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1.
Poult Sci ; 102(6): 102661, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244886

ABSTRACT

Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is a highly contagious disease caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Vaccination is an effective approach for controlling IBV. Therefore, reliable immune monitoring for IB is critical for poultry. In this study, a novel peptide derived from S2 protein was used to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of broadly cross-reactive antibodies against IBV. The peptide-based ELISA (pELISA) showed good specificity and sensitivity in detecting IBV antibodies against different serotypes. A semilogarithmic regression method for determining IBV antibody titers was also established. Antibody titers detected by pELISA and calculated with this equation were statistically similar to those evaluated by indirect fluorescence assay (IFA). Moreover, the comparison analysis showed a 96.07% compatibility between the pELISA and IDEXX ELISA. All these data demonstrate that the pELISA generated here can be as a rapid and reliable serological surveillance tool for monitoring IBV infection or vaccination.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Chickens , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Peptides , Poultry Diseases/diagnosis , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control
2.
Poult Sci ; 102(4): 102501, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287484

ABSTRACT

Since 1999, QX-like (GI-19) avian infectious bronchitis viruses have been the predominant strains in China till now. Vaccination is the most effective way to control the disease, while live attenuated vaccine is widely used. In the current research, we evaluated the effect of several monovalent and bivalent live IBV vaccines in young chickens against the QX-like (GI-19) IBV infection. The results showed that monovalent 4/91 and bivalent Ma5+LDT3 vaccines could provide efficient protection in day-old chickens that reduced morbidity and mortality, ameliorated histopathology lesions, and reduced viral loads were observed. These data suggest that vaccination through nasal route with monovalent 4/91 or bivalent Ma5+LDT3 in day-old chickens could serve a safe and effective vaccination strategy for controlling QX-like (GI-19) infectious bronchitis virus.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Vaccine Efficacy , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Age Factors
3.
Poult Sci ; 102(4): 102534, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287161

ABSTRACT

Although vaccines play a major role in the prevention of infectious bronchitis (IB), Anti-IB drugs still have great potential in poultry production. Radix Isatidis polysaccharide (RIP) is a crude extract of Banlangen with antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and multiple immunomodulatory functions. The aim of this study was to explore the innate immune mechanisms responsible for RIP-mediated alleviation of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV)-induced kidney lesions in chickens. Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicken and chicken embryo kidney (CEK) cells cultures were pretreated with RIP and then infected with the QX-type IBV strain, Sczy3. Morbidity, mortality, and tissue mean lesion scores were calculated for IBV-infected chickens, and the viral loads, inflammatory factor gene mRNA expression levels, and innate immune pathway gene mRNA expression levels in infected chickens and CEK cell cultures were determined. The results show that RIP could alleviate IBV-induced kidney damage, decrease CEK cells susceptibility to IBV infection, and reduce viral loads. Additionally, RIP reduced the mRNA expression levels of the inflammatory factors IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1ß by decreasing the mRNA expression level of NF-κB. Conversely, the expression levels of MDA5, TLR3, STING, Myd88, IRF7, and IFN-ß were increased, indicating that RIP conferred resistance to QX-type IBV infection via the MDA5, TLR3, IRF7 signaling pathway. These results provide a reference for both further research into the antiviral mechanisms of RIP and the development of preventative and therapeutic drugs for IB.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Chick Embryo , Animals , Chickens/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 3 , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Signal Transduction , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , RNA, Messenger , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control
4.
Poult Sci ; 102(5): 102620, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287091

ABSTRACT

The gamma-coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) has a high mutation rate and mainly invades the respiratory mucosa, making it difficult to prevent and causing great economic losses. Nonstructural protein 16 (NSP16) of IBV QX also not only plays an indispensable role in virus invading but also might hugely influence the antigen's recognition and presentation ability of host BMDCs. Hence, our study tries to illustrate the underline mechanism of how NSP16 influences the immune function of BMDCs. Initially, we found that NSP16 of the QX strain significantly inhibited the antigen presentation ability and immune response of mouse BMDCs, which was stimulated by Poly (I:C) or AIV RNA. Besides mouse BMDCs, we also found that NSP16 of the QX strain also significantly stimulated the chicken BMDCs to activate the interferon signaling pathway. Furthermore, we preliminarily demonstrated that IBV QX NSP16 inhibits the antiviral system by affecting the antigen-presenting function of BMDCs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Rodent Diseases , Animals , Mice , Chickens , Antigen Presentation , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Interferons , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control
5.
Avian Pathol ; 52(3): 157-167, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236637

