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1.
N Engl J Med ; 387(21): 1935-1946, 2022 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106628

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In February 2022, Massachusetts rescinded a statewide universal masking policy in public schools, and many Massachusetts school districts lifted masking requirements during the subsequent weeks. In the greater Boston area, only two school districts - the Boston and neighboring Chelsea districts - sustained masking requirements through June 2022. The staggered lifting of masking requirements provided an opportunity to examine the effect of universal masking policies on the incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) in schools. METHODS: We used a difference-in-differences analysis for staggered policy implementation to compare the incidence of Covid-19 among students and staff in school districts in the greater Boston area that lifted masking requirements with the incidence in districts that sustained masking requirements during the 2021-2022 school year. Characteristics of the school districts were also compared. RESULTS: Before the statewide masking policy was rescinded, trends in the incidence of Covid-19 were similar across school districts. During the 15 weeks after the statewide masking policy was rescinded, the lifting of masking requirements was associated with an additional 44.9 cases per 1000 students and staff (95% confidence interval, 32.6 to 57.1), which corresponded to an estimated 11,901 cases and to 29.4% of the cases in all districts during that time. Districts that chose to sustain masking requirements longer tended to have school buildings that were older and in worse condition and to have more students per classroom than districts that chose to lift masking requirements earlier. In addition, these districts had higher percentages of low-income students, students with disabilities, and students who were English-language learners, as well as higher percentages of Black and Latinx students and staff. Our results support universal masking as an important strategy for reducing Covid-19 incidence in schools and loss of in-person school days. As such, we believe that universal masking may be especially useful for mitigating effects of structural racism in schools, including potential deepening of educational inequities. CONCLUSIONS: Among school districts in the greater Boston area, the lifting of masking requirements was associated with an additional 44.9 Covid-19 cases per 1000 students and staff during the 15 weeks after the statewide masking policy was rescinded.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Policy , Masks , School Health Services , Universal Precautions , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Incidence , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Schools/legislation & jurisprudence , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Students/legislation & jurisprudence , Students/statistics & numerical data , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Masks/statistics & numerical data , School Health Services/legislation & jurisprudence , School Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Groups/legislation & jurisprudence , Occupational Groups/statistics & numerical data , Universal Precautions/legislation & jurisprudence , Universal Precautions/statistics & numerical data , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data
4.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 34: e200170, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1862339

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This scientific note presents preliminary developments of the Covid-19 pandemic on unemployment, poverty, and hunger in Brazil. The data on unemployment rate, un employment insurance claims, contingent of families in extreme poverty, and food insecurity was collected in government information systems, research published by public agencies, scientific articles, and in news portals. In an upward trajectory since 2015, the increase in unemployment and the number of families in extreme poverty was exacerbated after the pandemic began, drastically reducing the purchase power and access to healthy and adequate food, affecting mainly women and the populations of the Northern and Northeastern regions. Between January and September 2020, there was a 3% increase in unemployment in Brazil and, in October 2020, there were almost 485 thousand more families in extreme poverty compared to January of the same year. There are inadequate and insufficient responses from the Brazilian government to the articulated set of problems. The Covid-19 pandemic is a new element that potentiates the recent increase in hunger in Brazil, which occurs in parallel with the dismantling of the Food and Nutrition Security programs and the expansion of fiscal austerity measures, started with the political-economic crisis in 2015. There is an urgent need to recover the centrality of the agenda to fight hunger in Brazil, associated with the development of more robust contributions on the impact of the pandemic on the phenomena of poverty and hunger.


