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1.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10 Suppl 1: S3, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine hesitancy was identified as a major threat to global health by WHO in 2019. This hesitancy was also observed with COVID-19 vaccination rollout in many countries including Bangladesh, where it began on Feb 7, 2021. Reasons for this include lack of knowledge, misinformation, low trust in health systems, and so on. Vaccine hesitancy is context specific and varies across time, place, and socioeconomic groups. People living in urban slums should be prioritised for COVID-19 vaccination because they are more prone to COVID-19 infection due to their poor living conditions and inability to practice preventive measures. Therefore, we aimed to understand the perceptions and attitudes of urban slum dwellers in Dhaka, Bangladesh, towards COVID-19 vaccination through time. METHODS: This qualitative study was done in three urban slums of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. In-depth telephone interviews were done with 36 adults (25 women and 11 men) from Oct 21, 2020 to Jan 12, 2021, using a semi-structured guideline. Participants were selected by use of snowballing and opportunistic sampling techniques. Follow-up interviews were done in April and August, 2021. We did thematic analysis on the collected data. Informed verbal consent was obtained from the participants, and ethical clearance was obtained from BRAC James P Grant School of Public Health (Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2019-034-IR). FINDINGS: Before COVID-19 vaccine rollout, doubts, fears, and rumours about safety and effectiveness of the vaccine lead to hesitancy among many participants. With time, more people were willing to get COVID-19 vaccines when they found that many in their communities were getting vaccinated and that it was free of cost. Women knew more about the vaccine compared with men, due to the awareness sessions in courtyard meetings of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) attended by women. Trusted information sources were television news, community health workers, and government loudspeaker announcements. Youths (aged 18-24 years) in the slums were more interested in getting vaccinated as they had exposure to technology and social media where they learned about the benefits of vaccination, compared with people from older age groups. Besides structural inequities in the vaccination drive, such as the complicated online registration system, long queues at vaccination centres also meant many urban poor couldn't access COVID-19 vaccination as they worried about missing a day's work. INTERPRETATION: This study highlighted the importance of using sources such as NGO workers and television news to debunk myths and disseminate COVID-19 vaccine information to ensure compliance with vaccination among urban slum dwellers. Community perceptions shape individual practices, which can help policy makers design effective communication and strategies aimed at people who are poor to improve COVID-19 vaccine uptake. FUNDING: GCRF UKRI funded ARISE Consortium.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Bangladesh , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Perception , Poverty Areas , Vaccination , Young Adult
2.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 88, 2022 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To reduce the spread of COVID-19, several countries in Africa instituted countrywide lockdowns and other public health measures. Whereas lockdowns contributed to the control of the pandemic, there were concerns about the unintended consequences of these measures especially in the most vulnerable populations. We assessed unintended socio-economic and health consequences due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the mitigation measures among slum dwellers in Kampala to inform the on-going and future pandemic response strategies. METHODS: This was a mixed methods cross-sectional study conducted in Bwaise I and Bwaise III slums of Kawempe division, Kampala Uganda from October to December 2020. We used systematic sampling to randomly select 425 household heads for the face-to-face quantitative interviews. We also conducted six focus group discussions (FGDs) with slum dwellers and used photovoice among eight Community Health Workers (CHWs) to document unintended socio-economic and health consequences. Quantitative data were imported into STATA version 14.0 for analysis, while qualitative data were analysed thematically using NVivo version 12. Modified Poisson regression analysis was conducted to establish factors associated with impact on access to food. RESULTS: Most respondents reported limited access to food (71.1%; 302/425); disruption in education (77.1%; 270/350); drop in daily income and wages (86.1%; 329/382) and loss of employment (63.1; 125/198). Twenty five percent of the respondents (25.4%; 86/338) reported domestic violence as one of the challenges. Seven themes emerged from the qualitative findings on the impact of COVID-19 including: limited access to food; negative impact on children's rights (child labour and teenage pregnancies) and education; poor housing and lack of accommodation; negative social behaviours; negative impact on family and child care; reduced income and employment; and negative impact on health and access to health care services. CONCLUSION: The slum dwellers of Bwaise I and Bwaise III experienced several negative socio-economic and health consequences of COVID-19 and its prevention measures that severely affected their wellbeing. Children experienced severe consequences such as child labour and teenage pregnancies among the girls. Response activities should be contextualised to different settings and protocols to protect the vulnerable groups in the community such as children and women should be developed and mainstreamed in response activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poverty Areas , Adolescent , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Uganda/epidemiology
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e057402, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703968

