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1.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 90, 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) leads to huge economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The high levels of mutations of IBV render vaccines partially protective. Therefore, it is urgent to explore an effective antiviral drug or agent. The present study aimed to investigate the in vivo anti-IBV activity of a mixture of plant essential oils (PEO) of cinnamaldehyde (CA) and glycerol monolaurate (GML), designated as Jin-Jing-Zi. RESULTS: The antiviral effects were evaluated by clinical signs, viral loads, immune organ indices, antibody levels, and cytokine levels. The infection rates in the PEO-M (middle dose) and PEO-H (high dose) groups were significantly lower than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L (low dose) groups. The cure rates in the PEO-M and PEO-H groups were significantly higher than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups, and the PEO-M group had the highest cure rate of 92.31%. The symptom scores and IBV mRNA expression levels were significantly reduced in the PEO-M group. PEO significantly improved the immune organ indices and IBV-specific antibody titers of infected chickens. The anti-inflammatory factor levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the PEO-M group maintained high concentrations for a long time. The IL-6 levels in the PEO-M group were lower than those in prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups. CONCLUSION: The PEO had remarkable inhibition against IBV and the PEO acts by inhibiting virus multiplication and promoting immune function, suggesting that the PEO has great potential as a novel anti-IBV agent for inhibiting IBV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Oils, Volatile , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Poultry Diseases/drug therapy , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16631, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-834914

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to test in vitro the ability of a mixture of citrus extract, maltodextrin, sodium chloride, lactic acid and citric acid (AuraShield L) to inhibit the virulence of infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease, avian influenza, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and bovine coronavirus viruses. Secondly, in vivo, we have investigated its efficacy against infectious bronchitis using a broiler infection model. In vitro, these antimicrobials had expressed antiviral activity against all five viruses through all phases of the infection process of the host cells. In vivo, the antimicrobial mixture reduced the virus load in the tracheal and lung tissue and significantly reduced the clinical signs of infection and the mortality rate in the experimental group E2 receiving AuraShield L. All these effects were accompanied by a significant reduction in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and an increase in IgA levels and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in both trachea and lungs. Our study demonstrated that mixtures of natural antimicrobials, such AuraShield L, can prevent in vitro viral infection of cell cultures. Secondly, in vivo, the efficiency of vaccination was improved by preventing secondary viral infections through a mechanism involving significant increases in SCFA production and increased IgA levels. As a consequence the clinical signs of secondary infections were significantly reduced resulting in recovered production performance and lower mortality rates in the experimental group E2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus, Bovine/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Infectious bronchitis virus/drug effects , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype/drug effects , Newcastle disease virus/drug effects , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/drug effects , Poultry Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , Cell Line , Chick Embryo , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Influenza in Birds/metabolism , Influenza in Birds/virology , Influenza, Human/metabolism , Influenza, Human/virology , Newcastle Disease/metabolism , Newcastle Disease/virology , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/metabolism , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Swine
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