RESUMO Nesta nota científica apresentam-se desdobramentos preliminares da pandemia de Covid-19 sobre o desemprego, a pobreza e a fome no Brasil. Utilizaram-se dados sobre a taxa de desocupação, solicitações de seguro-desemprego e contingente de famílias em extrema pobreza e em insegurança alimentar, coletados em sistemas de informação governamentais, em pesquisas publicadas por órgãos públicos, em artigos científicos e em portais de notícias. Em trajetória ascendente, desde 2015, identificou-se um aumento do desemprego e do número de famílias em extrema pobreza após a instauração da pandemia, o que pode reduzir drasticamente o poder de compra e o acesso à alimentação adequada e saudável, afetando, principalmente, as mulheres e a população das regiões Norte e Nordeste. Entre janeiro e setembro de 2020, houve o aumento de 3% desemprego no Brasil e, em outubro de 2020, havia quase 485 mil famílias a mais em situação de extrema pobreza, relativamente a janeiro do mesmo ano. Verificam-se respostas inadequadas e insuficientes do governo brasileiro frente ao conjunto articulado de problemas. A pandemia de Covid-19 consiste em um novo elemento potencializador do aumento recente da fome no Brasil, que ocorre paralelamente ao desmonte dos programas de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional e à ampliação de medidas de austeridade fiscal iniciadas com a crise político-econômica em 2015. Urge resgatar a centralidade da agenda de combate à fome no Brasil, associadamente ao desenvolvimento de contribuições mais robustas sobre o impacto da pandemia nos fenômenos da pobreza e da fome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , Hunger , Food Supply , COVID-19 , Brazil , Social Vulnerability
5.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(3): e390-e397, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Universal health coverage is one of the WHO End TB Strategy priority interventions and could be achieved-particularly in low-income and middle-income countries-through the expansion of primary health care. We evaluated the effects of one of the largest primary health-care programmes in the world, the Brazilian Family Health Strategy (FHS), on tuberculosis morbidity and mortality using a nationwide cohort of 7·3 million individuals over a 10-year study period. METHODS: We analysed individuals who entered the 100 Million Brazilians Cohort during the period Jan 1, 2004, to Dec 31, 2013, and compared residents in municipalities with no FHS coverage with residents in municipalities with full FHS coverage. We used a cohort design with multivariable Poisson regressions, adjusted for all relevant demographic and socioeconomic variables and weighted with inverse probability of treatment weighting, to estimate the effect of FHS on tuberculosis incidence, mortality, cure, and case fatality. We also performed a range of stratifications and sensitivity analyses. FINDINGS: FHS exposure was associated with lower tuberculosis incidence (rate ratio [RR] 0·78, 95% CI 0·72-0·84) and mortality (0·72, 0·55-0·94), and was positively associated with tuberculosis cure rates (1·04, 1·00-1·08). FHS was also associated with a decrease in tuberculosis case-fatality rates, although this was not statistically significant (RR 0·84, 95% CI 0·55-1·30). FHS associations were stronger among the poorest individuals for all the tuberculosis indicators. INTERPRETATION: Community-based primary health care could strongly reduce tuberculosis morbidity and mortality and decrease the unequal distribution of the tuberculosis burden in the most vulnerable populations. During the current marked rise in global poverty due to the COVID-19 pandemic, investments in primary health care could help protect against the expected increases in tuberculosis incidence worldwide and contribute to the attainment of the End TB Strategy goals. FUNDING: TB Modelling and Analysis Consortium (Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation), Wellcome Trust, and Brazilian Ministry of Health. TRANSLATION: For the Portuguese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Community Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/therapy , Universal Health Insurance/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Community Health Services/methods , Female , Humans , Incidence , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Primary Health Care/methods , Young Adult
6.
Sex Transm Infect ; 98(2): 128-131, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691279

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Women living with HIV in the UK are an ethnically diverse group with significant psychosocial challenges. Increasing numbers are reaching older age. We describe psychological and socioeconomic factors among women with HIV in England aged 45-60 and explore associations with ethnicity. METHODS: Analysis of cross-sectional data on 724 women recruited to the PRIME Study. Psychological symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire 4 and social isolation with a modified Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Scale. RESULTS: Black African (BA) women were more likely than Black Caribbean or White British (WB) women to have a university education (48.3%, 27.0%, 25.7%, respectively, p<0.001), but were not more likely to be employed (68.4%, 61.4%, 65.2%, p=0.56) and were less likely to have enough money to meet their basic needs (56.4%, 63.0%, 82.9%, p<0.001). BA women were less likely to report being diagnosed with depression than WB women (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.40, p<0.001) but more likely to report current psychological distress (aOR 3.34, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We report high levels of poverty, psychological distress and social isolation in this ethnically diverse group of midlife women with HIV, especially among those who were BA. Despite being more likely to experience psychological distress, BA women were less likely to have been diagnosed with depression suggesting a possible inequity in access to mental health services. Holistic HIV care requires awareness of the psychosocial needs of older women living with HIV, which may be more pronounced in racially minoritised communities, and prompt referral for support including psychology, peer support and advice about benefits.


