44(10): 1067-1075, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076430

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the psychological and behavioural effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on a Canadian cohort of individuals during pregnancy and the postpartum period. METHODS: In 2020, individuals between 20 weeks gestation and 3 months postpartum receiving maternity care from an urban Canadian clinic were invited to complete a questionnaire. The purpose-built questionnaire used validated scales including the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS), Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and questions from a SARS study. RESULTS: One hundred nine people completed the questionnaire (response rate, 55%) of whom 57% (n = 62) were postpartum. Most respondents (107, 98%) were married and had completed post-secondary education (104, 95%). Despite these protective factors, moderate to severe levels of depression (22%), anxiety (19%) and stress (27%), were recorded using the DASS-21, and 25% of participants (26) had depression (score ≥11) using the EPDS. Despite high social support in all MOS domains (median scores 84-100), a majority of participants reported loneliness (69, 67%) and were nearly or totally housebound (65, 64%). About half of participants worried about themselves (50, 46.3%) or their baby (59, 54%) contracting COVID-19, while the majority postponed (80, 74.1%) and cancelled (79, 73.2%) prenatal appointments. Being homebound or feeling lonely / lacking support were significant risk factors for psychological distress (P = 0.02) whereas exercise and strong social support were protective (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Pregnant and postpartum individuals experienced moderate to severe depression, anxiety, and stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Exercise and strong social support were protective. Health care provider enquiry of home circumstances and activity may identify individuals needing enhanced supports.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Maternal Health Services , Psychological Distress , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
16.
J Affect Disord ; 302: 15-24, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1717750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression(PPD) and anxiety(PPA) have become the one of major public health threats. However, the research evidence on PPD and PPA in Xinjiang is insufficient. This research reports the incidence of PPD and PPA in the past 4 years, and analyzes the impact of sociodemographic and obstetric factors on postpartum mental health. METHODS: The selected research objects are parturients who have undergone postpartum health check-ups in a tertiary hospital in Urumqi from January 2018 to September 2021. The study obtained the socio-demographic and obstetric information of the puerpera through general survey questionnaires, and used the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scales to screen for PPD and PPA. Furthermore, after univariate analysis of related influencing factors of PPD and PPA, multiple binary logistic regression analysis was used to further explore the relationship between PPD and PPA and various influencing factors. RESULTS: A total of 7,703 parturients were included in this study. The incidence of PPD (PHQ-9 ≥ 10) was 9.7% in 2018, 11.1% in 2019, 13.3% in 2020, and 14.2% in 2021 (χ2 = 18.386, P < 0001). The incidence of PPA(GAD-7 ≥ 10) was 8.1% in 2018,8.6% in 2019, 11.4% in 2020, and 9.8% in 2021 (χ2 = 16.895, P = 0.001). The six factors that were statistically different after univariate analysis were included in the multivariate binary logistic regression analysis. The final results suggested that women who delivery in 2020 were 1.405 times (95%CI:1.145-1.723) more likely to suffer from depression than those who delivery in 2018 and 1.688 times (95%CI:1.237-2.303) than that in 2021. Compared with puerpera with formal jobs, the incidence of PPD among puerpera who were self-employed (AOR = 1.372,95%CI:1.085-1.735) or unemployed(AOR = 1.348,95%CI:1.137-1.599) was on the rise. Moreover, studies have shown that mixed feeding (AOR = 1.515,95%CI: 1.296-1.772) or artificial feeding (AOR = 1.736,95%CI: 1.299-2.321) 6 weeks postpartum was associated with a higher risk of depression, and puerpera who delivered female infants (AOR = 0.780, 95%CI: 0.626-0.971) were less likely to report depressive symptoms. Simultaneously, for PPA, women who delivered in 2020 were 1.418 times (95%CI: 1.065-1.887) more likely to suffer from anxiety than those who delivered in 2018. Women aged 18-29 years (AOR = 2.070,95%CI:1.229-3.487) were more likely to report PPA than those over the age of 29. Similarly, women who selected cesarean section delivery (AOR = 1.332,95%CI:1.087-1.632) were more likely to have PPA. Mixed feeding (AOR = 1.436,95%CI: (1.193-1.729) ) or artificial feeding (AOR = 1.742,95%CI: 1.243-2.441) at 6 weeks postpartum was associated with a higher risk of anxiety. While puerpera who delivered female infants (AOR = 0.746,95%CI: 0.567-0.982) were less likely to report anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSION: This study shows that in Xinjiang, the incidence of postpartum depression and anxiety was on the rise from 2018 to 2020, and although there was a slight decline in 2021, it was still higher than in 2019. Simultaneously, the proportion of overweight or obese, cesarean section, and non-breastfeeding women had increased year by year. Factors such as maternal age, occupation, mode of delivery, feeding pattern and neonatal gender may help to identify high-risk patients. Therefore, primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention should be given priority to reduce the incidence of postpartum depression and anxiety in high-risk groups.