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is an avian pathogen from the Coronavirus family causing major health issues in poultry flocks worldwide. Because of its negative impact on health, performance, and bird welfare, commercial poultry are routinely vaccinated by administering live attenuated virus. However, field strains are capable of rapid adaptation and may evade vaccine-induced immunity. We set out to describe dynamics within and between lineages and assess potential escape from vaccine-induced immunity. We investigated a large nucleotide sequence database of over 1700 partial sequences of the S1 spike protein gene collected from clinical samples of Dutch chickens submitted to the laboratory of Royal GD between 2011 and 2020. Relative frequencies of the two major lineages GI-13 (793B) and GI-19 (QX) did not change in the investigated period, but we found a succession of distinct GI-19 sublineages. Analysis of dN/dS ratio over all sequences demonstrated episodic diversifying selection acting on multiple sites, some of which overlap predicted N-glycosylation motifs. We assessed several measures that would indicate divergence from vaccine strains, both in the overall database and in the two major lineages. However, the frequency of vaccine-homologous lineages did not decrease, no increase in genetic variation with time was detected, and the sequences did not grow more divergent from vaccine sequences in the examined time window. Concluding, our results show sublineage turnover within the GI-19 lineage and we demonstrate episodic diversifying selection acting on the partial sequence, but we cannot confirm nor rule out escape from vaccine-induced immunity.RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTSSuccession of GI-19 IBV variants in broiler populations.IBV lineages overrepresented in either broiler, or layer production chickens.Ongoing episodic selection at the IBV S1 spike protein gene sequence.Several positively selected codons coincident with N-glycosylation motifs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Poultry , Chickens , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control
6.
J Virol Methods ; 313: 114675, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2221089

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis (IB) is a highly contagious viral disease of chickens caused by IB virus (IBV) that can cause substantial economic losses in the poultry industry. IBV variant infections have been continuously reported since the initial description in the 1930s. QX-like IBVs are the predominant circulating genotype globally. A homologous QX vaccine has superior protection efficacy compared with that of other available vaccines, and the combination of Massachusetts (Mass)-like and QX-like strains is being used to combat QX-like IBV infections. Inoculation of embryonated chicken eggs is the standard method for the titration of IBV, and the titer is expressed as 50% egg infectious dose (EID50). However, this method cannot effectively distinguish or quantify different genotypic strains in a mixture of different viruses, especially in the absence of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. In this study, quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) was applied using specific primers for the QX- and Mass-like strains to quantitate IBV infection and for comparison with the conventional virus titration quantitative method. A strong positive correlation was observed between RT-qPCR cycle threshold values and the different EID50 concentrations. This method was further used to titrate bivalent IB vaccines, and the amount of individual genotype virus was determined based on specific primers. Thus, this RT-qPCR assay may be used as a highly specific, sensitive, and rapid alternative to the EID50 assay for titering IBVs.


Subject(s)
Bronchitis , Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Chickens , Vaccines, Combined , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Vaccines, Attenuated , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Poultry Diseases/diagnosis , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics
7.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116191