Subject(s)
/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/psychology , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Mental Health/ethnology , Socioeconomic Factors , Age Factors , Anxiety/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Middle Aged , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology
8.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 34, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1679967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current Coronavirus disease pandemic reveals political and structural inequities of the world's poorest people who have little or no access to health care and yet the largest burdens of poor health. This is in parallel to a more persistent but silent global health crisis, antimicrobial resistance (AMR). We explore the fundamental challenges of health care in humans and animals in relation to AMR in Tanzania. METHODS: We conducted 57 individual interviews and focus groups with providers and patients in high, middle and lower tier health care facilities and communities across three regions of Tanzania between April 2019 and February 2020. We covered topics from health infrastructure and prescribing practices to health communication and patient experiences. RESULTS: Three interconnected themes emerged about systemic issues impacting health. First, there are challenges around infrastructure and availability of vital resources such as healthcare staff and supplies. Second, health outcomes are predicated on patient and provider access to services as well as social determinants of health. Third, health communication is critical in defining trusted sources of information, and narratives of blame emerge around health outcomes with the onus of responsibility for action falling on individuals. CONCLUSION: Entanglements between infrastructure, access and communication exist while constraints in the health system lead to poor health outcomes even in 'normal' circumstances. These are likely to be relevant across the globe and highly topical for addressing pressing global health challenges. Redressing structural health inequities can better equip countries and their citizens to not only face pandemics but also day-to-day health challenges.


Subject(s)
Health Services Accessibility/standards , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/standards , Social Determinants of Health/standards , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Global Health/standards , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Social Determinants of Health/economics , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Tanzania/epidemiology
9.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(7): e268-e274, 2021 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526159

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Mexico is among the countries in Latin America hit hardest by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A large proportion of older adults in Mexico have high prevalence of multimorbidity and live in poverty with limited access to health care services. These statistics are even higher among adults living in rural areas, which suggest that older adults in rural communities may be more susceptible to COVID-19. The objectives of the article were to compare clinical and demographic characteristics for people diagnosed with COVID-19 by age group, and to describe cases and mortality in rural and urban communities. METHOD: We linked publicly available data from the Mexican Ministry of Health and the Census. Municipalities were classified based on population as rural (<2,500), semirural (≥2,500 and <15,000), semiurban (≥15,000 and <100,000), and urban (≥100,000). Zero-inflated negative binomial models were performed to calculate the total number of COVID-19 cases, and deaths per 1,000,000 persons using the population of each municipality as a denominator. RESULTS: Older adults were more likely to be hospitalized and reported severe cases, with higher mortality rates. In addition, rural municipalities reported a higher number of COVID-19 cases and mortality related to COVID-19 per million than urban municipalities. The adjusted absolute difference in COVID-19 cases was 912.7 per million (95% confidence interval [CI]: 79.0-1746.4) and mortality related to COVID-19 was 390.6 per million (95% CI: 204.5-576.7). DISCUSSION: Urgent policy efforts are needed to mandate the use of face masks, encourage handwashing, and improve specialty care for Mexicans in rural areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Rural Health Services/organization & administration , Urban Health Services/organization & administration
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(41): 1435-1440, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468852