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to rapidly assess the health system impact of COVID-19 in the urban slums of Bangladesh. DESIGN: Setting and participantsA cross-sectional survey among 476 households was conducted during October-December 2020 in five selected urban slums of Dhaka North, Dhaka South and Gazipur City Corporation. In-depth interviews with purposively selected 22 slum dwellers and key informant interviews with 16 local healthcare providers and four policymakers and technical experts were also conducted. OUTCOME MEASURES: Percentage of people suffering from general illness, percentage of people suffering from chronic illness, percentage of people seeking healthcare, percentage of people seeking maternal care, health system challenges resulting from COVID-19. RESULTS: About 12% of members suffered from general illness and 25% reported chronic illness. Over 80% sought healthcare and the majority sought care from informal healthcare providers. 39% of the recently delivered women sought healthcare in 3 months preceding the survey. An overall reduction in healthcare use was reported during the lockdown period compared with prepandemic time. Mismanagement and inefficient use of resources were reported as challenges of health financing during the pandemic. Health information sharing was inadequate at the urban slums, resulting from the lack of community and stakeholder engagement (51% received COVID-19-related information, 49% of respondents knew about the national hotline number for COVID-19 treatment). Shortage of human resources for health was reported to be acute during the pandemic, resulting from the shortage of specialist doctors and uneven distribution of health workforce. COVID-19 test was inadequate due to the lack of adequate test facilities and stigma associated with COVID-19. Lack of strong leadership and stakeholder engagement was seen as the barriers to effective pandemic management. CONCLUSION: The findings of the current study are expected to support the government in tailoring interventions and allocating resources more efficiently and timely during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poverty Areas , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Urban Population
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 823: 153398, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655143

ABSTRACT

This research examines water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) accessibility and opportunity in Kibera and Mathare during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2021. Kibera and Mathare are two of the largest urban informal settlements in Nairobi (the capital city of Kenya) as well as Sub-Saharan Africa. Accessibility indicates how easily a person can reach WASH facilities from their home by walking. Opportunity represents how many WASH options a person has near their home. We utilize the data on water and toilet facilities collected by GroundTruth Initiative in partnership with Map Kibera Trust (local community partners) between February and April 2021 - amid the COVID-19 pandemic. By conducting quantitative geospatial analysis, we illustrate WASH accessibility and related issues that were not evident in previous studies: (1) 77.4% of people living in Kibera have limited WASH facility accessibility or opportunity; (2) 60.6% of people living in Mathare have limited WASH facility accessibility or opportunity; (3) there is a clear geographic pattern in WASH facility accessibility and opportunity; and (4) overall accessibility and opportunity is better in Mathare than in Kibera. This study is one of the first studies to examine WASH accessibility and opportunity in urban informal settlements during the COVID-19 pandemic by utilizing the current data and quantitative geospatial methods. Based on the results, we discuss important public health policy implications for people living in urban informal settlements to improve their WASH facility accessibility and opportunity during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sanitation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Hygiene , Kenya , Pandemics , Poverty Areas , Water
5.
Arch Dis Child ; 106(12): 1218-1225, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526458

