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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 850533, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776068

ABSTRACT

Background: Although fatigue has been shown to be strongly associated with falls risk, very few studies have focused on its mechanism involved in community-dwelling older subjects. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between fatigue and falls risk and its internal mechanism by constructing a chain mediation model. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was adopted. A convenience sample of 270 older adults was recruited from July to October 2021 in an urban community, in Beijing, China. The participants completed the 14-item Fatigue Scale (FS-14), Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I), the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and Fall-Risk Self-Assessment Questionnaire (FRQ) to measure fatigue, falls efficacy, lower limb function and falls risk. The theory of unpleasant symptoms was used as a conceptual framework. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to test the hypothetical model. Results: The overall fit of final model was found to be satisfactory: χ2/df = 1.61, CFI = 0.971, TLI = 0.962, RMSEA = 0.049 (95% CI 0.030/0.066) and SRMR = 0.023. Fatigue had a direct effect on falls risk (ß = 0.559, S.E. = 0.089, 95% CI 0.380/0.731), and it also had indirect effects on falls risk (ß = 0.303, S.E. = 0.072, 95% CI 0.173/0.460) through mediating factors. Falls efficacy and lower limb function were the main mediating variables, and there was a chain mediating effect (ß = 0.015, S.E. = 0.010, 95% CI 0.003/0.046). Conclusions: Our study suggests that fatigue can influence falls risk among the elderly in China. There are many mediating paths between fatigue and falls risk. These results may help healthcare professionals to better understand the inherent relationship between fatigue and fall risk that may benefit older adults.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Fatigue , Aged , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fatigue/epidemiology , Humans , Lower Extremity , Postural Balance
2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(2)2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760767

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Some respiratory viruses demonstrate neurotropic capacities. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has recently taken over the globe, causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on postural control in subjects who have recently recovered from the infection. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three convalescents who underwent COVID-19 within the preceding 2-4 weeks, and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. The ground reaction forces were registered with the use of a force platform during quiet standing. The analysis of the resultant center of foot pressure (COP) decomposed into rambling (RAMB) and trembling (TREMB) and sample entropy was conducted. Results: Range of TREMB was significantly increased in subjects who experienced anosmia/hyposmia during COVID-19 when the measurement was performed with closed eyes (p = 0.03). In addition, subjects who reported dyspnea during COVID-19 demonstrated significant increase of length and velocity of COP (p < 0.001), RAMB (p < 0.001), and TREMB (p < 0.001), indicating substantial changes in postural control. Conclusions: Subjects who had experienced olfactory dysfunction or respiratory distress during COVID-19 demonstrate symptoms of balance deficits after COVID-19 recovery, and the analysis using rambling-trembling decomposition method might point at less efficient peripheral control. Monitoring for neurological sequelae of COVID-19 should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Foot , Humans , Postural Balance , SARS-CoV-2 , Standing Position
3.
Exp Gerontol ; 162: 111747, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739732

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of telehealth has increased since the COVID-19 pandemic; however, the lack of reliable and valid tools to measure balance and gait remotely makes assessing these outcomes difficult. Thus, we investigated whether balance and gait measures used in clinical practice are reliable and valid when assessed remotely through telehealth. METHOD: In this pilot study, we investigated 15 healthy older adults who performed validated tests: Timed Up and Go simple, dual cognitive and motor tasks; Berg Balance Scale; Functional Gait Assessment and Dynamic Gait Index. The tests were assessed on two dates: (i) face-to-face, (ii) and remotely, via videoconference between 7 and 14 days after the initial assessment. Participants also undertook the Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA) to assess their risk of falling. Reliability was measured using intraclass correlation (ICC) two-way mixed with absolute agreement to contrast the score of the assessments undertaken face-to-face and remotely in real-time and recorded. We also assessed inter-rater reliability. Criterion validity was measured using Pearson correlation between the tests that were undertaken remotely and PPA. RESULTS: All tests showed good reliability between face-to-face and real-time telehealth (ICC = 0.79-0.87) and face-to-face and recorded telehealth (ICC = 0.78-0.88) assessments and good to excellent inter-rater reliability (ICC = 0.80-1.00). Correlation between the tests and PPA were significantly (p < 0.05) moderate for real-time (r = -0.68-0.64) and recorded (r = -0.69-0.71) telehealth assessments. CONCLUSIONS: The good reliability between face-to-face and remote measurements together with moderate validity of these measures to assess fall risk suggest that health professionals could use these measures to evaluate the balance and gait of healthy older adults remotely.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Gait/physiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Postural Balance/physiology , Reproducibility of Results
4.
Exp Gerontol ; 159: 111701, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626277