ABSTRACT

Infectious Bronchitis (IB) is a respiratory disease caused by a highly variable Gammacoronavirus, which generates a negative impact on poultry health worldwide. GI-11 and GI-16 lineages have been identified in South America based on Infectious Bronchitis virus (IBV) partial S1 sequences. However, full genome sequence information is limited. In this study we report, for the first time, the whole-genome sequence of IBV from Colombia. Seven IBV isolates obtained during 2012 and 2013 from farms with respiratory disease compatible with IB were selected and the complete genome sequence was obtained by NGS. According to S1 sequence phylogenetic analysis, six isolates belong to lineage GI-1 and one to lineage GVI-1. When whole genome was analyzed, five isolates were related to the vaccine strain Ma5 2016 and two showed mosaic genomes. Results from complete S1 sequence analysis provides further support for the hypothesis that GVI-1, considered a geographically confined lineage in Asia, could have originated in Colombia. Complete genome information reported in this research allow a deeper understanding of the phylogenetic evolution of variants and the recombination events between strains that are circulating worldwide, contributing to the knowledge of coronavirus in Latin America and the world.


Subject(s)
Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Phylogeny , Colombia/epidemiology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Chickens , Genome, Viral
8.
J Vet Med Sci ; 84(9): 1157-1163, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021433

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the causative agent of infectious bronchitis (IB) in chickens. There is a correlation between cross-protection and percentage of similarity between nucleotide sequences encoding the S1 subunit, which is responsible for generating neutralizing and serotype-specific antibodies. Therefore, RT-PCR is commonly used to amplify the IBV-S1 gene following DNA sequencing in order to predict the efficacy of vaccines against IBV strains. We successfully enhanced the sensitivity for detection of the IBV-S1 gene by second PCR after purification of the 1st RT-PCR product. Using that method, we obtained detailed information on the prevalence of IBV on poultry farms in Gifu Prefecture, Japan. The IBV-S1 gene detection method used in the current study will enable accurate information on the prevalence of IBV in Japan to be obtained.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Farms , Japan/epidemiology , Poultry , Poultry Diseases/diagnosis , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
9.
J Virol ; 96(17): e0110022, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992941

ABSTRACT

Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the etiological agent of infectious bronchitis, an acute highly contagious economically relevant respiratory disease of poultry. Vaccination is used to control IBV infections, with live-attenuated vaccines generated via serial passage of a virulent field isolate through embryonated hens' eggs. A fine balance must be achieved between attenuation and the retention of immunogenicity. The exact molecular mechanism of attenuation is unknown, and vaccines produced in this manner present a risk of reversion to virulence as few consensus level changes are acquired. Our previous research resulted in the generation of a recombinant IBV (rIBV) known as M41-R, based on a pathogenic strain M41-CK. M41-R was attenuated in vivo by two amino acid changes, Nsp10-Pro85Leu and Nsp14-Val393Leu; however, the mechanism of attenuation was not determined. Pro85 and Val393 were found to be conserved among not only IBV strains but members of the wider coronavirus family. This study demonstrates that the same changes are associated with a temperature-sensitive (ts) replication phenotype at 41°C in vitro, suggesting that the two phenotypes may be linked. Vaccination of specific-pathogen-free chickens with M41-R induced 100% protection against clinical disease, tracheal ciliary damage, and challenge virus replication following homologous challenge with virulent M41-CK. Temperature sensitivity has been used to rationally attenuate other viral pathogens, including influenza, and the identification of amino acid changes that impart both a ts and an attenuated phenotype may therefore offer an avenue for future coronavirus vaccine development. IMPORTANCE Infectious bronchitis virus is a pathogen of economic and welfare concern for the global poultry industry. Live-attenuated vaccines against are generated by serial passage of a virulent isolate in embryonated eggs until attenuation is achieved. The exact mechanisms of attenuation are unknown, and vaccines produced have a risk of reversion to virulence. Reverse genetics provides a method to generate vaccines that are rationally attenuated and are more stable with respect to back selection due to their clonal origin. Genetic populations resulting from molecular clones are more homogeneous and lack the presence of parental pathogenic viruses, which generation by multiple passage does not. In this study, we identified two amino acids that impart a temperature-sensitive replication phenotype. Immunogenicity is retained and vaccination results in 100% protection against homologous challenge. Temperature sensitivity, used for the development of vaccines against other viruses, presents a method for the development of coronavirus vaccines.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Amino Acids , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Poultry , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Poultry Diseases/virology , Temperature , Vaccines, Attenuated , Viral Vaccines/genetics
10.
Poult Sci ; 101(10): 102082, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967014