Subject(s)
Depression, Postpartum , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Cesarean Section/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , Young Adult
17.
J Midwifery Womens Health ; 67(5): 626-634, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038070

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic-related stressors (eg, exposure, infection worry, self-quarantining) can result in heightened levels of distress and symptoms of postpartum posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: Using a cross-sectional descriptive design, we collected survey data from a convenience sample of 670 postpartum persons who gave birth to a newborn during the first 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. The presence of PTSD symptoms was measured using the 21-item Birth Memories And Recall Questionnaire (BirthMARQ) and defined as an affirmative rating for each item (score of 5 to 7 on a 1 to 7 agreement scale). Symptoms counts were computed for each of the 6 BirthMARQ domains, 2 symptom clusters (intrusive; mood and cognition alterations), and the total number of symptoms. Symptom counts were analyzed using descriptive statistics. We explored associations among COVID-19 experiences (self-quarantine behaviors, infection worry, exposure) and counts of PTSD symptoms using negative binomial regression models while controlling for postpartum depression screening scores, neonatal intensive care unit admissions, number of weeks postpartum, race, and marital status. RESULTS: Almost 99% of participants reported experiencing at least one of 21 PTSD symptoms (mean, 8.32; SD, 3.63). Exposure to COVID-19 was associated with a 34% greater risk for experiencing intrusive symptoms, specifically, symptoms of reliving the birthing experience as if it were happening now (47% greater risk). Worry surrounding COVID-19 infection was associated with a 26% increased risk for experiencing intrusive recall symptoms in which birth memories came up unexpectantly. COVID-19 quarantining behaviors were not significantly related to increasing PTSD symptoms. Many of the demographic variables included were associated with increasing PTSD symptoms. DISCUSSION: Screening perinatal persons for PTSD is critically important, especially during public health crises like the COVID-19 pandemic. The integration of comprehensive mental health screening, including specific screening for trauma and symptoms of PTSD, across health care settings can help improve delivery of quality, patient-centered care to postpartum persons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , United States/epidemiology
18.