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The elderly population is increasing worldwide, and the decline in physical function resulting from this is a critical issue that, especially, leads to a disorder of balance. To investigate the effect of home-based specific and comprehensive balance training on balance and functional status in older adults. METHODS: Forty elderly men were randomized to conditions specific (n = 13) and comprehensive (n = 14) balance training or control (n = 13). The exercises were performed individually at each subject's home three times a week for ten weeks. The BESTest total and subsection scores, Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) score, gait speed, timed-up-and-go (TUG), and functional gait assessment were evaluated at baseline, immediately after training and at 4-week follow-up. RESULTS: After the intervention, both intervention groups showed more significant improvements than the control group in all variables except section II of BESTest. At follow-up, significantly more gains than control were observed in all variables except section II of BESTest in the specific group and sections II and III in the comprehensive group. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that these home-based balance training regimens can enhance balance and functional status in aged individuals. Therefore, at present, because of the coronavirus disease 19 stay-at-home restrictions, it seems that these interventions are applicable strategies for the elderly when access to facilities or opportunities for physical activity outside the home is restricted for all ages, especially the elderly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Functional Status , Aged , Exercise Therapy , Humans , Male , Postural Balance , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e935496, 2021 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The COVID-19 pandemic can affect the elderly population's general health. This study aimed to compare the effects of a remote home-based exercise program to improve the mental state, balance, and physical function and to prevent falls in adults aged 65 years and older during the COVID-19 pandemic in Seoul, Korea. MATERIAL AND METHODS Seventy participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group of 35 participants who underwent a remote home-based fall prevention exercise program and a control group of 35 participants. The experimental group performed an exercise program twice weekly for 8 weeks from June 2 to July 21, 2021. The Geriatric Depression Scale, 5 times sit to stand test, grip strength, 10-m walk test, gait analysis, Timed Up and Go test, and static balance test were assessed before and after the 8-week program. RESULTS The group-by-time interaction effect was statistically significant for the Geriatric Depression Scale, five times sit to stand test, grip strength, 10-meter walk, gait speed, step length, stride length, Timed Up and Go test, and static balance test (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the experimental group showed a significant effect in all dependent variables except dynamic balance (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS In this population, the remote home-based fall prevention exercise program resulted in a significant improvement in physical function, psychological factors, and balance during the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings may have implications for community public health measures to protect the vulnerable during future epidemics and pandemics of infectious disease.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Telemedicine , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Exercise Therapy , Female , Geriatric Assessment , Hand Strength , Health Services for the Aged , Humans , Male , Postural Balance , Seoul/epidemiology , Walking Speed
6.
Int J Rehabil Res ; 45(1): 47-52, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550625

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 leaves important sequelae in patients, not only in those who had the experience of a critical illness but also in patients with severe form. Understanding the impairments allows us to target rehabilitation to patients' real needs; balance impairments are an assumed sequela of COVID-19, but no study has specifically evaluated balance performance in these patients. Their performance was compared to that of patients with a pulmonary disease that leads to systemic diseases, such as patients with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (PwAECOPD), and of healthy subjects. A total of 75 subjects were assessed: 25 patients with COVID-19 (PwCOVID) with a severe form in the acute phase, 25 PwAECOPD and 25 healthy subjects sex- and age-matched. A stabilometric platform was used to evaluate static balance, both with eyes open and closed, while the dynamic balance was assessed with the Mini-BESTest and the Timed Up and Go test. When compared to healthy subjects, results showed that PwCOVID had worse performance in both static (P < 0.005) and dynamic (P < 0.0001) balance, with a large effect size in all measures (>0.8). Moreover, PwCOVID showed similar results to those of PwAECOPD. In conclusion, PwCOVID showed a balance deficit in both dynamic and static conditions. Therefore, as for PwAECOPD, they should require not only respiratory rehabilitation but also balance and mobility physiotherapy to prevent today's PwCOVID from becoming tomorrow's fallers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Postural Balance , SARS-CoV-2 , Time and Motion Studies
7.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 26(1): 52-56, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530435