ABSTRACT

Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a prevalent RNA virus that causes respiratory distress, nephritis, salpingitis, and egg production decline in chickens, resulting in significant economic loss. IBV is composed of complex genotypes and serotypes, which poses a great challenge for disease control. The current study reports 2 IBV outbreaks which were characterized by respiratory symptoms in IBV vaccinated commercial broilers and layers in Guangdong, China, in 2021. Two IBV strains, ZH01 and HH09, were identified via a RT-PCR assay through targeting the N gene and further characterization through full-length spike (S) gene sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of S1 gene revealed that both ZH01 and HH09 belonged to the GI-19 lineage but contained a certain genetic distance from the GI-19 strain. Of note, the ZH01 and HH09 strains share a low homology of 70 and 86%, respectively, with common vaccine strains (H120), resulting in low vaccine protection. Further recombination analysis based on the S1 sequence suggested the newly identified IBV strains emerged through an intragroup recombination events between CK/CH/SCDY2003-2 and I0305/19 from G1-19 lineage. In addition, a number of novel mutations such as T273I, T292A, and S331K were found in the emerging IBV strains. Taken together, this study reports the genetic characteristics of 2 recent IBV outbreaks in southern China and emphasizes the urgent need for enhanced surveillance and development of novel vaccines for the control of IBV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Chickens , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Female , Genotype , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control
11.
Poult Sci ; 101(10): 102076, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956300

ABSTRACT

The avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly mutable coronavirus that causes an acute and highly contagious disease responsible for economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Preventing and controlling bronchitis disease is difficulted by the numerous IBV circulating types with limited antigenic cross-protection that hamper the prevention and control by heterologous vaccines. The coding region of the variable spike S1 receptor-attachment domain is used to classify IBV in 7 genotypes (GI-GVII) comprising 35 viral lineages (1-35). Knowledge of the circulating IBV types causing outbreaks in a specific geographic region is beneficial to select better the appropriate vaccine(s) and contribute to disease control. In the study, 17 avian infectious bronchitis virus strains were obtained from chickens showing signs of illness in Mexico from 2007 to 2021. We detected 4 lineages within genotype I, three already known (GI-3, GI-9, GI-13) and one newly described (GI-30). In addition, we identified 2 divergent monophyletic groups that are tentatively described as lineages of new genotypes (GVIII-1 and GIX-1). Our findings revealed that Mexico's high genetic IBV diversity results from the co-circulation of divergent lineages belonging to different genotypes. Mexican IBV lineages differ significantly from Massachusetts and Connecticut vaccine strains, indicating that the currently used vaccines may need to be updated.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Genetic Variation , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Mexico/epidemiology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9995, 2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900651

