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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 845, 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has recently become the most important issue in the world. Very few reports in Japan have examined the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on peripartum mental health. We examined the status of postpartum mental health before and during COVID-19 pandemic from a consecutive database in a metropolitan area of Japan. METHODS: The subjects were women who had completed a maternity health check-up at a core regional hospital in Yokohama during the period from April 1, 2017, to December 31, 2020. We collected the subjects' scores for the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS) at 1 month postpartum. The subjects were divided into four groups (three Before COVID-19 groups and a During COVID-19 group). MANOVA and post-hoc tests were used to determine mental health changes in the postpartum period among the four groups. RESULTS: The Before and During COVID-19 groups contained 2844 and 1095 mothers, respectively. There were no significant difference in the total scores of the EPDS and MIBS among the four groups. However, the EPDS items related to anxiety factors were significantly higher and the EPDS items related to anhedonia and depression factors (excluding thoughts of self-harm) were significantly lower in the During COVID-19 group. CONCLUSION: The EPDS scores changed in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic. Anxiety, which represent hypervigilance, was significantly higher and anhedonia and depression were significantly lower in the During COVID-19 group. Our results may reflect COVID-19-related health concerns and a lack of social support caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Mothers/psychology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Adult , Anhedonia , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Retrospective Studies
2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 851, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594954

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious outbreaks are known to cause fear and panic. Exploration of pregnant individuals' psychosocial condition using a qualitative lens during an infectious outbreak is limited. In this study we explore pregnant individuals' lived experiences as well as their psychological and behavioural responses during COVID-19 with the goal of providing useful strategies from the patient's perspective to enable health care providers to help pregnant patients navigate this and future pandemics. METHODS: Pregnant individuals between 20-weeks gestation and 3 months postpartum who received maternity care from an urban academic interprofessional teaching unit in Toronto, Canada were invited to participate. Semi-structured 60 min interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using descriptive thematic analysis. Interview questions probed psychological responses to the pandemic, behavioural and lifestyle changes, strategies to mitigate distress while pregnant during COVID-19 and advice for other patients and the healthcare team. RESULTS: There were 12 participants, mean age 35 years (range 30-43 years), all 1 to 6 months postpartum. Six main themes emerged: 1) Childbearing-related challenges to everyday life; 2) Increased worry, uncertainty and fear; 3) Pervasive sense of loss; 4) Challenges accessing care; 5) Strategies for coping with pandemic stress; 6) Reflections and advice to other pregnant people and health care professionals. Pregnant individuals described lack of social support due to COVID-19 pandemic restrictions and a profound sense of loss of what they thought their pregnancy and postpartum period should have been. Advice to healthcare providers included providing mental health support, clear and up to date communication as well as more postpartum and breastfeeding support. CONCLUSIONS: These participants described experiencing psychosocial distress during their pregnancies and postpartum. In a stressful situation such as a global pandemic, health care providers need to play a pivotal role to ensure pregnant individuals feel supported and receive consistent care throughout the pregnancy and postpartum period. The health care provider should ensure that mental health concerns are addressed and provide postpartum and breastfeeding support. Without addressing this need for support, parental mental health, relationships, parent-infant bonding, and infant development may be negatively impacted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Maternal Health Services/standards , Mental Health , Psychological Distress , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 768, 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant and postpartum women face unique challenges and concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus far, no studies have explored the factors associated with increased levels of worry in this population globally. The current study sought to assess the frequency and sources of worry during the COVID-19 pandemic in an international sample of pregnant and postpartum women. METHODS: We conducted an anonymous, online, cross-sectional survey in 64 countries between May and June 2020. The survey was available in 12 languages and hosted on the Pregistry platform for COVID-19 studies. Participants were sought mainly on social media platforms and online parenting forums. The survey included questions related to demographics, level of worry, support, stress, COVID-19 exposure, frequency of media usage, and mental health indicators. RESULTS: The study included 7561 participants. Eighty-three percent of all participants indicated that they were either 'somewhat' or 'very' worried. Women 13-28 weeks pregnant were significantly more likely to indicate that they were 'very worried' compared to those who were postpartum or at other stages of pregnancy. When compared with women living in Europe, those in Africa, Asia and Pacific, North America and South/Latin America were more likely to have increased levels of worry, as were those who more frequently interacted with social media. Different forms of support and stress also had an impact upon level of worry, while indicators of stress and anxiety were positively associated with worry level. CONCLUSION: Pregnant and postpartum women are vulnerable to the changes in societal norms brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding the factors associated with levels of worry within this population will enable society to address potential unmet needs and improve the current and future mental health of parents and children.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Pregnancy Complications/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Health Surveys , Humans , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Young Adult
4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 625, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has placed additional stressors on mothers during an already vulnerable lifecourse transition. Initial social distancing restrictions (Timepoint 1; T1) and initial changes to those social distancing restrictions (Timepoint 2; T2) have disrupted postpartum access to practical and emotional support. This qualitative study explores the postpartum psychological experiences of UK women during different phases of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated 'lockdowns'. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 women, approximately 30 days after initial social distancing guidelines were imposed in the UK (22 April 2020). A separate 12 women were interviewed approximately 30 days after the initial easing of social distancing restrictions (10 June 2020). Data were transcribed verbatim, uploaded into NVivo for management and analysis, which followed a recurrent cross-sectional approach to thematic analysis. RESULTS: Two main themes were identified for T1: 'Motherhood is Much Like Lockdown' and 'A Self-Contained Family Unit'. Each main T1 theme contained two sub-themes. Two main themes were also identified for T2: 'Incongruously Held Views of COVID-19' and 'Mothering Amidst the Pandemic'. Each main T2 theme contained three sub-themes. Comparisons between data gathered at each timepoint identified increased emotional distress over time. Current findings call for the improvement of postpartum care by improving accessibility to social support, and prioritising the re-opening of schools, and face-to-face healthcare appointments and visitation. CONCLUSION: Social distancing restrictions associated with COVID-19 have had a cumulative, negative effect on postpartum mental health. Recommendations such as: Allowing mothers to 'bubble' with a primary support provider even at their healthcare appointments; allowing one support partner to attend all necessary healthcare appointments; and providing tailored informational resources, may help to support postpartum emotional wellbeing during this, and similar health crises in the future.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Mothers/psychology , Psychological Distress , Social Support , Adult , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Mental Health Services , Postnatal Care/methods , Postpartum Period/psychology , Qualitative Research
5.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 17: 17455065211042190, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381246