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, face-to-face assessments were limited. Fortunately, older adults have access to web-technology (60%). Thus, we aimed to explore if assessing physical performance remotely is as reliable and valid as in person. At the end of the first lockdown, 15 older adults agreed to perform two similar evaluations in remote and face-to-face conditions. Functional capacities [5-repetitions Sit-to-Stand (STS); unipodal balance, 4-m walking speed (normal (NWS); fast (FWS)), 3-m Timed-Up and Go (normal (nTUG); fast (fTUG))] and muscle power and endurance were assessed. Fast walking speed was moderately reliable. Unipodal balance, NWS and nTUG were highly reliable (ICC>0.7). fTUG, STS, muscle endurance and power were extremely reliable (ICC>0.9). For absolute reliability, SEM varied from 15.54 to 5.14%. Finally, the MDC varied from 43.07 to 14.21%. Assessing functional capacities and muscle function remotely is as reliable and valid as a face-to-face assessment and should be considered as a clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Internet , Physical Functional Performance , Postural Balance , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Videoconferencing
8.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 74(9-10): 329-336, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Vojta therapy has been reported as clinically beneficial for strength, movement and gross motor activities in individual cases and is being included within the second of three levels of evidence in interventions for cerebral palsy. The goal of this study is to understand the effect of Vojta therapy on the gross motor function. METHODS: Our clinical trial followed a one group, pre-post design to quantify rates of changes in GMFM-88 after a two-months period undergoing Vojta therapy. RESULTS: A total of 16 patients were recruited. Post-intervention acceleration rates of GMFM-88-items acquisition (0.005; p<0.001) and Locomotor Stages (1.063; p<0.0001) increased significatively following Vojta the-rapy intervention. CONCLUSION: In this study, Vojta therapy has shown to accelerate the acquisition of GMFM-88-items and Loco-motor Stages in children with cerebral palsy younger than 18 months. Because functional training was not utilised, and other non-Vojta therapy intervention did not influence the outcome, Vojta therapy seems to activate the postural control required to achieve uncompleted GMFM-88-items.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Palsy , Cerebral Palsy/drug therapy , Child , Humans , Motor Skills , Postural Balance
9.
Neurol Sci ; 43(1): 85-88, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453769

ABSTRACT

The symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection are not limited to the acute phase, with vertigo, peripheral neuropathies, headache, fatigue, memory loss, and depression being the most common post-acute clinical manifestations. Such post-COVID syndrome is a new clinically relevant challenge for diagnosis and therapy. Our goal was to quantify deficit in balance and proprioception related to post-COVID syndrome and, in this sense, we prospectively analyzed data of 66 post-COVID-19 outpatients (mean age 47.3 ± 11.1 years, 50 females, 25 hospitalized), evaluated using the robotic device hunova. The dynamic balance was assessed with open (OE) and closed eyes (CE) and three indexes, proportional to subject instability, were measured: the sway path and two oscillation ranges. Hospitalized group showed the worst performance with respect to non-hospitalized patients and normality range in both visual conditions for the sway path and the oscillation ranges, with the worst performance being with CE. When compared to normality ranges, post-COVID patients were significantly more distant from normality in the OE condition compared to the CE condition. These results suggest that independently from the severity of the disease experienced, post-COVID syndrome makes the elastic balance test performances more distant from the normality when the subject integrates vision, somatosensory information, and vestibular information. In the absence of visual feedback, patients seem to implement compensatory strategies, presumably seeking more significant feedback from the lower limbs, which improve their performance. These data suggest a new mechanism of the post-COVID syndrome that deserves further investigation for its potential impact on activities of daily living.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Activities of Daily Living , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Postural Balance , Proprioception , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Med Pr ; 72(3): 321-325, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in Polish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413233