ABSTRACT

Interactions between the gut microbiota and the immune system may be involved in vaccine and infection responses. In the present study, we studied the interactions between caecal microbiota composition and parameters describing the immune response in six experimental inbred chicken lines harboring different MHC haplotypes. Animals were challenge-infected with the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and half of them were previously vaccinated against this pathogen. We explored to what extent the gut microbiota composition and the genetic line could be related to the immune response, evaluated through flow cytometry. To do so, we characterized the caecal bacterial communities with a 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing approach performed one week after the IBV infectious challenge. We observed significant effects of both the vaccination and the genetic line on the microbiota after the challenge infection with IBV, with a lower bacterial richness in vaccinated chickens. We also observed dissimilar caecal community profiles among the different lines, and between the vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals. The effect of vaccination was similar in all the lines, with a reduced abundance of OTU from the Ruminococcacea UCG-014 and Faecalibacterium genera, and an increased abundance of OTU from the Eisenbergiella genus. The main association between the caecal microbiota and the immune phenotypes involved TCRϒδ expression on TCRϒδ+ T cells. This phenotype was negatively associated with OTU from the Escherichia-Shigella genus that were also less abundant in the lines with the highest responses to the vaccine. We proved that the caecal microbiota composition is associated with the IBV vaccine response level in inbred chicken lines, and that the TCRϒδ+ T cells (judged by TCRϒδ expression) may be an important component involved in this interaction, especially with bacteria from the Escherichia-Shigella genus. We hypothesized that bacteria from the Escherichia-Shigella genus increased the systemic level of bacterial lipid antigens, which subsequently mitigated poultry γδ T cells.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Microbiota , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Poultry Diseases/genetics , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , Vaccination/veterinary
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 90, 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) leads to huge economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The high levels of mutations of IBV render vaccines partially protective. Therefore, it is urgent to explore an effective antiviral drug or agent. The present study aimed to investigate the in vivo anti-IBV activity of a mixture of plant essential oils (PEO) of cinnamaldehyde (CA) and glycerol monolaurate (GML), designated as Jin-Jing-Zi. RESULTS: The antiviral effects were evaluated by clinical signs, viral loads, immune organ indices, antibody levels, and cytokine levels. The infection rates in the PEO-M (middle dose) and PEO-H (high dose) groups were significantly lower than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L (low dose) groups. The cure rates in the PEO-M and PEO-H groups were significantly higher than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups, and the PEO-M group had the highest cure rate of 92.31%. The symptom scores and IBV mRNA expression levels were significantly reduced in the PEO-M group. PEO significantly improved the immune organ indices and IBV-specific antibody titers of infected chickens. The anti-inflammatory factor levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the PEO-M group maintained high concentrations for a long time. The IL-6 levels in the PEO-M group were lower than those in prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups. CONCLUSION: The PEO had remarkable inhibition against IBV and the PEO acts by inhibiting virus multiplication and promoting immune function, suggesting that the PEO has great potential as a novel anti-IBV agent for inhibiting IBV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Oils, Volatile , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Poultry Diseases/drug therapy , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
14.
J Virol ; 96(6): e0205921, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788916

ABSTRACT

The Gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly contagious global pathogen prevalent in all types of poultry flocks. IBV is responsible for economic losses and welfare issues in domestic poultry, resulting in a significant risk to food security. IBV vaccines are currently generated by serial passage of virulent IBV field isolates through embryonated hens' eggs. The different patterns of genomic variation accumulated during this process means that the exact mechanism of attenuation is unknown and presents a risk of reversion to virulence. Additionally, the passaging process adapts the virus to replicate in chicken embryos, increasing embryo lethality. Vaccines produced in this manner are therefore unsuitable for in ovo application. We have developed a reverse genetics system, based on the pathogenic IBV strain M41, to identify genes which can be targeted for rational attenuation. During the development of this reverse genetics system, we identified four amino acids, located in nonstructural proteins (nsps) 10, 14, 15, and 16, which resulted in attenuation both in vivo and in ovo. Further investigation highlighted a role of amino acid changes, Pro85Leu in nsp 10 and Val393Leu in nsp 14, in the attenuated in vivo phenotype observed. This study provides evidence that mutations in nsps offer a promising mechanism for the development of rationally attenuated live vaccines against IBV, which have the potential for in ovo application. IMPORTANCE The Gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the etiological agent of infectious bronchitis, an acute, highly contagious, economically important disease of poultry. Vaccination is achieved using a mixture of live attenuated vaccines for young chicks and inactivated vaccines as boosters for laying hens. Live attenuated vaccines are generated through serial passage in embryonated hens' eggs, an empirical process which achieves attenuation but retains immunogenicity. However, these vaccines have a risk of reversion to virulence, and they are lethal to the embryo. In this study, we identified amino acids in the replicase gene which attenuated IBV strain M41, both in vivo and in ovo. Stability assays indicate that the attenuating amino acids are stable and unlikely to revert. The data in this study provide evidence that specific modifications in the replicase gene offer a promising direction for IBV live attenuated vaccine development, with the potential for in ovo application.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Viral Vaccines , Amino Acids/chemistry , Amino Acids/genetics , Animals , Chick Embryo , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Poultry Diseases/virology , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics
15.
J Virol ; 95(17): e0066721, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274527