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients from ethnic minority groups and key workers are over-represented among adults hospitalised or dying from COVID-19. In this population-based retrospective cohort, we describe the association of ethnicity, socioeconomic and family key worker status with incidence and severity of Paediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS). SETTING: Evelina London Children's Hospital (ELCH), the tertiary paediatric hospital for the South Thames Retrieval Service (STRS) region. PARTICIPANTS: 70 children with PIMS-TS admitted 14 February 2020-2 June 2020. OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence and crude ORs are presented, comparing ethnicity and socioeconomic status of our cohort and the catchment population, using census data and Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). Regression is used to estimate the association of ethnicity and IMD with admission duration and requirement for intensive care, inotropes and ventilation. RESULTS: Incidence was significantly higher in children from black (25.0 cases per 100 000 population), Asian (6.4/100 000) and other (17.8/100 000) ethnic groups, compared with 1.6/100 000 in white ethnic groups (ORs 15.7, 4.0 and 11.2, respectively). Incidence was higher in the three most deprived quintiles compared with the least deprived quintile (eg, 8.1/100 000 in quintile 1 vs 1.6/100 000 in quintile 5, OR 5.2). Proportions of families with key workers (50%) exceeded catchment proportions. Admission length of stay was 38% longer in children from black ethnic groups than white (95% CI 4% to 82%; median 8 days vs 6 days). 9/10 children requiring ventilation were from black ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Children in ethnic minority groups, living in more deprived areas and in key worker families are over-represented. Children in black ethnic groups had longer admissions; ethnicity may be associated with ventilation requirement.This project was registered with the ELCH audit and service evaluation team, ref. no 11186.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Social Class , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/economics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/ethnology , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , England/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , Length of Stay , Poverty Areas , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
6.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 215, 2021 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lack of control over life situations is an important social determinant that may negatively affect parental and child health. This study took place in an area of Stockholm, Sweden with high indications of socioeconomic disadvantage, a large part of the population with foreign background, as well as higher levels of poor health than the county average. It investigated staff perceptions of pathways from situations of low control, potentially leading to health inequities, affecting families enrolled in an early childhood home visiting programme during the Covid-19 pandemic. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 23 child health care nurses and parental advisors working in a home visiting programme. The data was analysed using Reflexive Thematic Analysis. RESULTS: The analysis resulted in five pathways on two explanatory levels, affecting parents' health and parenting capacity and children's health and well-being, potentially damaging health and leading to health inequities. The first four pathways related to control at the personal explanatory level: Families facing instability and insecurity; Caring for children in crowded and poor housing conditions; Experiencing restricted access to resources; and Parenting with limited social support. The fifth pathway, Living in a segregated society, covered the collective experience of lack of control on community level. The Covid-19 pandemic was observed to negatively affect all pathways and thus potentially aggravate health inequities for this population. The pandemic has also limited the delivery of home visits to the families which creates further barriers in families' access to resources and increases isolation for parents with already limited social support. CONCLUSIONS: The diversity of pathways connected to health inequities presented in this study highlights the importance of considering this variety of influences when designing interventions for socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. The additional negative consequences of Covid-19 indicate the need for sustainable preventive early childhood interventions for families in such areas. The study also emphasizes the need for further research as well as policy action on possible long-term effects of changing behaviours during the Covid-19 period on child health and health equity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was retrospectively registered (11 August 2016) in the ISRCTN registry ( ISRCTN11832097 ).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Family , Health Status Disparities , Pandemics , Poverty Areas , COVID-19/epidemiology , House Calls , Humans , Observation , Qualitative Research , Sweden/epidemiology
7.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488688

ABSTRACT

The unyielding obesity epidemic in adolescents from Middle Eastern (ME) backgrounds warrants culturally-responsive and co-designed prevention measures. This study aimed to capture the opinions of ME parents residing in Australia on the crisis and their enablers and barriers to healthy eating interventions given their influence on adolescent eating behaviors. Twenty-six semi-structured interviews were conducted with ME mothers, aged 35-59 years, and most residing in low socioeconomic areas (n = 19). A reflexive thematic analysis using the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behaviour model and Theoretical Domain Framework was conducted. Parents expressed confidence in knowledge of importance of healthy eating, but were reluctant to believe behaviours were engaged in outside of parental influence. Time management skills are needed to support working mothers and to minimize reliance on nearby fast-food outlets, which was heightened during COVID-19 with home-delivery. Time constraints also meant breakfast skipping was common. A culture of feeding in light of diet acculturation and intergenerational trauma in this diaspora was also acknowledged. Parents pleaded for upstream policy changes across government and school bodies to support parental efforts in the form of increased regulation of fast-food and subsidization of healthy products. Opportunities for weight-inclusive programs including parenting workshops underpinned by culturally-responsive pedagogy were recommended.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Feeding Behavior , Mothers , Obesity/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , Emigrants and Immigrants , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Middle Aged , Middle East/ethnology , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/ethnology , Poverty Areas
8.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(4)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476465

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Little evidence exists on the differential health effects of COVID-19 on disadvantaged population groups. Here we characterise the differential risk of hospitalisation and death in São Paulo state, Brazil, and show how vulnerability to COVID-19 is shaped by socioeconomic inequalities. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using hospitalised severe acute respiratory infections notified from March to August 2020 in the Sistema de Monitoramento Inteligente de São Paulo database. We examined the risk of hospitalisation and death by race and socioeconomic status using multiple data sets for individual-level and spatiotemporal analyses. We explained these inequalities according to differences in daily mobility from mobile phone data, teleworking behaviour and comorbidities. RESULTS: Throughout the study period, patients living in the 40% poorest areas were more likely to die when compared with patients living in the 5% wealthiest areas (OR: 1.60, 95% CI 1.48 to 1.74) and were more likely to be hospitalised between April and July 2020 (OR: 1.08, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.12). Black and Pardo individuals were more likely to be hospitalised when compared with White individuals (OR: 1.41, 95% CI 1.37 to 1.46; OR: 1.26, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.28, respectively), and were more likely to die (OR: 1.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.19; 1.07, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.10, respectively) between April and July 2020. Once hospitalised, patients treated in public hospitals were more likely to die than patients in private hospitals (OR: 1.40%, 95% CI 1.34% to 1.46%). Black individuals and those with low education attainment were more likely to have one or more comorbidities, respectively (OR: 1.29, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.39; 1.36, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.45). CONCLUSIONS: Low-income and Black and Pardo communities are more likely to die with COVID-19. This is associated with differential access to quality healthcare, ability to self-isolate and the higher prevalence of comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral , Poverty Areas , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Socioeconomic Factors
9.
Public Health ; 199: 42-45, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428361