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused considerable stress throughout the world. Little is known about how postpartum women who gave birth during the early months of the pandemic were impacted. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the associations between potential risk, protective factors, and psychological distress among postpartum women who gave birth during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Postpartum women over the age of 18 years who gave birth in the US hospitals between March and July of 2020 and spoke English completed a survey about their experiences. Demographic and health variables were measured via self-report. Stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale-10. Mastery was measured with the Pearlin Mastery Scale. Resilience was measured with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-2. RESULTS: This study included 885 women. Participants had higher stress and lower resilience relative to pre-pandemic norms. Participants had high levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. Women who had an infant admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit had more stress. Income, full-time employment, and partnered relationships were associated with lower stress. Resilience and mastery were related to lower stress, depression, and anxiety. Black, Indigenous, or People of Color women showed higher stress and lower resiliency. Single women were likely to report lower levels of mastery than partnered women. CONCLUSION: Stress, depression, and anxiety were high in postpartum women in this study. Income, partnered relationships, and employment security, along with protective traits such as mastery and resilience, may reduce the impact of stress on postpartum women in a pandemic. Care models should be modified to support women during a pandemic. Health disparities exist in postpartum stress. Future interventions should focus on building resiliency and mastery and ensuring appropriate resources are available to postpartum women in a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Postpartum Period/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Protective Factors , Psychological Distress , Resilience, Psychological , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
6.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255383, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357430