ABSTRACT

Cellular immune responses play a key role in the control of viral infection. The nucleocapsid (N) protein of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a major immunogenic protein that can induce protective immunity. To screen for potential T-cell epitopes on IBV N protein, 40 overlapping peptides covering the entirety of the N protein were designed and synthesized. Four T-cell epitope peptides were identified by gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot), intracellular cytokine staining, and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) lymphocyte proliferation assays; among them, three peptides (N211-230, N271-290, and N381-400) were cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes, and one peptide (N261-280) was a dual-specific T-cell epitope, which can be recognized by both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. Multi-epitope gene transcription cassettes comprising four neutralizing epitope domains and four T-cell epitope peptides were synthesized and inserted into the genome of Newcastle disease virus strain La Sota between the P and M genes. Recombinant IBV multi-epitope vaccine candidate rLa Sota/SBNT was generated via reverse genetics, and its immune protection efficacy was evaluated in specific-pathogen-free chickens. Our results show that rLa Sota/SBNT induced IBV-specific neutralizing antibody and T-cell responses and provided significant protection against homologous and heterologous IBV challenge. Thus, the T-cell epitope peptides identified in this study could be good candidates for IBV vaccine development, and recombinant Newcastle disease virus-expressing IBV multi-epitope genes represent a safe and effective vaccine candidate for controlling infectious bronchitis. IMPORTANCE T-cell-mediated immune responses are critical for the elimination of IBV-infected cells. To screen conserved T-cell epitopes in the IBV N protein, 40 overlapping peptides covering the entirety of the N protein were designed and synthesized. By combining IFN-γ ELISpot, intracellular cytokine staining, and CFSE lymphocyte proliferation assays, we identified three CTL epitopes and one dual-specific T-cell epitope. The value of T-cell epitope peptides identified in the N protein was further verified by the design of an IBV multi-epitope vaccine. Results show that IBV multi-epitope vaccine candidate rLa Sota/SBNT provided cross protection against challenges with a QX-like or a TW-like IBV strain. So, T-cell-mediated immune responses play an important role in the control of viral infection, and conserved T-cell epitopes serve as promising candidates for use in multi-epitope vaccine construction. Our results provide a new perspective for the development of a safer and more effective IBV vaccine.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Poultry Diseases/immunology , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology
16.
Vet Microbiol ; 259: 109155, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274453

ABSTRACT

Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) can cause a highly contagious enteric disease in turkeys with severe economic losses in the global turkey industry. To date, no commercial vaccines are available for control of the disease. In the present study, we isolated a field strain (NC1743) of TCoV and evaluated its pathogenicity in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) turkey poults to establish a TCoV disease model. The results showed that the TCoV NC1743 isolate was pathogenic to turkey poults with a minimal infectious dose at 106 EID50/bird. About 50 % of one-day-old SPF turkeys infected with the virus's minimal infectious dose exhibited typical enteric disease signs and lesions from 6 days post-infection (dpi) to the end of the experiment (21 dpi). In contrast, fewer than 20 % of older turkeys (1- or 2-week-old) infected with the same amount of TCoV displayed enteric disease signs, which disappeared after 15-18 dpi. Although all infected turkeys, regardless of age, shed TCoV, the older turkeys shed less virus than the younger birds, and 50 % of the 2-week-old birds even cleared the virus at 21 dpi. Furthermore, the viral infection caused day-old turkeys more body-weight-gain reduction than older birds. The overall data demonstrated that the TCoV NC1743 isolate is a highly pathogenic strain and younger turkeys are more susceptible to TCoV infection than older birds. Thus, one-day-old turkeys infected with the minimal infectious dose of TCoV NC1743 could be used as a TCoV disease model to study the disease pathogenesis, and the TCoV NC1743 strain could be used as a challenge virus to evaluate a vaccine protective efficacy.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Turkey/pathogenicity , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Turkeys/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Turkey/classification , Disease Models, Animal , Poultry Diseases/blood , Poultry Diseases/virology , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms
17.
Vet Microbiol ; 254: 109014, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107294