ABSTRACT

Immunization is a safe and cost-effective means of preventing illness in young children and interrupting disease transmission within the community.* The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends vaccination of children against 14 diseases during the first 24 months of life (1). CDC uses National Immunization Survey-Child (NIS-Child) data to monitor routine coverage with ACIP-recommended vaccines in the United States at the national, regional, state, territorial, and selected local levels.† CDC assessed vaccination coverage by age 24 months among children born in 2017 and 2018, with comparisons to children born in 2015 and 2016. Nationally, coverage was highest for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (92.7%); ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (91.9%); ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.6%); and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (VAR) (90.9%). Coverage was lowest for ≥2 doses of influenza vaccine (60.6%). Coverage among children born in 2017-2018 was 2.1-4.5 percentage points higher than it was among those born in 2015-2016 for rotavirus vaccine, ≥1 dose of hepatitis A vaccine (HepA), the HepB birth dose, and ≥2 doses of influenza vaccine. Only 1.0% of children had received no vaccinations by age 24 months. Disparities in coverage were seen for race/ethnicity, poverty status, and health insurance status. Coverage with most vaccines was lower among children who were not privately insured. The largest disparities between insurance categories were among uninsured children, especially for ≥2 doses of influenza vaccine, the combined 7-vaccine series, § and rotavirus vaccination. Reported estimates reflect vaccination opportunities that mostly occurred before disruptions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. Extra efforts are needed to ensure that children who missed vaccinations, including those attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic, receive them as soon as possible to maintain protection against vaccine-preventable illnesses.


Subject(s)
Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines/administration & dosage , /statistics & numerical data , Health Care Surveys , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Infant , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , United States
13.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339593

ABSTRACT

Changes in school meal programs can affect well-being of millions of American children. Since 2014, high-poverty schools and districts nationwide had an option to provide universal free meals (UFM) through the Community Eligibility Provision (CEP). The COVID-19 pandemic expanded UFM to all schools in 2020-2022. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011, we measured CEP effects on school meal participation, attendance, academic achievement, children's body weight, and household food security. To provide plausibly causal estimates, we leveraged the exogenous variation in the timing of CEP implementation across states and estimated a difference-in-difference model with child random effects, school and year fixed effects. On average, CEP participation increased the probability of children's eating free school lunch by 9.3% and daily school attendance by 0.24 percentage points (p < 0.01). We find no evidence that, overall, CEP affected body weight, test scores and household food security among elementary schoolchildren. However, CEP benefited children in low-income families by decreasing the probability of being overweight by 3.1% (p < 0.05) and improving reading scores of Hispanic children by 0.055 standard deviations. UFM expansion can particularly benefit at-risk children and help improve equity in educational and health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Food Assistance/statistics & numerical data , Food Services/statistics & numerical data , Meals , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Academic Success , Body Weight , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Female , Food Security/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lunch , Male , Overweight/epidemiology , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , United States/epidemiology
14.
Med Care ; 59(10): 888-892, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337299

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite many studies reporting disparities in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) incidence and outcomes in Black and Hispanic/Latino populations, mechanisms are not fully understood to inform mitigation strategies. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to test whether neighborhood factors beyond individual patient-level factors are associated with in-hospital mortality from COVID-19. We hypothesized that the Area Deprivation Index (ADI), a neighborhood census-block-level composite measure, was associated with COVID-19 mortality independently of race, ethnicity, and other patient factors. RESEARCH DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective cohort study examining COVID-19 in-hospital mortality. SUBJECTS: Inclusion required hospitalization with positive SARS-CoV-2 test or COVID-19 diagnosis at three large Midwestern academic centers. MEASURES: The primary study outcome was COVID-19 in-hospital mortality. Patient-level predictors included age, sex, race, insurance, body mass index, comorbidities, and ventilation. Neighborhoods were examined through the national ADI neighborhood deprivation rank comparing in-hospital mortality across ADI quintiles. Analyses used multivariable logistic regression with fixed site effects. RESULTS: Among 5999 COVID-19 patients median age was 61 (interquartile range: 44-73), 48% were male, 30% Black, and 10.8% died. Among patients who died, 32% lived in the most disadvantaged quintile while 11% lived in the least disadvantaged quintile; 52% of Black, 24% of Hispanic/Latino, and 8.5% of White patients lived in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods.Living in the most disadvantaged neighborhood quintile predicted higher mortality (adjusted odds ratio: 1.74; 95% confidence interval: 1.13-2.67) independent of race. Age, male sex, Medicare coverage, and ventilation also predicted mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Neighborhood disadvantage independently predicted in-hospital COVID-19 mortality. Findings support calls to consider neighborhood measures for vaccine distribution and policies to mitigate disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , COVID-19 Testing , Comorbidity , Humans , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Midwestern United States/epidemiology , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors
15.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 34: e200170, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1285223