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although literature broadly reports the impact of COVID-19 on global mental health, little is known about the extent of its deleterious impact on the most vulnerable individuals. The present study aimed to evaluate the level of psychological distress of adult's residents of two urban shantytown communities located in São Paulo city, Brazil. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. METHODS: An online questionnaire was divided into four sections: (1) informed consent, (2) socio-economic data, (3) 12-item general health questionnaire, and (4) Brazilian food insecurity scale was applied. RESULTS: Of the 495 family headship (448 females and 47 males), the mean age was 36.1 years, 85% have an indication of psychological distress, 61.4% had a monthly income less than or equal to $70, and the incidence of households experiencing moderate or severe food insecurity was 40%. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that respondents who experienced moderate or severe food insecurity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.701, confidence interval [CI] 95% = 1.265-5.769; P = 0.010) and lower monthly income (OR = 2.031, CI 95% = 1.056-3.908; P = 0.034) had a higher risk of psychological distress. On the other hand, having an employment is a protective factor against the stressful situations caused by COVID-19 pandemic (P = 0.029). CONCLUSION: The present study identified low-income younger women residents of urban slums who suffer from food insecurity as high-risk groups to have psychological distress. Our findings are of particular importance because they showed the intersection of vulnerabilities during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Poverty Areas , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
10.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604219, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430753

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Children's mental health and wellbeing declined during the first COVID-19 lockdown (Spring 2020), particularly among those from disadvantaged settings. We compared mental health and wellbeing of school-aged children observed pre-pandemic in 2018 and after the first lockdown was lifted and schools reopened in Fall 2020. Methods: In 2018, we surveyed 476 grade 4-6 students (9-12 years old) from 11 schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities in Northern Canada that participate in a school-based health promotion program targeting healthy lifestyle behaviours and mental wellbeing. In November-December 2020, we surveyed 467 grade 4-6 students in the same schools. The 12 questions in the mental health and wellbeing domain were grouped based on correlation and examined using multivariable logistic regression. Results: There were no notable changes pre-pandemic vs. post-lockdown in responses to each of the 12 questions or any of the sub-groupings. Conclusion: Supporting schools to implement health promotion programs may help mitigate the impact of the pandemic on children's mental health and wellbeing. The findings align with recent calls for schools to remain open as long as possible during the pandemic response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Health , Communicable Disease Control , Mental Health , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology , Child , Child Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Poverty Areas , Schools/organization & administration , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 153, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388768

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Poor diet is the leading preventable risk factor contributing to the burden of disease globally and in Australia, and is inequitably distributed. As the price of healthy foods is a perceived barrier to improved diets, evidence on the cost and affordability of current (unhealthy) and recommended (healthy, more equitable and sustainable) diets is required to support policy action. METHODS: This study applied the Healthy Diets ASAP (Australian Standardised Affordability and Pricing) methods protocol to measure the cost, cost differential and affordability of current and recommended diets for a reference household in Queensland, Australia. Food prices were collected in 18 randomly selected locations stratified by area of socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness. Diet affordability was calculated for three income categories. RESULTS: Surprisingly, recommended diets would cost 20% less than the current diet in Queensland as a whole. Households spent around 60% of their food budget on discretionary choices (that is, those not required for health that are high in saturated fat, added sugar, salt and/or alcohol). Queensland families would need to spend around 23% of their income on recommended diets. However, recommended diets would not be affordable in low socioeconomic or very remote areas, costing 30 and 35% of median household income respectively. The government supplements due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic would improve affordability of recommended diets by 29%. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings highlight that while price is one factor affecting consumer food choice, other drivers such as taste, convenience, advertising and availability are important. Nevertheless, the study found that recommended diets would be unaffordable in very remote areas, and that low-income families are likely experiencing food stress, irrespective of where they live in Queensland. Policy actions, such as increasing to 20% the current 10% tax differential between basic healthy, and unhealthy foods in Australia, and supplementing incomes of vulnerable households, especially in remote areas, are recommended to help improve diet equity and sustainability, and health and wellbeing for all.