ABSTRACT

TW-like infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) with high pathogenicity is becoming the predominant IBV type circulating in China. To develop vaccines against TW-like IBV strains and investigate the critical genes associated with their virulence, GD strain was attenuated by 140 serial passages in specific-pathogen-free embryonated eggs and the safety and efficacy of the attenuated GD strain (aGD) were examined. The genome sequences of GD and aGD were also compared and the effects of mutations in the S gene were observed. The results revealed that aGD strain showed no obvious pathogenicity with superior protective efficacy against TW-like and QX-like virulent IBV strains. The genomes of strains aGD and GD shared high similarity (99.87 %) and most of the mutations occurred in S gene. Recombinant IBV strain rGDaGD-S, in which the S gene was replaced with the corresponding regions from aGD, showed decreased pathogenicity compared with its parental strain. In conclusion, attenuated TW-like IBV strain aGD is a potential vaccine candidate and the S gene is responsible for its attenuation. Our research has laid the foundation for future exploration of the attenuating molecular mechanism of IBV.


Subject(s)
Chickens/virology , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Virulence Factors/genetics , Animals , Chick Embryo , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Poultry Diseases/virology , Reverse Genetics/methods , Serial Passage , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology
18.
Avian Pathol ; 50(4): 295-310, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269041

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was first isolated in Australia in 1962. Ongoing surveillance and characterization of Australian IBVs have shown that they have evolved separately from strains found throughout the rest of the world, resulting in the evolution of a range of unique strains and changes in the dominant wild-type strains, affecting tissue tropism, pathogenicity, antigenicity, and gene arrangement. Between 1961 and 1976 highly nephropathogenic genotype GI-5 and GI-6 strains, causing mortalities of 40% to 100%, predominated, while strains causing mainly respiratory disease, with lower mortality rates, have predominated since then. Since 1988, viruses belonging to two distinct and novel genotypes, GIII and GV, have been detected. The genome organization of the GIII strains has not been seen in any other gammacoronavirus. Mutations that emerged soon after the introduction of vaccination, incursion of strains with a novel lineage from unknown sources, recombination between IBVs from different genetic lineages, and gene translocations and deletions have contributed to an increasingly complex IBV population. These processes and the consequences of this variation for the biology of these viruses provide an insight into the evolution of endemic coronaviruses during their control by vaccination and may provide a better understanding of the potential for evolution of other coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, the continuing capacity of attenuated IBV vaccines developed over 40 years ago to provide protection against viruses in the same genetic lineage provides some assurance that coronavirus vaccines developed to control other coronaviruses may continue to be effective for an extended period.


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution , Chickens , Coronaviridae Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Animals , Antigenic Variation , Australia/epidemiology , Coronaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Coronaviridae Infections/prevention & control , Coronaviridae Infections/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation , Infectious bronchitis virus/classification , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Phenotype , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines
19.
Microb Pathog ; 149: 104560, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-857004