ABSTRACT

In 2019, COVID-19, the disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, evolved into a pandemic which is still going on. The basic clinical symptoms of the SARS-CoV-2 infection are: fever, dry cough, fatigue, muscle pain, respiratory problems, and the loss of smell or taste. Other symptoms, including those related to hearing and balance organs (hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness), are reported less frequently by patients. They are especially rarely reported as the first symptoms of this infection. In order to answer the question of whether SARS-CoV-2 can cause hearing and balance damage, the authors reviewed the literature sources from 2019-2020 included in EMBASE and PubMed, entering the following words: "hearing loss," "COVID-19," "coronavirus," "sensorineural hearing loss," "vertigo," and "dizziness." Ultimately, 9 studies on the possible relationship between hearing impairment and SARS-CoV-2, and 4 studies on the possible relationship between damage to the balance and SARS-CoV-2, were qualified for the study. The results of the analysis suggest a possible relationship between COVID-19 and hearing loss, with no evidence of a similar relationship between this virus and the balance system. The possible existence of such a relationship should be especially remembered by hospital emergency room doctors, otolaryngologists and audiologists, especially as regards the possibility of a sudden sensironeural hearing loss as the first symptom of COVID-19. This also applies to doctors of other specialties. The authors indicate the need for further, intensive and multifaceted research on this issue. Med Pr. 2021;72(3):321-5.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hearing Disorders/etiology , Hearing , Postural Balance , Vestibular Diseases/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Hearing Loss/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tinnitus/etiology , Vertigo/etiology , Young Adult
11.
Auris Nasus Larynx ; 49(2): 291-298, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401171

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To answer the question whether balance related systems have been affected in adults who recovered from Covid-19 disease. This is the first case-control study to assess balance objectively and quantitatively in Covid-19 disease. METHODS: Thirty-seven patients who recovered from Covid-19 disease and 30 healthy controls were compared using Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP), Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials(VEMP) and Video Head Impulse Test (v-HIT). RESULTS: On CDP, the composite and visual general scores of the patients were significantly lower than controls (p<0.01). The v-HIT gains of the patients significantly decreased in the vertical semicircular canals compared to controls (p<0.01).There was a significant difference between the patients and controls regarding the absence of o-VEMPs (p<0.01) while the amplitudes and latencies were similar between the groups (p>0.05). Decreased P1/N1 amplitudes and elongated N1 latencies were found on c-VEMP testing (p<0.05). Anosmia, taste disorder and gender were not associated with subjective and objective test results (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: The Covid-19 disease can cause dizziness rather that incapacitating vertigo. Dizziness can be seen in almost one-fifth of the adult covid19 out-patients, which may be due to involvement of vestibular and visual systems,ortheir central connections. The squeals created in the balance related systems may be irreversible as they have persisted after the recovery of the patients. It is also plausible to anticipate more severe condition in the older patients who were treated in the intensive care units. In the long term follow up of the survivors, the need for balance rehabilitation programs should be remembered in order to minimize risks of falling down.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Dizziness/etiology , Humans , Postural Balance/physiology , Vertigo/etiology , Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials/physiology
12.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 326, 2021 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a highly prevalent neurodegenerative disease whose incidence is increasing with an aging population. One of the most serious manifestations of PD is gait instability, leading to falls and subsequent complications that can be debilitating, even fatal. Boxing therapy (BT) uses gait and balance exercises to improve ambulation in people with PD, though its efficacy has not yet been fully proven. METHODS: In the current longitudinal observational study, 98 participants with idiopathic PD underwent twice-weekly BT sessions. Primary outcome was self-reported falls per month; secondary outcomes were quantitative and semi-quantitative gait and balance performance evaluations. Statistical methods included segmented generalized estimating equation with an independent correlation structure, binomial distribution, and log link. RESULTS: The average number of self-reported falls per month per participant decreased by 87%, from 0.86 ± 3.58 prior to BT, to 0.11 ± 0.26 during BT. During the lockdown imposed by COVID-19, this increased to 0.26 ± 0.48 falls per month. Females and those > 65 years old reported the greatest increase in falls during the lockdown period. Post-lockdown resumption of BT resulted in another decline in falls, to 0.14 ± 0.33. Quantitative performance metrics, including standing from a seated position and standing on one leg, largely mirrored the pattern of falls pre-and post-lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: BT may be an effective option for many PD patients.