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2019, a majority of runners participating in running events were female and 49% were of childbearing age. Studies have reported that women are initiating or returning to running after childbirth with up to 35% reporting pain. There are no studies exploring running-related pain or risk factors for this pain after childbirth in runners. Postpartum runners have a variety of biomechanical, musculoskeletal, and physiologic impairments from which to recover from when returning to high impact sports like running, which could influence initiating or returning to running. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify risk factors associated with running-related pain in postpartum runners with and without pain. This study also aimed to understand the compounding effects of multiple associative risk factors by developing a clinical decision tool to identify postpartum runners at higher risk for pain. METHODS: Postpartum runners with at least one child ≤36 months who ran once a week and postpartum runners unable to run because of pain, but identified as runners, were surveyed. Running variables (mileage, time to first postpartum run), postpartum variables (delivery type, breastfeeding, incontinence, sleep, fatigue, depression), and demographic information were collected. Risk factors for running-related pain were analyzed in bivariate regression models. Variables meeting criteria (P<0.15) were entered into a multivariate logistic regression model to create a clinical decision tool. The tool identified compounding factors that increased the probability of having running-related pain after childbirth. RESULTS: Analyses included 538 postpartum runners; 176 (32.7%) reporting running-related pain. Eleven variables were included in the multivariate model with six retained in the clinical decision tool: runner type-novice (OR 3.51; 95% CI 1.65, 7.48), postpartum accumulated fatigue score of >19 (OR 2.48; 95% CI 1.44, 4.28), previous running injury (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.31, 2.91), vaginal delivery (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.06, 2.50), incontinence (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.31, 2.84) and <6.8 hours of sleep on average per night (OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.28, 2.78). Having ≥ 4 risk factors increased the probability of having running-related pain to 61.2%. CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide a deeper understanding of the risk factors for running-related pain in postpartum runners. With this information, clinicians can monitor and educate postpartum runners initiating or returning to running. Education could include details of risk factors, combinations of factors for pain and strategies to mitigate risks. Coaches can adapt running workload accounting for fatigue and sleep fluctuations to optimize recovery and performance. Future longitudinal studies that follow asymptomatic postpartum women returning to running after childbirth over time should be performed to validate these findings.


Subject(s)
Pain/epidemiology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Running/physiology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Pain/etiology , Postpartum Period/physiology , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Running/psychology
7.
Eur Psychiatry ; 64(1): e34, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270941

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New recommendations regarding the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during delivery have changed the maternal birth experience. In this study, we investigated the mental perceived impact of PPE use during delivery on the development of maternal postpartum depression (PPD) and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study concerning women who delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic first lockdown period in Israel. Postpartum women were approached and asked to complete a comprehensive online questionnaire. Impact of PPE was graded on a scale of 1-5, and Impact of PPE ≥4 was considered high. PPD and PTSS were assessed using the EPDS and City BiTS questionnaires. RESULTS: Of 421 parturients, 36 (9%) reported high Impact of PPE. Parturients with high Impact of PPE had significantly higher PPD and PTSS scores)EPDS 8.4 ± 5.8 vs. 5.7 ± 5.3; City BiTS 9.2 ± 10.3 vs. 5.8 ± 7.8, p < 0.05 for both). Following adjustment for socio-demographic and delivery confounders and fear of COVID-19 (using Fear of COVID19 scale), Impact of PPE remained positively correlated with PPD symptoms (ß = 0.103, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.029-1.006, p = 0.038). CONCLUSION: When examining the risk factors for developing postpartum PTSS-experiences during labor and PPE were found to be significant variables. As the use of PPE is crucial in this era of COVID-19 pandemic in order to protect both parturients and caregivers, creative measures should be taken in order to overcome the communication gap it poses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression, Postpartum/etiology , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Postpartum Period/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Fear , Female , Humans , Israel , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
CMAJ Open ; 9(2): E556-E562, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239171

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mental health of postpartum women has worsened during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, the experiences that underlie this remain unexplored. The purpose of this study was to examine how people in Canada who gave birth during the pandemic were affected by policies aimed at limiting interpersonal contact to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission in hospital and during the early weeks postpartum. METHODS: We took a social constructionist approach and used a qualitative descriptive methodology. Sampling methods were purposive and involved a mix of convenience and snowball sampling via social media and email. Study inclusion was extended to anyone aged 18 years or more who was located in Canada and was pregnant or had given birth during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were obtained via semistructured qualitative telephone interviews conducted between June 2020 and January 2021, and were analyzed through thematic analysis. RESULTS: Sixty-five interviews were conducted; data from 57 women who had already delivered were included in our analysis. We identified the following 4 themes: negative postpartum experience in hospital owing to the absence of a support person(s); poor postpartum mental health, especially in women with preexisting mental health conditions and those who had had medically complicated deliveries; asking for help despite public health regulations that prohibited doing so; and problems with breastfeeding owing to limited in-person follow-up care and lack of in-person breastfeeding support. INTERPRETATION: Policies that restrict the presence of support persons in hospital and at home during the postpartum period appear to be causing harm. Measures to mitigate the consequences of these policies could include encouraging pregnant people to plan for additional postpartum support, allowing a support person to remain for the entire hospital stay and offering additional breastfeeding support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Patient Isolation/psychology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Breast Feeding/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Object Attachment , Pregnancy , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Young Adult
11.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 154(1): 100-105, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217358