J Affect Disord ; 319: 99-111, 2022 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This systematic review and meta-analysis pooled the prevalence of psychological symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic and examined the effects of the pandemic on psychological health in postpartum women. METHODS: A systematic literature search and identification were performed in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases until June 16th, 2021. The fixed or random effect models to estimate the pooled prevalence of postpartum psychological symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic and the odds ratio (OR) of COVID-19 for psychological symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 29 articles including 20,225 postpartum women during the COVID-19 pandemic and 8312 before the COVID-19 pandemic were identified. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the prevalence of postpartum depressive, anxiety, stress, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were 26.7 % (95 % CI: 22.0-31.9 %), 33.8 % (95 % CI: 21.1-49.4 %), 55.0 % (95%CI: 27.9-79.5 %), and 33.7 % (95%CI: 19.6-51.5 %), respectively. The ORs of COVID-19 pandemic for postpartum depressive and anxiety symptoms were 1.54 (95 % CI: 1.00-2.36) and 2.56 (95%CI: 1.62-4.04). Subgroup analyses revealed that women with >6 weeks after delivery, younger than 35 years old, low income, less education and without breastfeeding experienced a higher risk of depressive or anxiety symptoms after delivery. LIMITATIONS: Only a few of prospective studies were included, and significant but inevitable heterogeneities were found in some analyses. CONCLUSION: A significantly higher proportion of postpartum women were suffered from psychological symptoms during COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in those with >6 weeks after delivery, younger than 35 years old, low income, less education and formula feeding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Postpartum Period/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Prevalence , Health Status , Depression/epidemiology
19.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273176, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993516

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Vulnerability for depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms due to perceived traumatic birth increase during the postpartum period. Traumatic birth has been defined as an event occurring during labour and birth that may be a serious threat to the life and safety of the mother and/or child. However, the comorbidity and multimorbidity of depression, anxiety and PTSD with their direct and indirect predictors is not well investigated in the postpartum period. In addition, the longitudinal directional association of depression, anxiety and PTSD with their comorbidities is not studied in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess prevalence of postnatal comorbid and multimorbid anxiety, depression and PTSD. It also aimed to determine the directional association of postnatal anxiety, depression and PTSD with the comorbidity and multimorbidity of these mental health problems over time and to explore the factors that are directly or indirectly associated with comorbidity and multimorbidity of anxiety, depression and PTSD. METHODS: A total of 775 women were included at the first, second and third follow-up of the study (6th, 12th and 18th week of postpartum period) during October, 2020 -March, 2021. A cross-lagged autoregressive path analysis was carried out using Stata 16.0 software in order to determine the autoregressive and cross-lagged effects of depression, anxiety and PTSD with their comorbidities. In addition, a linear structural equation modelling was also carried out to determine the direct and indirect effects of independent variables on the comorbidities of depression, anxiety and PTSD. RESULTS: Comorbidity of anxiety with depression was the most common (14.5%, 12.1% and 8.1%) at the 6th, 12th and 18th week of postnatal period respectively. With regard to the direction of association, comorbidity of PTSD (due to perceived traumatic birth) with depression, PTSD with anxiety, depression with anxiety and triple comorbidity predicted depression and anxiety in subsequent waves of measurement. Direct and indirect maternal morbidity, fear of childbirth and perceived traumatic childbirth were found to have a direct and indirect positive association with comorbidities of depression, anxiety and PTSD. In contrast, higher parity, higher family size and higher social support had a direct and indirect negative association with these mental health disorders. CONCLUSION: Postnatal mental health screening, early diagnosis and treatment of maternal morbidities, developing encouraging strategies for social support and providing adequate information about birth procedures and response to mothers' needs during childbirth are essential to avert comorbidity of anxiety, depression and PTSD in the postpartum period.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , Comorbidity , Depression, Postpartum/etiology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Longitudinal Studies , Parturition/psychology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
20.
J Affect Disord ; 316: 245-253, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic was a significant threat to perinatal mental health. This study examined differences in clinically significant depression, anxiety, and co-morbid symptoms among pregnant and postpartum women across several countries and compared prevalence of perinatal depression and anxiety before and during the pandemic in each participating country. METHODS: Participants were 3326 pregnant and 3939 postpartum women (up to six months postpartum) living in Brazil, Chile, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. An online survey was completed between June 7th and October 31st 2020, and included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7). The pre-pandemic studies were identified through literature review. RESULTS: Prevalence of clinically significant depression (EPDS≥13), anxiety (GAD-7 ≥ 10), and co-morbid (EPDS≥13 and GAD-7 ≥ 10) symptoms was 26.7 %, 20 % and 15.2 %, in pregnant women, and 32.7 %, 26.6 % and 20.3 %, in postpartum women, respectively. Significant between-country differences were found in all mental health indicators in both perinatal periods. Higher levels of symptoms were observed during (versus before) the pandemic, especially among postpartum women. LIMITATIONS: Participants were mostly highly educated and cohabiting with a partner. The online nature of the survey may have limited the participation of women from vulnerable socio-economically backgrounds. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings expand previous literature on the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on perinatal mental health, by highlighting that this may be influenced by country of residence. Mental health care policies and interventions should consider the unique needs of perinatal women in different parts of the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Parturition , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology
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