Subject(s)
Costs and Cost Analysis/statistics & numerical data , Diet, Healthy/economics , Diet/economics , Poverty Areas , Rural Population , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Food Preferences , Health Equity , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Queensland
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e045441, 2021 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304227

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: People living in slums face several challenges to access healthcare. Scarce and low-quality public health facilities are common problems in these communities. Costs and prevalence of catastrophic health expenditures (CHE) have also been reported as high in studies conducted in slums in developing countries and those suffering from chronic conditions and the poorest households seem to be more vulnerable to financial hardship. The COVID-19 pandemic may be aggravating the economic impact on the extremely vulnerable population living in slums due to the long-term consequences of the disease. The objective of this review is to report the economic impact of seeking healthcare on slum-dwellers in terms of costs and CHE. We will compare the economic impact on slum-dwellers with other city residents. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This scoping review adopts the framework suggested by Arksey and O'Malley. The review is part of the accountability and responsiveness of slum-dwellers (ARISE) research consortium, which aims to enhance accountability to improve the health and well-being of marginalised populations living in slums in India, Bangladesh, Sierra Leone and Kenya. Costs of accessing healthcare will be updated to 2020 prices using the inflation rates reported by the International Monetary Fund. Costs will be presented in International Dollars by using purchase power parity. The prevalence of CHE will also be reported. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required for scoping reviews. We will disseminate our results alongside the events organised by the ARISE consortium and international conferences. The final manuscript will be submitted to an open-access international journal. Registration number at the Research Registry: reviewregistry947.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Poverty Areas , Bangladesh , Developing Countries , Female , Health Facilities , Humans , India , Kenya , Male , Pandemics , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Sierra Leone
15.
Pediatrics ; 148(3)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266575

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In fall 2020, community hubs opened in San Francisco, California, to support vulnerable groups of students in remote learning. Our objectives were to (1) describe adherence to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mitigation policies in these urban, low-income educational settings; (2) assess associations between policy adherence and in-hub COVID-19 transmission; and (3) identify barriers to and facilitators of adherence. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods study from November 2020 to February 2021. We obtained COVID-19 case data from the San Francisco Department of Public Health, conducted field observations to observe adherence to COVID-19 mitigation policies, and surveyed hub leaders about barriers to and facilitators of adherence. We summarized quantitative data using descriptive statistics and qualitative data using thematic content analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1738 children were enrolled in 85 hubs (39% Hispanic, 29% Black). We observed 54 hubs (n = 1175 observations of children and 295 observations of adults). There was high community-based COVID-19 incidence (2.9-41.2 cases per 100 000 residents per day), with 36 cases in hubs and only 1 case of hub-based transmission (adult to adult). Sixty-seven percent of children and 99% of adults were masked. Fifty-five percent of children and 48% of adults were distanced ≥6 ft. Facilitators of mitigation policies included the following: for masking, reminders, adequate supplies, and "unmasking zones"; for distancing, reminders and distanced seating. CONCLUSIONS: We directly observed COVID-19 mitigation in educational settings, and we found variable adherence. However, with promotion of multiple policies, there was minimal COVID-19 transmission (despite high community incidence). We detail potential strategies for increasing adherence to COVID-19 mitigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Education, Distance , Guideline Adherence , Students , Vulnerable Populations , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/education , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Data Analysis , Data Collection , Education, Distance/organization & administration , Education, Distance/statistics & numerical data , Hand Disinfection , /statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Poverty Areas , San Francisco/epidemiology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Symptom Assessment , Urban Population
16.
Indian J Tuberc ; 69(2): 234-237, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258387

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of COVID 19 pandemic, the approach used by Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) was based on all guidelines of COVID 19 prepared by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW). However, Mumbai undertook a special innovate model used in the mission Mumbai - Dharavi for COVID 19. Additionally, MCGM undertook a proactive approach of "chasing the virus" with its 4Ts: 1. Tracing 2. Tracking 3. Testing 4. Treating in high-risk slum clusters and it reflects the result of declining the incidence and case fatality due to COVID 19. Establishing public health surge capacities which include active surveillance, contact-tracing and follow-up besides early detection, isolation and management of cases are important steps for fighting the COVID 19 pandemic. Collaborating with all partners and setting up a Task force for establishing clinical management protocols was unmissable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Poverty Areas , Public Health
17.
Health Place ; 70: 102580, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233435