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and the delivery of high-quality care are ongoing concerns when caring for pregnant women during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We compared self-reported HRQoL and hospital quality of care among perinatal women with and without COVID-19. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of perinatal women attending a tertiary maternity unit during the pandemic. Eighteen women who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and 20 SARS-CoV-2-negative women were recruited. Participants completed the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12), Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure, and Quality from the Patient's Perspective questionnaires. Mean scores were compared. RESULTS: Of the Non-COVID-19 cohort, 95% (n = 19) were Caucasian, whereas 67% (n = 12) of the COVID-19 cohort were not Caucasian (χ2  = 16.01, P < 0.001). The mean SF-12 for physical health in the COVID-19 cohort had significantly lower scores (P < 0.002). There was no difference in mental health and well-being between cohorts. The quality of care experienced was notably similar and very positive. CONCLUSION: There was a significantly greater burden on physical health among pregnant women with COVID-19. Mental health and psychological status were similar in both groups. High quality of care during a pandemic is possible to deliver in a maternity setting, irrespective of COVID-19 status.


Subject(s)
Perinatal Care , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Quality of Health Care , Quality of Life , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249780, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197377

ABSTRACT

Pregnant and postpartum women face unique challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic that may put them at elevated risk of mental health problems. However, few large-scale and no cross-national studies have been conducted to date that investigate modifiable pandemic-related behavioral or cognitive factors that may influence mental health in this vulnerable group. This international study sought to identify and measure the associations between pandemic-related information seeking, worries, and prevention behaviors on perinatal mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. An anonymous, online, cross-sectional survey of pregnant and postpartum women was conducted in 64 countries between May 26, 2020 and June 13, 2020. The survey, available in twelve languages, was hosted on the Pregistry platform for COVID-19 studies (https://corona.pregistry.com) and advertised in social media channels and online parenting forums. Participants completed measures on demographics, COVID-19 exposure and worries, information seeking, COVID-19 prevention behaviors, and mental health symptoms including posttraumatic stress via the IES-6, anxiety/depression via the PHQ-4, and loneliness via the UCLA-3. Of the 6,894 participants, substantial proportions of women scored at or above the cut-offs for elevated posttraumatic stress (2,979 [43%]), anxiety/depression (2,138 [31%], and loneliness (3,691 [53%]). Information seeking from any source (e.g., social media, news, talking to others) five or more times per day was associated with more than twice the odds of elevated posttraumatic stress and anxiety/depression, in adjusted models. A majority of women (86%) reported being somewhat or very worried about COVID-19. The most commonly reported worries were related to pregnancy and delivery, including family being unable to visit after delivery (59%), the baby contracting COVID-19 (59%), lack of a support person during delivery (55%), and COVID-19 causing changes to the delivery plan (41%). Greater worries related to children (i.e., inadequate childcare, their infection risk) and missing medical appointments were associated with significantly higher odds of posttraumatic stress, anxiety/depression and loneliness. Engaging in hygiene-related COVID-19 prevention behaviors (face mask-wearing, washing hands, disinfecting surfaces) were not related to mental health symptoms or loneliness. Elevated posttraumatic stress, anxiety/depression, and loneliness are highly prevalent in pregnant and postpartum women across 64 countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. Excessive information seeking and worries related to children and medical care are associated with elevated symptoms, whereas engaging in hygiene-related preventive measures were not. In addition to screening and monitoring mental health symptoms, addressing excessive information seeking and women's worries about access to medical care and their children's well-being, and developing strategies to target loneliness (e.g., online support groups) should be part of intervention efforts for perinatal women. Public health campaigns and medical care systems need to explicitly address the impact of COVID-19 related stressors on mental health in perinatal women, as prevention of viral exposure itself does not mitigate the pandemic's mental health impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pregnancy/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Parturition/psychology , Perinatal Care , Postpartum Period/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Women's Health
13.
J Clin Psychol ; 77(9): 1997-2010, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Millions of people worldwide have been diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has impacted maternal mental health and mother-infant relationships during the postpartum period. OBJECTIVES: To explore how mothers' anxious and depressive symptoms, parenting stress, mindful parenting, and mother-infant bonding vary as a function of the moment of the baby's birth (pre-COVID-19 or post-COVID-19) and to examine the contribution of those variables to mother-infant bonding. METHODS: The sample was recruited online and comprises 567 mothers (18-46 years) with an infant aged between 0 and 12 months old. RESULTS: Approximately 27.5% of the mothers presented clinically significant levels of anxious and depressive symptoms. Mothers who gave birth during the COVID-19 pandemic presented lower levels of Emotional Awareness of the Child and a more impaired mother-infant bonding than mothers who gave birth before the pandemic started. Approximately 49% of the mother-infant bonding variance was explained by parenting stress and by several dimensions of mindful parenting. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide important insights into the impact of COVID-19 on maternal mental health and parenting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Mindfulness , Mother-Child Relations/psychology , Mothers/psychology , Pandemics , Parenting/psychology , Postpartum Period/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Portugal/epidemiology
14.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 368, 2021 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088588