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This scientific note presents preliminary developments of the Covid-19 pandemic on unemployment, poverty, and hunger in Brazil. The data on unemployment rate, un employment insurance claims, contingent of families in extreme poverty, and food insecurity was collected in government information systems, research published by public agencies, scientific articles, and in news portals. In an upward trajectory since 2015, the increase in unemployment and the number of families in extreme poverty was exacerbated after the pandemic began, drastically reducing the purchase power and access to healthy and adequate food, affecting mainly women and the populations of the Northern and Northeastern regions. Between January and September 2020, there was a 3% increase in unemployment in Brazil and, in October 2020, there were almost 485 thousand more families in extreme poverty compared to January of the same year. There are inadequate and insufficient responses from the Brazilian government to the articulated set of problems. The Covid-19 pandemic is a new element that potentiates the recent increase in hunger in Brazil, which occurs in parallel with the dismantling of the Food and Nutrition Security programs and the expansion of fiscal austerity measures, started with the political-economic crisis in 2015. There is an urgent need to recover the centrality of the agenda to fight hunger in Brazil, associated with the development of more robust contributions on the impact of the pandemic on the phenomena of poverty and hunger.


RESUMO Nesta nota científica apresentam-se desdobramentos preliminares da pandemia de Covid-19 sobre o desemprego, a pobreza e a fome no Brasil. Utilizaram-se dados sobre a taxa de desocupação, solicitações de seguro-desemprego e contingente de famílias em extrema pobreza e em insegurança alimentar, coletados em sistemas de informação governamentais, em pesquisas publicadas por órgãos públicos, em artigos científicos e em portais de notícias. Em trajetória ascendente, desde 2015, identificou-se um aumento do desemprego e do número de famílias em extrema pobreza após a instauração da pandemia, o que pode reduzir drasticamente o poder de compra e o acesso à alimentação adequada e saudável, afetando, principalmente, as mulheres e a população das regiões Norte e Nordeste. Entre janeiro e setembro de 2020, houve o aumento de 3% desemprego no Brasil e, em outubro de 2020, havia quase 485 mil famílias a mais em situação de extrema pobreza, relativamente a janeiro do mesmo ano. Verificam-se respostas inadequadas e insuficientes do governo brasileiro frente ao conjunto articulado de problemas. A pandemia de Covid-19 consiste em um novo elemento potencializador do aumento recente da fome no Brasil, que ocorre paralelamente ao desmonte dos programas de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional e à ampliação de medidas de austeridade fiscal iniciadas com a crise político-econômica em 2015. Urge resgatar a centralidade da agenda de combate à fome no Brasil, associadamente ao desenvolvimento de contribuições mais robustas sobre o impacto da pandemia nos fenômenos da pobreza e da fome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , Hunger , Food Supply , COVID-19 , Brazil , Social Vulnerability
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2113787, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274644

