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J Am Geriatr Soc ; 70(2): 429-438, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483908


BACKGROUND: At the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, a large nursing home chain implemented a policy to temporarily hold potentially unnecessary medications. We describe rates of held and discontinued medications after a temporary hold policy of potentially unnecessary or nonessential medications. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study uses electronic health record (EHR) data on 3247 residents of 64 nursing homes operated by a multistate long-term care provider. Medications were documented in the electronic medication administration record. Overall medication held and discontinued incidences are reported. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling is used to determine individual probabilities for medication discontinuation within each facility. RESULTS: In total, 3247 residents had 5297 nonessential medications held. Multivitamins were most likely to be held, followed by histamine-2 receptor antagonists, antihistamines, and statins. At the end of the hold policy, 2897 of 5297 (54%) were permanently discontinued, including probiotics (73%), histamine-2 receptor antagonists (66%), antihistamines (64%), and statins (45%). Demographics, cognitive and functional impairment were similar between residents with medications who were discontinued versus continued. For most medications, more than 50% of the variance in whether medications were discontinued was explained by facility rather than resident-level factors. CONCLUSION: A temporary medication hold policy implemented during the CoVID-19 pandemic led to the deprescribing of a plurality of 'nonessential' medications. This type of organization-wide initiative may be an effective mechanism for altering future prescribing behaviors to reduce the use of unnecessary medications.

COVID-19 , Deprescriptions , Nursing Homes , Aged , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Long-Term Care , Male , Nursing Homes/trends , Potentially Inappropriate Medication List/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , United States
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 20(10): 1191-1206, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221424


Introduction: The use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) is an alarming social risk factor in cardiovascular patients. PIM administration may result in iatrogenic disorders and adverse consequences may be attenuated by limiting PIM intake.Areas covered: The goal of this review article is to discuss the trends, risks, and concerns regarding PIM administration with focus on cardiovascular patients. To find data, we searched literature using electronic databases (Pubmed/Medline 1966-2021 and Web of Science 1975-2021). The data search terms were cardiovascular diseases, potentially inappropriate medication, potentially harmful drug-drug combination, potentially harmful drug-disease combination, drug interaction, deprescribing, and electronic health record.Expert opinion: Drugs for heart diseases are the most commonly prescribed medications in older individuals. Despite the availability of explicit and implicit PIM criteria, the incidence of PIM use in cardiovascular patients remains high ranging from 7 to 85% in different patient categories. Physician-induced disorders often occur when PIM is administered and adverse effects may be reduced by limiting PIM intake. Main strategies promising for addressing PIM use include deprescribing, implementation of systematic electronic records, pharmacist medication review, and collaboration among cardiologists, internists, geriatricians, clinical pharmacologists, pharmacists, and other healthcare professionals as basis of multidisciplinary assessment teams.

Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Inappropriate Prescribing/trends , Potentially Inappropriate Medication List/trends , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Agents/adverse effects , Drug Interactions , Humans , Inappropriate Prescribing/adverse effects , Polypharmacy , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
Drugs Aging ; 38(4): 341-346, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107914


BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are often elderly, with comorbidities, and receiving polypharmacy, all of which are known factors for potentially severe drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and the prescription of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the risk of DDIs and PIMs in COVID-19 patients at hospital discharge. METHOD: Patients with a proven diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection who were hospitalized between 21 February and 30 April 2020, treated with at least two drugs, and with available information regarding pharmacological treatments upon admission and at discharge were considered. The appropriateness of drug prescriptions was assessed using INTERcheck®. RESULTS: A significant increase in the prescription of proton pump inhibitors and heparins was found when comparing admission with hospital discharge (from 24 to 33% [p < 0.05] and from 1 to 17% [p < 0.01], respectively). The increased prescription of heparins at discharge resulted in a highly significant increase in the potentially severe DDIs mediated by this class of drugs. 51% of COVID-19 patients aged > 65 years had at least one PIM upon admission, with an insignificant increment at discharge (58%). CONCLUSION: An increased number of prescribed drugs was observed in COVID-19 patients discharged from our hospital. The addition of heparins is appropriate according to the current literature, while the use of proton pump inhibitors is more controversial. Particular attention should be paid to the risk of bleeding complications linked to heparin-based DDIs.

COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Drug Interactions , Drug Prescriptions , Female , Humans , Male , Patient Discharge , Potentially Inappropriate Medication List
Vitae (Medellín) ; 27(3): 1-14, 2020-09-02. Ilustraciones
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-994731


Background: The elderly people have high morbimortality associated with respiratory disorders, in addition to the presence of other safety risk factors, such as the use of potentially inappropriate medication and the occurrence of drug interactions. Objective: Considering the current pandemic scenario, it was intended to identify explicit criteria-based tools that reported drug interactions between potentially inappropriate medication and respiratory system disorders and possibly worse prognosis of COVID-19 infection. Methods: A systematic scoping review was conducted until February 2020. Study characteristics of explicit criteria-based tools, and potentially inappropriate medication, drug interactions, and therapeutic management, were extracted. Results: Nineteen explicit criteria-based tools were included. Nineteen drug interactions and 17 potentially inappropriate medications with concerns for three respiratory disorders (asthma, chronic pulmonary obstructive disease, and respiratory failure) were identified. The most frequent pharmacological classes reported were benzodiazepines and beta-blockers. For clinical management, the tools recommend using cardioselective beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin II type I receptor blockers and benzodiazepines with a short or intermediate half-life. Conclusion: Considering the increased risk of COVID-19 infection in the elderly, drug interactions and the use of potentially inappropriate medication associated with the occurrence of adverse drug events in the respiratory system may also worsening COVID-19 infection in patients with uncontrolled respiratory disorders. Thus, it is essential to assess drug therapy in use, to identify safety risks and monitor the elderly in general and those with a worse prognosis concerning COVID-19, promoting patient safety.

Antecedentes: Los ancianos tienen alta morbimortalidad asociada a trastornos respiratorios, además de la presencia de otros factores de riesgo de seguridad, como el uso de medicación potencialmente inapropiada y la ocurrencia de interacciones medicamentosas. Objetivo: Teniendo en cuenta el escenario pandémico actual, se pretendía identificar herramientas explícitas basadas en criterios que informaran interacciones farmacológicas entre medicamentos potencialmente inapropiados y trastornos del sistema respiratorio y posiblemente un peor pronóstico de la infección por COVID-19. Métodos:Se realizó una revisión sistemática del alcance hasta febrero de 2020. Se extrajeron las características del estudio de las herramientas explícitas basadas en criterios y la medicación potencialmente inapropiada, las interacciones entre medicamentos y el manejo terapéutico. Resultados: Se incluyeron diecinueve herramientas explícitas basadas en criterios. Se identificaron diecinueve interacciones farmacológicas y 17 medicamentos potencialmente inapropiados con preocupaciones por tres trastornos respiratorios (asma, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica e insuficiencia respiratoria). Las clases farmacológicas más frecuentes comunicadas fueron las benzodiacepinas y los betabloqueantes. Para el manejo clínico, las herramientas recomiendan el uso de betabloqueantes cardioselectivos, bloqueadores de los canales de calcio, inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina y bloqueadores del receptor de angiotensina II tipo I y benzodiacepinas con una vida media corta o intermedia. Conclusión: Teniendo en cuenta el mayor riesgo de infección por COVID-19 en los ancianos, las interacciones farmacológicas y el uso de medicamentos potencialmente inapropiados asociados con la aparición de eventos farmacológicos adversos en el sistema respiratorio también pueden empeorar la infección por COVID-19 en pacientes con trastornos respiratorios no controlados. Por tanto, es fundamental evaluar la farmacoterapia en uso, identificar los riesgos de seguridad y monitorizar a los ancianos en general y a aquellos con peor pronóstico en relación con el COVID-19, promoviendo la seguridad del paciente.

Humans , Coronavirus Infections , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Risk Management , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Inappropriate Prescribing , Potentially Inappropriate Medication List , Contraindications, Drug
rev. cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 11(2): e1260, 1 de Mayo de 2020.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-895771


Objetivo: Relatar a experiência de uma estratégia implementada para aumentar a segurança na administração dos medicamentos potencialmente perigosos preconizados na intubação de sequência rápida dos pacientes com COVID-19. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo descritivo do tipo relato de experiência, ancorado nos princípios do Programa Nacional de Segurança do Paciente, que descreve uma adaptação na bandeja para administrar medicamentos potencialmente perigosos na intubação de sequência rápida, organizada por cores, separando os medicamentos de acordo com suas classes terapêuticas, conforme sequência de administração. A estratégia foi implementada com a equipe multiprofissional das unidades de terapia intensiva de um hospital público especializado em Cardiologia do Rio de Janeiro. Resultados: A bandeja organizada por cores, foi utilizada em três situações de intubação de sequência rápida e a partir dessa estratégia foi elaborado um quadro com as características farmacológicas e cuidados de enfermagem referente aos medicamentos potencialmente perigosos utilizados, disposto na sala de preparo de medicação para consulta. Discussão: O uso seguro de medicamentos faz parte do terceiro desafio global de segurança do paciente, proposto pela organização mundial de saúde. Dentre os fatores que contribuem para incidentes com danos está o uso de medicamentos potencialmente perigosos. Estima-se que a implementação de barreiras de segurança como a estratégia apresentada neste relato é necessária para prevenção de eventos adversos. Conclusões: O uso de da bandeja com identificação colorida adotada, consistiu em barreira para possível ocorrência de potenciais incidentes decorrentes do uso de medicamentos potencialmente perigosos na intubação de sequência rápida nos pacientes com COVID-19.