ABSTRACT

Spain has been one of the most affected regions by the COVID-19 worldwide, and Madrid its most affected city. In response to this, the Spanish government enacted a strict lockdown in late March 2020, that was gradually eased until June 2020. We explored differentials in mobility by area-level deprivation in the functional area of Madrid, before, during, and after the COVID-19 lockdown. We used cell phone-derived mobility indicators (% of the population leaving their area) from the National Institute of Statistics (INE), and a composite measure of deprivation from the Spanish Society of Epidemiology (SEE). We computed changes in mobility with respect to pre-pandemic levels, and explored spatial patterns and associations with deprivation. We found that levels of mobility before COVID-19 were slightly higher in areas with lower deprivation. The economic hibernation period resulted in very strong declines in mobility, most acutely in low deprivation areas. These differences weakened during the re-opening, and levels of mobility were similar by deprivation once the lockdown was completely lifted. Given the existence of important socioeconomic differentials in COVID-19 exposure, it is key to ensure that these interventions do not widen existing social inequalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poverty Areas , Quarantine , Socioeconomic Factors , Travel , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Spain
18.
J Prev Interv Community ; 49(2): 136-151, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230993

ABSTRACT

Opioid related drug overdose deaths are a leading cause of death and injury in the United States. While research demonstrates that where people live has a major impact on drug use and abuse, most work looks at social dynamics at the county level or under the rubric of the urban/rural divide. Only recently, scholarship has become attuned to the post-industrialized areas located on the fringes of urban cores. Data presented in here are from field research conducted in McKeesport, Pennsylvania, a small river town located east of Pittsburgh. Once a thriving industrial city, it is now deteriorated and has documented high levels of overdose experience. Preliminary results suggest that McKeesport residents, even before the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), practice social and physical distancing as a way of life; data indicate how the pandemic potentially exacerbates the risk of accidental opioid overdose among a population defined by both geographic and social isolation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Overdose/prevention & control , Law Enforcement , Pandemics , Drug Overdose/mortality , Health Policy , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Pennsylvania , Physical Distancing , Poverty Areas , Risk Factors , Rural Population , Social Isolation , United States/epidemiology
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(19): 707-711, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227230

ABSTRACT

On May 13, 2020, Chicago established a free community-based testing (CBT) initiative for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The initiative focused on demographic groups and geographic areas that were underrepresented in testing by clinical providers and had experienced high COVID-19 incidence, including Hispanic persons and those who have been economically marginalized. To assess the CBT initiative, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) compared demographic characteristics, economic marginalization, and test positivity between persons tested at CBT sites and persons tested in all other testing settings in Chicago. During May 13-November 14, a total of 253,904 SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tests were conducted at CBT sites. Compared with those tested in all other testing settings in Chicago, persons tested at CBT sites were more likely to live in areas that are economically marginalized (38.6% versus 32.0%; p<0.001) and to be Hispanic (50.9% versus 20.7%; p<0.001). The cumulative percentage of positive test results at the CBT sites was higher than that at all other testing settings (11.1% versus 7.1%; p<0.001). These results demonstrate the ability of public health departments to establish community-based testing initiatives that reach communities with less access to testing in other settings and that experience disproportionately higher incidences of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Community Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Testing/economics , Chicago/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Poverty Areas , Young Adult
20.
Glob Public Health ; 16(7): 975-999, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221434

ABSTRACT

Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) was declared a new epicentre of the coronavirus pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 22 May 2020. As of 13 January 2021, the numbers of deaths and cases caused by COVID-19 in LAC reported are 552,000 and 17'485,000 respectively. LAC concentrates the largest percentage of indigenous populations throughout the world. In this region, poverty is persistent and particularly rural indigenous peoples hold the steepest barriers to health services and experience profound discrimination based on ethnicity, poverty, and language, compared to their non-indigenous counterparts. The information regarding the health of indigenous populations, in general, is scarce, and this problem is aggravated in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the main objective of this work is to address the overall scenario of indigenous peoples in the Latin American and Caribbean region from March 2020 to January 2021, in this manner gathering information regarding health problems, economic, social, cultural and environmental factors that make indigenous populations in LAC particularly vulnerable to serious health effects from the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as compiling the mitigation strategies implemented in indigenous communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Indigenous Peoples , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Poverty Areas , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vulnerable Populations
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