ABSTRACT

Importance: COVID-19 lockdowns may affect economic and health outcomes, but evidence from low- and middle-income countries remains limited. Objective: To assess the economic security, food security, health, and sexual behavior of women at high risk of HIV infection in rural Kenya during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study of women enrolled in a randomized trial in a rural county in Kenya combined results from phone interviews, conducted while social distancing measures were in effect between May 13 and June 29, 2020, with longitudinal, in-person surveys administered between September 1, 2019, and March 25, 2020. Enrolled participants were HIV-negative and had 2 or more sexual partners within the past month. Surveys collected information on economic conditions, food security, health status, and sexual behavior. Subgroup analyses compared outcomes by reliance on transactional sex for income and by educational attainment. Data were analyzed between May 2020 and April 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Self-reported income, employment hours, numbers of sexual partners and transactional sex partners, food security, and COVID-19 prevention behaviors. Results: A total of 1725 women participated, with a mean (SD) age of 29.3 (6.8) years and 1170 (68.0%) reporting sex work as an income source before the COVID-19 pandemic. During the pandemic, participants reported experiencing a 52% decline in mean (SD) weekly income, from $11.25 (13.46) to $5.38 (12.51) (difference, -$5.86; 95% CI, -$6.91 to -$4.82; P < .001). In all, 1385 participants (80.3%) reported difficulty obtaining food in the past month, and 1500 (87.0%) worried about having enough to eat at least once. Reported numbers of sexual partners declined from a mean (SD) total of 1.8 (1.2) partners before COVID-19 to 1.1 (1.0) during (difference, -0.75 partners; 95% CI, -0.84 to -0.67 partners; P < .001), and transactional sex partners declined from 1.0 (1.1) to 0.5 (0.8) (difference, -0.57 partners; 95% CI, -0.64 to -0.50 partners; P < .001). In subgroup analyses, women reliant on transactional sex for income were 18.3% (95% CI, 11.4% to 25.2%) more likely to report being sometimes or often worried that their household would have enough food than women not reliant on transactional sex (P < .001), and their reported decline in employment was 4.6 hours (95% CI, -7.9 to -1.2 hours) greater than women not reliant on transactional sex (P = .008). Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey study, COVID-19 was associated with large reductions in economic security among women at high risk of HIV infection in Kenya. However, shifts in sexual behavior may have temporarily decreased their risk of HIV infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections/etiology , Income/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Female , Humans , Kenya , Longitudinal Studies , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk-Taking , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Work/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Partners , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 54(3): 161-165, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259659

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads heterogeneously, disproportionately impacting poor and minority communities. The relationship between poverty and race is complex, with a diverse set of structural and systemic factors driving higher rates of poverty among minority populations. The factors that specifically contribute to the disproportionate rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection, however, are not clearly understood. METHODS: We evaluated SARS-CoV-2 test results from community-based testing sites in Los Angeles, California, between June and December, 2020. We used tester zip code data to link those results with United States Census report data on average annual household income, rates of healthcare coverage, and employment status by zip code. RESULTS: We analyzed 2 141 127 SARS-CoV-2 test results, of which 245 154 (11.4%) were positive. Multivariable modeling showed a higher likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 test positivity among Hispanic communities than among other races. We found an increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 positivity among individuals from zip codes with an average annual household income

Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
18.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 78(8): 886-895, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242697

ABSTRACT

Importance: Provisional records from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) through July 2020 indicate that overdose deaths spiked during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic, yet more recent trends are not available, and the data are not disaggregated by month of occurrence, race/ethnicity, or other social categories. In contrast, data from emergency medical services (EMS) provide a source of information nearly in real time that may be useful for rapid and more granular surveillance of overdose mortality. Objective: To describe racial/ethnic, social, and geographic trends in EMS-observed overdose-associated cardiac arrests during the COVID-19 pandemic through December 2020 and assess the concordance with CDC-reported provisional total overdose mortality through May 2020. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included more than 11 000 EMS agencies in 49 US states that participate in the National EMS Information System and 83.7 million EMS activations in which patient contact was made. Exposures: Year and month of occurrence of overdose-associated cardiac arrest; patient race/ethnicity; census region and division; county-level urbanicity; and zip code-level racial/ethnic composition, poverty, and educational attainment. Main Outcomes and Measures: Overdose-associated cardiac arrests per 100 000 EMS activations with patient contact in 2020 were compared with a baseline of values from 2018 and 2019. Aggregate numbers of overdose-associated cardiac arrests and percentage increases were compared with provisional total mortality in CDC records from rolling 12-month windows with end months spanning January 2018 through July 2020. Results: Among 33.4 million EMS activations in 2020, 16.8 million (50.2%) involved female patients and 16.3 million (48.8%) involved non-Hispanic White individuals. Overdose-associated cardiac arrests were elevated by 42.1% nationally in 2020 (42.3 per 100 000 EMS activations at baseline vs 60.1 per 100 000 EMS activations in 2020). The highest percentage increases were seen among Latinx individuals (49.7%; 38.8 per 100 000 activations at baseline vs 58.1 per 100 000 activations in 2020) and Black or African American individuals (50.3%; 21.5 per 100 000 activations at baseline vs 32.3 per 100 000 activations in 2020), people living in more impoverished neighborhoods (46.4%; 42.0 per 100 000 activations at baseline vs 61.5 per 100 000 activations in 2020), and the Pacific states (63.8%; 33.1 per 100 000 activations at baseline vs 54.2 per 100 000 activations in 2020), despite lower rates at baseline for these groups. The EMS records were available 6 to 12 months ahead of CDC mortality figures and showed a high concordance (r = 0.98) for months in which both data sets were available. If the historical association between EMS-observed and total overdose mortality holds true, an expected total of approximately 90 632 (95% CI, 85 737-95 525) overdose deaths may eventually be reported by the CDC for 2020. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, records from EMS agencies provided an effective manner to rapidly surveil shifts in US overdose mortality. Unprecedented overdose deaths during the pandemic necessitate investments in overdose prevention as an essential aspect of the COVID-19 response and postpandemic recovery. This is particularly urgent for more socioeconomically disadvantaged and racial/ethnic minority communities subjected to the compounded burden of disproportionate COVID-19 mortality and rising overdose deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Drug Overdose/ethnology , Female , Heart Arrest/ethnology , Hispanic or Latino/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Whites/statistics & numerical data
19.
New Solut ; 31(2): 113-124, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221723