Subject(s)
Boxing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise Therapy , Parkinson Disease/psychology , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Gait , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Postural Balance
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e049926, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301649

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To develop a German version of the original University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging Life-Space Assessment (LSA-D) for measurement of community mobility in older adults within the past 4 weeks and to evaluate its construct validity for urban and rural populations of older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional validation study. SETTING: Two study centres in urban and rural German outpatient hospital settings. PARTICIPANTS: In total, N=83 community-dwelling older adults were recruited (n=40 from urban and n=43 from rural areas; mean age was 78.5 years (SD=5.4); 49.4% men). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The final version of the translated LSA-D was related to limitations in activities and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL/iADL) as primary outcome measure (primary hypothesis); and with sociodemographic factors, functional mobility, self-rated health, balance confidence and history of falls as secondary outcome measures to obtain construct validity. Further descriptive measurements of health included hand grip strength, screening of cognitive function, comorbidities and use of transportation. To assess construct validity, correlations between LSA-D and the primary and secondary outcome measures were examined for the total sample, and urban and rural subsamples using bivariate regression and multiple adjusted regression models. Descriptive analyses of LSA-D included different scoring methods for each region. All parameters were estimated using non-parametric bootstrapping procedure. RESULTS: In the multiple adjusted model for the total sample, number of ADL/iADL limitations (ß=-0.26; 95% CI=-0.42 to -0.08), Timed Up and Go Test (ß=-0.37; 95% CI=-0.68 to -0.14), shared living arrangements (ß=0.22; 95% CI=0.01 to 0.44) and history of falls in the past 6 months (ß=-0.22; 95% CI=-0.41 to -0.05) showed significant associations with the LSA-D composite score, while living in urban area (ß=-0.19; 95% CI=-0.42 to 0.03) and male gender (ß=0.15; 95% CI=-0.04 to 0.35) were not significant. CONCLUSION: The LSA-D is a valid tool for measuring life-space mobility in German community-dwelling older adults within the past 4 weeks in ambulant urban and rural settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: DRKS00019023.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Independent Living , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Geriatric Assessment , Hand Strength , Humans , Male , Postural Balance , Rural Population , Time and Motion Studies
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266716

ABSTRACT

Back pain is one of the most costly disorders among the worldwide working population. Within that population, healthcare workers are at a high risk of back pain. Though they often demonstrate awkward postures and impaired balance in comparison with healthy workers, there is no clear relationship between compensatory postural responses to unpredictable stimuli and the strength of related muscle groups, in particular in individuals with mild to moderate back pain. This paper presents a study protocol that aims to evaluate the relationship between peak anterior to peak posterior displacements of the center of pressure (CoP) and corresponding time from peak anterior to peak posterior displacements of the CoP after sudden external perturbations and peak force during a maximum voluntary isometric contraction of the back and hamstring muscles in physiotherapists with non-specific back pain in its early stages. Participants will complete the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire. Those that rate their back pain on the 0-10 Low Back Pain Scale in the ranges 1-3 (mild pain) and 4-6 (moderate pain) will be considered. They will undergo a perturbation-based balance test and a test of the maximal isometric strength of back muscles and hip extensors. We assume that by adding tests of reactive balance and strength of related muscle groups in the functional testing of physiotherapists, we would be able to identify back problems earlier and more efficiently and therefore address them well before chronic back disorders occur.