ABSTRACT

Infectious Bronchitis (IB) is an economically important avian disease that considerably threatens the global poultry industry. This is partly, as a result of its negative consequences on egg production, weight gain as well as mortality rate.The disease is caused by a constantly evolving avian infectious bronchitis virus whose isolates are classified into several serotypes and genotypes that demonstrate little or no cross protection. In order to curb the menace of the disease therefore, broad based vaccines are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to develop a recombinant DNA vaccine candidate for improved protection of avian infectious bronchitis in poultry. Using bioinformatics and molecular cloning procedures, sets of monovalent and bivalent DNA vaccine constructs were developed based on the S1 glycoprotein from classical and variants IBV strains namely, M41 and CR88 respectively. The candidate vaccine was then encapsulated with a chitosan and saponin formulated nanoparticle for enhanced immunogenicity and protective capacity. RT-PCR assay and IFAT were used to confirm the transcriptional and translational expression of the encoded proteins respectively, while ELISA and Flow-cytometry were used to evaluate the immunogenicity of the candidate vaccine following immunization of various SPF chicken groups (A-F). Furthermore, histopathological changes and virus shedding were determined by quantitative realtime PCR assay and lesion scoring procedure respectively following challenge of various subgroups with respective wild-type IBV viruses. Results obtained from this study showed that, groups vaccinated with a bivalent DNA vaccine construct (pBudCR88-S1/M41-S1) had a significant increase in anti-IBV antibodies, CD3+ and CD8+ T-cells responses as compared to non-vaccinated groups. Likewise, the bivalent vaccine candidate significantly decreased the oropharyngeal and cloacal virus shedding (p < 0.05) compared to non-vaccinated control. Chickens immunized with the bivalent vaccine also exhibited milder clinical signs as well as low tracheal and kidney lesion scores following virus challenge when compared to control groups. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that bivalent DNA vaccine co-expressing dual S1 glycoprotein induced strong immune responses capable of protecting chickens against infection with both M41 and CR88 IBV strains. Moreso, it was evident that encapsulation of the vaccine with chitosan-saponin nanoparticle further enhanced immune responses and abrogates the need for multiple booster administration of vaccine. Therefore, the bivalent DNA vaccine could serve as efficient and effective alternative strategy for the control of IB in poultry.


Subject(s)
Chitosan/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Poultry Diseases/immunology , Saponins/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Bronchitis/immunology , Bronchitis/prevention & control , Bronchitis/veterinary , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Chickens , Chitosan/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Protection , Immunity, Cellular , Immunization, Secondary/veterinary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Saponins/chemistry , Vaccination/veterinary , Vaccines, DNA/chemistry , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Viral Vaccines/genetics
20.
Poult Sci ; 99(6): 2944-2954, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824735

ABSTRACT

This trial assessed the efficacy of a commercial essential oil (EO) product on the immune response to vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND) and subsequent challenge with virulent ND virus genotype VII (vNDv genotype VII) by using the following experimental groups of broiler chickens (Each group had 21 birds with 3 replicates in each, n = 7): NC (negative control), PC (positive control), VC (vaccinated), and VTC (vaccinated and treated with EOs). Moreover, in a trial to study the effect of EOs on vNDv genotype VII in vivo as a preventive or therapeutic measure, 2 additional ND-vaccinated groups were used (PRV: medicated 1 D before vNDv challenge for 5 D; and TTT: medicated 2 D after vNDv challenge for 5 D). In addition, the immune-modulatory effect of EOs on the avian influenza (AI), infectious bronchitis (IB), and infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccines was assessed through the serological response. The use of EOs along with administration of ND vaccines (VTC) revealed a lower mortality rate (42.86%), clinical signs, and postmortem lesion score (11) than ND vaccines alone (VC) (52.28% mortality and score 15), in addition to lower hemagglutination inhibition (P < 0.05) (6.5 ± 0.46) and viral shedding (10 log 2.28 ± 0.24) titres 1 wk after challenge in comparison with VC (8.63 ± 0.65 and 10 log 3.29 ± 0.72, respectively). Nevertheless, the EOs mixture (VTC) (1952 ± 28.82) did not significantly (P > 0.05) improve growth performance compared with the nontreated birds (NC and VC) (1970 ± 19.56 and 1904 ± 38.66). EOs showed an antiviral effect on vNDv in vivo (in chickens) as a preventive measure (PRV) as well as some therapeutic effect (TTT) through decreasing the viral shedding titres (loNC0), mortality rate, and severity of clinical signs and postmortem lesions, in addition to serum malondialdhyde level. Regarding the other viruses, the EOs mixture did not improve the immune response to the AI and IB vaccines but significantly (P < 0.05) increased the ELISA antibody titre for IBD virus at the 28th D of age (2,108 ± 341.05). The studied EOs mixture showed an immune-stimulating response to ND and IBD vaccines, antiviral effect against ND virus, especially if administered before the challenge; however, it did not have a growth-promoting effect.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Immunity, Humoral , Newcastle Disease/prevention & control , Newcastle disease virus/immunology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , Animals , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/classification
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