Objetive: To describe the experience regarding the strategy implemented to enhance safety during the administration of hazardous drugs recommended for rapid sequence intubation in patients with COVID-19. Materials and Methods: A descriptive experience-reporting study was conducted based on the principles of the National Patient Safety Policy, which describe the adequacy of color-coded trays for administering hazardous drugs during the rapid sequence intubation. According to the sequence of drug administration, drugs are classified into their therapeutic class in color-coded trays. The strategy was implemented in partnership with the ICU multidisciplinary team from a public cardiovascular hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Results: Color-coded trays were used three times during the rapid sequence intubation. A table was prepared based on this strategy which contained pharmacological and nursing care characteristics of hazardous drugs available in the medication preparation room for consultations. Medication Without Harm is included in the third WHO Global Patient Safety Challenge. Among the factors that contribute to the incidence of adverse effects is the use of hazardous drugs. The application of safety barriers is the strategy outlined in this report, which is necessary for the prevention of adverse effects. Conclusions: The use of color-coded trays set up barriers to the occurrence of possible incidents derived from the use of hazardous drugs during the rapid sequence intubation in patients with COVID-19.

Objetivo: Describir la experiencia de la estrategia implementada para reforzar la seguridad durante la administración de medicamentos potencialmente peligrosos recomendados para la intubación de secuencia rápida en pacientes con COVID-19. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo tipo relato de experiencias con base en los principios del Programa Nacional de Seguridad del Paciente, en los que se describe la adecuación de la bandeja de administración de medicamentos potencialmente peligrosos durante la intubación de secuencia rápida. La bandeja se codifica por colores y por clases terapéuticas de acuerdo con la secuencia de administración de medicamentos. La estrategia se implementó en conjunto con el equipo multidisciplinar de las unidades de cuidados intensivos de un hospital público cardiovascular en Río de Janeiro. Resultados: Las bandejas con código de color se utilizaron en tres ocasiones durante la intubación de secuencia rápida. Con base en esta estrategia, se elaboró una tabla con las características farmacológicas y de cuidado de enfermería de los medicamentos potencialmente peligrosos disponibles en la sala de preparación de medicamentos para consulta. Discusión: El uso seguro de medicamentos hace parte del tercer reto mundial por la seguridad del paciente propuesto por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Uno de los factores que contribuye a la incidencia de acontecimientos adversos es el uso de medicamentos potencialmente peligrosos. La aplicación de barreras de seguridad es la estrategia planteada en este relato que se hace necesaria para la prevención de eventos adversos. Conclusiones: La adopción del uso de bandejas codificadas por colores constituyó una barrera frente a la ocurrencia de posibles incidentes derivados del uso de medicamentos potencialmente peligrosos durante la intubación de secuencia rápida en pacientes con COVID-19.

Humans , Male , Female , Coronavirus Infections , Rapid Sequence Induction and Intubation , Evidence-Based Nursing , Patient Safety , Potentially Inappropriate Medication List
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(8): 1636-1646, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-342880


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causes high morbidity and mortality in older adults with chronic illnesses. Several trials are currently underway evaluating the antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine as a potential treatment for acute infection. However, polypharmacy predisposes patients to increased risk of drug-drug interactions with hydroxychloroquine and may render many in this population ineligible to participate in trials. We aimed to quantify the degree of polypharmacy and burden of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) that older hospitalized adults are taking that would interact with hydroxychloroquine. METHODS: We reanalyzed data from the cohort of patients 65 years and older enrolled in the MedSafer pilot study. We first identified patients taking medications with potentially harmful drug-drug interactions with hydroxychloroquine that might exclude them from participation in a typical 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) therapeutic trial. Next, we identified medications that were flagged by MedSafer as potentially inappropriate and crafted guidance around medication management if contemplating the use of hydroxychloroquine. RESULTS: The cohort contained a total of 1,001 unique patients with complete data on their home medications at admission. Of these 1,001 patients, 590 (58.9%) were receiving one or more home medications that could potentially interact with hydroxychloroquine, and of these, 255 (43.2%) were flagged as potentially inappropriate by the MedSafer tool. Common classes of PIMs observed were antipsychotics, cardiac medications, and antidiabetic agents. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the importance of medication optimization and deprescribing PIMs in older adults. By acting now to reduce polypharmacy and use of PIMs, we can better prepare this vulnerable population for inclusion in trials and, if substantiated, pharmacologic treatment or prevention of COVID-19. J Am Geriatr Soc 68:1636-1646, 2020.

Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Deprescriptions , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Potentially Inappropriate Medication List/standards , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Patient Selection , Pilot Projects , Polypharmacy , SARS-CoV-2