Subject(s)
Hamstring Muscles , Low Back Pain , Physical Therapists , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Isometric Contraction , Muscle Strength , Muscle, Skeletal , Postural Balance
15.
Exp Gerontol ; 152: 111434, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based interventions to improve mobility in older people include balance, strength and cognitive training. Digital technologies provide the opportunity to deliver tailored and progressive programs at home. However, it is unknown if they are effective in older people, especially in those with cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a novel tablet-delivered cognitive-motor program on mobility in older people with cognitive impairment. METHODS: This was a 6-month single-blind randomised controlled trial of older people living in the community with subjective and/or objective cognitive impairment. Participants randomised to the intervention were asked to follow a 120 min per week balance, strength and cognitive training program delivered via an app on an iPad. Both the intervention and control group received monthly phone calls and health fact sheets. The primary outcome measure was gait speed. Secondary measures included dual-task gait speed, balance (step test, FISCIT-4), 5 sit to stand test, cognition (executive function, memory, attention), mood and balance confidence. Adherence, safety, usability and feedback were also measured. RESULTS: The planned sample size of 110 was not reached due to COVID-19 restrictions. A total of 93 (mean age 72.8 SD 7.0 years) participants were randomised to the two groups. Of these 77 participants returned to the follow-up clinic. In intention-to-treat analysis for gait speed, there was a non-significant improvement favouring the intervention group (ß 0.04 m/s 95% CI -0.01, 0.08). There were no significant findings for secondary outcomes. Adherence was excellent (84.5%), usability of the app high (76.7% SD 15.3) and no serious adverse events were reported. Feedback on the app was positive and included suggestions for future updates. CONCLUSION: Due to COVID-19 the trial was under powered to detect significant results. Despite this, there was a trend towards improvement in the primary outcome measure. The excellent adherence and positive feedback about the app suggest a fully powered trial is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Accidental Falls , Aged , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Exercise , Exercise Therapy , Humans , Postural Balance , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Blind Method , Tablets
16.
Neurol Sci ; 42(8): 3089-3092, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Falls could be serious events in Parkinson's disease (PD). Patient remote monitoring strategies are on the raise and may be an additional aid in identifying patients who are at risk of falling. The aim of the study was to evaluate if balance and timed-up-and-go data obtained by a smartphone application during COVID-19 lockdown were able to predict falls in PD patients. METHODS: A cohort of PD patients were monitored for 4 weeks during the COVID-19 lockdown with an application measuring static balance and timed-up-and-go test. The main outcome was the occurrence of falls (UPDRS-II item 13) during the observation period. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients completed the study, and 4 (12%) reported falls in the observation period. The rate of falls was reduced with respect to patient previous falls history (24%). The stand-up time and the mediolateral sway, acquired through the application, differed between "fallers" and "non-fallers" and related to the occurrence of new falls (OR 1.7 and 1.6 respectively, p < 0.05), together with previous falling (OR 7.5, p < 0.01). In a multivariate model, the stand-up time and the history of falling independently related to the outcome (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides new data on falls in Parkinson's disease during the lockdown. The reduction of falling events and the relationship with the stand-up time might suggest that a different quality of falls occurs when patient is forced to stay home - hence, clinicians should point their attention also on monitoring patients' sit-to-stand body transition other than more acknowledged features based on step quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parkinson Disease , Communicable Disease Control , Gait , Gait Analysis , Humans , Parkinson Disease/complications , Parkinson Disease/diagnosis , Postural Balance , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone , Time and Motion Studies
17.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 105: 106407, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193252

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the conduct of clinical trials. For studies with physical function and physical activity outcomes that require in-person participation, thoughtful approaches in transitioning to the remote research environment are critical. Here, we share our experiences in transitioning from in-person to remote assessments of physical function and activity during the pandemic and highlight key considerations for success. Details on the development of the remote assessment protocol, integration of a two-way video platform, and implementation of remote assessments are addressed. In particular, procedural challenges and considerations in transitioning and conducting remote assessments will be discussed in terms of efforts to maintain participant safety, maximize study efficiency, and sustain trial integrity. Plans for triangulation and analysis are also discussed. Although the role of telehealth platforms and research activities in remote settings are still growing, our experiences suggest that adopting remote assessment strategies are useful and convenient in assessing study outcomes during, and possibly even beyond, the current pandemic. Trial register and number: ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT03728257].


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise/physiology , Lung Transplantation/rehabilitation , Research Design , Actigraphy , Clinical Protocols , Exercise Test/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Postural Balance/physiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine , Videoconferencing
18.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 257, 2021 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High prevalence rates have been reported for physical inactivity, mobility limitations, and falls in older adults. Home-based exercise might be an adequate means to increase physical activity by improving health- (i.e., muscle strength) and skill-related components of physical fitness (i.e., balance), particularly in times of restricted physical activity due to pandemics. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of home-based balance exercises conducted during daily tooth brushing on measures of balance and muscle strength in healthy older adults. METHODS: Fifty-one older adults were randomly assigned to a balance exercise group (n = 27; age: 65.1 ± 1.1 years) or a passive control group (n = 24; age: 66.2 ± 3.3 years). The intervention group conducted balance exercises over a period of eight weeks twice daily for three minutes each during their daily tooth brushing routine. Pre- and post-intervention, tests were included for the assessment of static steady-state balance (i.e., Romberg test), dynamic steady-state balance (i.e., 10-m single and dual-task walk test using a cognitive and motor interference task), proactive balance (i.e., Timed-Up-and-Go Test [TUG], Functional-Reach-Test [FRT]), and muscle strength (i.e., Chair-Rise-Test [CRT]). RESULTS: Irrespective of group, the statistical analysis revealed significant main effects for time (pre vs. post) for dual-task gait speed (p < .001, 1.12 ≤ d ≤ 2.65), TUG (p < .001, d = 1.17), FRT (p = .002, d = 0.92), and CRT (p = .002, d = 0.94) but not for single-task gait speed and for the Romberg-Test. No significant group × time interactions were found for any of the investigated variables. CONCLUSIONS: The applied lifestyle balance training program conducted twice daily during tooth brushing routines appears not to be sufficient in terms of exercise dosage and difficulty level to enhance balance and muscle strength in healthy adults aged 60-72 years. Consequently, structured balance training programs using higher exercise dosages and/or more difficult balance tasks are recommended for older adults to improve balance and muscle strength.