ABSTRACT

Women make up the large majority of workers in global supply chains, especially factories in the apparel supply chain. These workers face significant inequalities in wages, workplace hazards, and a special burden of gender-based violence and harassment. These "normal" conditions have been compounded by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has exacerbated long-standing structural inequities. Decades of well-financed "corporate social responsibility" programs have failed because they do not address the underlying causes of illegal and abusive working conditions. New initiatives in the past half-decade offer promise in putting the needs and rights of workers front and center. Occupational health and safety professionals can assist in the global effort to improve working and social conditions, and respect for the rights and dignity of women workers, through advocacy and action on the job, in their professional associations, and in society at large.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clothing , Manufacturing Industry/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Women , Workplace , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Salaries and Fringe Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Harassment/statistics & numerical data , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Women's Rights/statistics & numerical data , Women's Rights/trends
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(6): e22999, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217015

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On January 21, 2020, the World Health Organization reported the first case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which rapidly evolved to the COVID-19 pandemic. Since then, the virus has also rapidly spread among Latin American, Caribbean, and African countries. OBJECTIVE: The first aim of this study is to identify new emerging COVID-19 clusters over time and space (from January 21 to mid-May 2020) in Latin American, Caribbean, and African regions, using a prospective space-time scan measurement approach. The second aim is to assess the impact of real-time population mobility patterns between January 21 and May 18, 2020, under the implemented government interventions, measurements, and policy restrictions on COVID-19 spread among those regions and worldwide. METHODS: We created a global COVID-19 database, of 218 countries and territories, merging the World Health Organization daily case reports with other measures such as population density and country income levels for January 21 to May 18, 2020. A score of government policy interventions was created for low, intermediate, high, and very high interventions. The population's mobility patterns at the country level were obtained from Google community mobility reports. The prospective space-time scan statistic method was applied in five time periods between January and May 2020, and a regression mixed model analysis was used. RESULTS: We found that COVID-19 emerging clusters within these five periods of time increased from 7 emerging clusters to 28 by mid-May 2020. We also detected various increasing and decreasing relative risk estimates of COVID-19 spread among Latin American, Caribbean, and African countries within the period of analysis. Globally, population mobility to parks and similar leisure areas during at least a minimum of implemented intermediate-level control policies (when compared to low-level control policies) was related to accelerated COVID-19 spread. Results were almost consistent when regional stratified analysis was applied. In addition, worldwide population mobility due to working during high implemented control policies and very high implemented control policies, when compared to low-level control policies, was related to positive COVID-19 spread. CONCLUSIONS: The prospective space-time scan is an approach that low-income and middle-income countries could use to detect emerging clusters in a timely manner and implement specific control policies and interventions to slow down COVID-19 transmission. In addition, real-time population mobility obtained from crowdsourced digital data could be useful for current and future targeted public health and mitigation policies at a global and regional level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Class
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