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corona Virus Disease 19 (COVID-19) is a new pandemic, declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization, which could have negative consequences for pregnant and postpartum women. The scarce evidence published to date suggests that perinatal mental health has deteriorated since the COVID-19 outbreak. However, the few studies published so far have some limitations, such as a cross-sectional design and the omission of important factors for the understanding of perinatal mental health, including governmental restriction measures and healthcare practices implemented at the maternity hospitals. Within the Riseup-PPD COST Action, a study is underway to assess the impact of COVID-19 in perinatal mental health. The primary objectives are to (1) evaluate changes in perinatal mental health outcomes; and (2) determine the risk and protective factors for perinatal mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, we will compare the results between the countries participating in the study. METHODS: This is an international prospective cohort study, with a baseline and three follow-up assessments over a six-month period. It is being carried out in 11 European countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Cyprus, France, Greece, Israel, Malta, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom), Argentina, Brazil and Chile. The sample consists of adult pregnant and postpartum women (with infants up to 6 months of age). The assessment includes measures on COVID-19 epidemiology and public health measures (Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker dataset), Coronavirus Perinatal Experiences (COPE questionnaires), psychological distress (BSI-18), depression (EPDS), anxiety (GAD-7) and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSD checklist for DSM-V). DISCUSSION: This study will provide important information for understanding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on perinatal mental health and well-being, including the identification of potential risk and protective factors by implementing predictive models using machine learning techniques. The findings will help policymakers develop suitable guidelines and prevention strategies for perinatal mental health and contribute to designing tailored mental health interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04595123 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Adult , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Protective Factors , Research Design , Risk Factors
15.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 258: 162-167, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065038

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation between sexual function and depressive symptoms in puerperal women during the pandemic period. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort with 125 women evaluated in the immediate postpartum period (before the pandemic - T1) in Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, 3 months (pandemic onset - T2) and 6 months (pandemic peak - T3) after birth by email and WhatsApp. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were applied. RESULTS: Fifty puerperal women participated in the three periods of the study. The median age was 25 years. There was an inverse correlation between the ​​ FSFI and EPDS values at T2 (p < 0.001) and T3 (p < 0.001), demonstrating that the worsening sexual response was secondary to the higher prevalence of depressive symptoms in the puerperium in the COVID-19 pandemic. There was an increase in EPDS scores in the three periods: at T1, the EPDS scores ​​were 5.0 (2.0-9.0), increasing to 7.0 (4.0-14.0) at T2 and 6.5 (3.0-13.0) at T3 (p = 0.004). There was no difference between the FSFI index at the three evaluated times. CONCLUSIONS: Puerperal women are a susceptible subgroup for sexual dysfunction and depressive symptoms, which are correlated to each other and worsen in periods of stress, therefore, it is mandatory to investigate depressive symptoms in puerperal women with sexual complaints, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Matern Child Health J ; 25(3): 349-352, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064558

ABSTRACT

In the US, the COVID-19 pandemic adds a new source of stress for women in the perinatal period, a time when stress and anxiety are already heightened. The closures of physical mental health care spaces and lack of support could have devastating impacts on the health of postpartum women and their newborns. Yet, the pandemic creates an opportunity to innovate in the ways mental health care is delivered to pregnant and postpartum women. With the expanded capacity for video and telephone visits, researchers should continue to explore solutions for providing support networks to this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Postpartum Period/psychology , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnant Women/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations
17.
MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs ; 46(2): 103-109, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038325