Subject(s)
Postural Balance , Toothbrushing , Aged , Exercise , Exercise Therapy , Humans , Muscle Strength , Time and Motion Studies
19.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250002, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190171

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A large proportion of children are not able to perform age-appropriate fundamental movement skills (FMS). Thus, it is important to assess FMS so that children needing additional support can be identified in a timely fashion. There is great potential for universal screening of FMS in schools, but research has established that current assessment tools are not fit for purpose. OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate the psychometric properties of a FMS assessment tool designed specifically to meet the demands of universal screening in schools. METHODS: A working group consisting of academics from developmental psychology, public health and behavioural epidemiology developed an assessment tool (FUNMOVES) based on theory and prior evidence. Over three studies, 814 children aged 4 to 11 years were assessed in school using FUNMOVES. Rasch analysis was used to evaluate structural validity and modifications were then made to FUNMOVES activities after each study based on Rasch results and implementation fidelity. RESULTS: The initial Rasch analysis found numerous psychometric problems including multidimensionality, disordered thresholds, local dependency, and misfitting items. Study 2 showed a unidimensional measure, with acceptable internal consistency and no local dependency, but that did not fit the Rasch model. Performance on a jumping task was misfitting, and there were issues with disordered thresholds (for jumping, hopping and balance tasks). Study 3 revealed a unidimensional assessment tool with good fit to the Rasch model, and no further issues, once jumping and hopping scoring were modified. IMPLICATIONS: The finalised version of FUNMOVES (after three iterations) meets standards for accurate measurement, is free and able to assess a whole class in under an hour using resources available in schools. Thus FUNMOVES has the potential to allow schools to efficiently screen FMS to ensure that targeted support can be provided and disability barriers removed.


Subject(s)
Movement/physiology , Psychometrics/methods , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Pilot Projects , Postural Balance , Reproducibility of Results , Running , Schools
20.
Med Pr ; 72(3): 321-325, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in Polish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175785

ABSTRACT

In 2019, COVID-19, the disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, evolved into a pandemic which is still going on. The basic clinical symptoms of the SARS-CoV-2 infection are: fever, dry cough, fatigue, muscle pain, respiratory problems, and the loss of smell or taste. Other symptoms, including those related to hearing and balance organs (hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness), are reported less frequently by patients. They are especially rarely reported as the first symptoms of this infection. In order to answer the question of whether SARS-CoV-2 can cause hearing and balance damage, the authors reviewed the literature sources from 2019-2020 included in EMBASE and PubMed, entering the following words: "hearing loss," "COVID-19," "coronavirus," "sensorineural hearing loss," "vertigo," and "dizziness." Ultimately, 9 studies on the possible relationship between hearing impairment and SARS-CoV-2, and 4 studies on the possible relationship between damage to the balance and SARS-CoV-2, were qualified for the study. The results of the analysis suggest a possible relationship between COVID-19 and hearing loss, with no evidence of a similar relationship between this virus and the balance system. The possible existence of such a relationship should be especially remembered by hospital emergency room doctors, otolaryngologists and audiologists, especially as regards the possibility of a sudden sensironeural hearing loss as the first symptom of COVID-19. This also applies to doctors of other specialties. The authors indicate the need for further, intensive and multifaceted research on this issue. Med Pr. 2021;72(3):321-5.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hearing Disorders/etiology , Hearing , Postural Balance , Vestibular Diseases/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Hearing Loss/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tinnitus/etiology , Vertigo/etiology , Young Adult
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