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic led to several states mandating social distancing and sheltering in place along with a shift in health care delivery, unprecedented unemployment rates, financial stress, and emotional concerns. For pregnant and postpartum women, limited social support and social isolation with social distancing and fear of COVID-19 exposure or infection for themselves, their fetus, or their newborn infants, have implications for maternal mental health. An overview of the potential impact of COVID-19 on mental health risk for pregnant and postpartum women is presented with implications for nursing practice to promote maternal-infant wellbeing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Women's Health , Adult , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22380, 2020 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997945

ABSTRACT

The mental health effects of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on postpartum women are of increasing concern among mental health practitioners. To date, only a handful of studies have explored the emotional impact of the pandemic surrounding pregnancy and none have investigated the consequence of pandemic-related social restrictions on the postpartum mood of those living among different socioeconomic status (SES). All postpartum patients appearing to the Mount Sinai Health System for their postpartum appointment between January 2, 2020 and June 30, 2020, corresponding to before and during pandemic imposed social restrictions, were screened for mood symptomatology using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Each patient's socioeconomic status (high/low) was determined by their location of clinical service. A total of 516 postpartum patients were screened. While no differences in EPDS scores were observed by SES prior to social restrictions (U = 7956.0, z = - 1.05, p = .293), a significant change in mood symptomatology was observed following COVID-19 restrictions (U = 4895.0, z = - 3.48, p < .001), with patients living in lower SES reporting significantly less depression symptomatology (U = 9209.0, z = - 4.56, p < .001). There was no change in symptomatology among patients of higher SES (U = 4045.5, z = - 1.06, p = .288). Postpartum depression, the most common complication of childbearing, is a prevalent, cross-cultural disorder with significant morbidity. The observed differences in postpartum mood between patients of different SES in the context of temporarily imposed COVID-19-related social restrictions present a unique opportunity to better understand the specific health and social support needs of postpartum patients living in urban economic poverty. Given that maternal mental illness has negative long-term developmental implications for the offspring and that poor mental health reinforces the poverty cycle, future health policy specifically directed towards supporting postpartum women living in low SES by ameliorating some of the early maternal burdens associated with balancing employment-family-childcare demands may assist in interrupting this cycle while simultaneously improving the long-term outcomes of their offspring.


Subject(s)
Affect , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Postpartum Period/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Class , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Mental Health , New York City/epidemiology , Prevalence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Young Adult
19.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 153(1): 83-88, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-995959

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand how giving birth during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affected women based on birth parameters (gestational age, type of birth and body weight at birth), satisfaction with childbirth, and development of postpartum depression. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 162 Spanish women. They were divided into two groups: those who gave birth before the pandemic (n = 82; from September 1, 2019 to March 1, 2020) and during the pandemic (n = 75; from April 1, 2020 to July 1, 2020). They were assessed using psychological instruments for postpartum childbirth satisfaction and postpartum depression. RESULTS: It was found that women who gave birth during the pandemic suffered higher levels of stress during childbirth (U = 2652.50; P = 0.040) and gave a worse rating of the quality of care received (U = 2703.50; P = 0.041). In addition, the percentage of postpartum depression was much higher in women who gave birth during the pandemic (χ2  = 4.31; P  = 0.038). CONCLUSION: Giving birth during the COVID-19 pandemic could have an impact on greater dissatisfaction with childbirth, as well as increasing the risk of postpartum depression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery, Obstetric , Depression, Postpartum , Parturition/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Delivery, Obstetric/psychology , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Personal Satisfaction , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(24)2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979797

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to analyze stress and anxiety levels experienced by pregnant and post-partum women during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as to indicate the social and medical factors that could contribute to stress and anxiety. A total of 210 patients were enrolled in the study. Two well-established test-tools were applied: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10). The study revealed that the levels of stress and anxiety experienced by the surveyed patients were moderate to high. We demonstrated that women with mental treatment history, those in the first trimester of pregnancy and the ones that are single or in an informal relationship tend to experience higher levels of psychological distress and anxiety. Such factors as age, education, parity, eventful obstetric history, comorbidities, and the number of hospital stays proved to be statistically insignificant in the analysis. Our findings could be used to identify patients at greater risk of experiencing adverse mental effects and to provide them with adequate psychological support. Further multi-center studies are warranted in order to draw final conclusions.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Depression , Female , Humans , Pregnancy
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