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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e26102, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191016

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Healthcare workers (HWs) perform a critical role not only in the clinical management of patients but also in providing adequate infection control and prevention measures and waste management procedures to be implemented in healthcare facilities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness and knowledge of COVID-19 infection control precautions and waste management procedures among HWs in Saudi Arabian hospitals.This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Information on knowledge, awareness, and practice of infection control and waste management procedures were obtained from the HWs using a structured questionnaire. A thematic analysis was used to analyze the data.Our findings indicated that most of the study participants were knowledgeable, with a mean score of 78.3%. In total, 92.5%, 90.3%, and 91.7% of the participants were aware of the infection control precautions, COVID-19 waste management procedures, the availability of infection control supplies, respectively. HWs' Knowledge regarding waste management and infection control procedures correlated significantly with sex (P ≤ .001 and <.001), education (P = .024 and .043), and working experience (P = .029 and .009), respectively.Most participants appreciated the importance of their role in infection control, surveillance, and monitoring of the ongoing safety practices in their patients as well as their facilities and communities.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Infection Control/standards , Medical Waste Disposal/standards , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Facilities/standards , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
5.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1350-1367, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153223

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world, predominantly due to lung and cardiovascular injury. The virus responsible for COVID-19-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-gains entry into host cells via ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2). ACE2 is a primary enzyme within the key counter-regulatory pathway of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which acts to oppose the actions of Ang (angiotensin) II by generating Ang-(1-7) to reduce inflammation and fibrosis and mitigate end organ damage. As COVID-19 spans multiple organ systems linked to the cardiovascular system, it is imperative to understand clearly how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may affect the multifaceted RAS. In addition, recognition of the role of ACE2 and the RAS in COVID-19 has renewed interest in its role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease in general. We provide researchers with a framework of best practices in basic and clinical research to interrogate the RAS using appropriate methodology, especially those who are relatively new to the field. This is crucial, as there are many limitations inherent in investigating the RAS in experimental models and in humans. We discuss sound methodological approaches to quantifying enzyme content and activity (ACE, ACE2), peptides (Ang II, Ang-[1-7]), and receptors (types 1 and 2 Ang II receptors, Mas receptor). Our goal is to ensure appropriate research methodology for investigations of the RAS in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and COVID-19 to ensure optimal rigor and reproducibility and appropriate interpretation of results from these investigations.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Blood Pressure Determination/methods , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Incidence , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Prognosis , Research Design , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology
6.
Crit Care Med ; 48(6): e440-e469, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting thousands of people around the world. Urgent guidance for clinicians caring for the sickest of these patients is needed. METHODS: We formed a panel of 36 experts from 12 countries. All panel members completed the World Health Organization conflict of interest disclosure form. The panel proposed 53 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 in the ICU. We searched the literature for direct and indirect evidence on the management of COVID-19 in critically ill patients in the ICU. We identified relevant and recent systematic reviews on most questions relating to supportive care. We assessed the certainty in the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, then generated recommendations based on the balance between benefit and harm, resource and cost implications, equity, and feasibility. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of best practice recommendations. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued 54 statements, of which four are best practice statements, nine are strong recommendations, and 35 are weak recommendations. No recommendation was provided for six questions. The topics were: 1) infection control, 2) laboratory diagnosis and specimens, 3) hemodynamic support, 4) ventilatory support, and 5) COVID-19 therapy. CONCLUSION: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued several recommendations to help support healthcare workers caring for critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19. When available, we will provide new evidence in further releases of these guidelines.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/standards , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Intensive Care Units/standards , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/therapy
7.
Clin J Sport Med ; 31(1): 1-6, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135703

ABSTRACT

The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) convened a writing group to address the current evidence and knowledge gaps regarding preparticipation evaluation of athletes during the SARS-CoV2 pandemic. The writing group held a series of meetings beginning in April 2020. The task force reviewed the available literature and used an iterative process and expert consensus to finalize this guidance statement that is intended to provide clinicians with a clinical framework to return athletes of all levels to training and competition during the pandemic. The statement is not intended to address treatment, infection control principles, or public health issues related to SARS-CoV2. The AMSSM task force acknowledges the clinical uncertainty, evolving public health objectives, and the limited data currently available to create this guidance statement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Physical Examination/standards , Sports Medicine/methods , Advisory Committees , Athletes , Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Societies, Medical
8.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(1): 75-83, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Shortages of personal protective equipment during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have led to the extended use or reuse of single-use respirators and surgical masks by frontline healthcare workers. The evidence base underpinning such practices warrants examination. OBJECTIVES: To synthesize current guidance and systematic review evidence on extended use, reuse, or reprocessing of single-use surgical masks or filtering face-piece respirators. DATA SOURCES: We used the World Health Organization, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Public Health England websites to identify guidance. We used Medline, PubMed, Epistemonikos, Cochrane Database, and preprint servers for systematic reviews. METHODS: Two reviewers conducted screening and data extraction. The quality of included systematic reviews was appraised using AMSTAR-2. Findings were narratively synthesized. RESULTS: In total, 6 guidance documents were identified. Levels of detail and consistency across documents varied. They included 4 high-quality systematic reviews: 3 focused on reprocessing (decontamination) of N95 respirators and 1 focused on reprocessing of surgical masks. Vaporized hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation were highlighted as the most promising reprocessing methods, but evidence on the relative efficacy and safety of different methods was limited. We found no well-established methods for reprocessing respirators at scale. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence on the impact of extended use and reuse of surgical masks and respirators is limited, and gaps and inconsistencies exist in current guidance. Where extended use or reuse is being practiced, healthcare organizations should ensure that policies and systems are in place to ensure these practices are carried out safely and in line with available guidance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Equipment Reuse/standards , Infection Control/instrumentation , Masks/virology , N95 Respirators/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk Management/methods , Risk Management/standards
10.
JAMA ; 328(16): 1580, 2022 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094106
11.
BMJ ; 369: m1672, 2020 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078903

ABSTRACT

Guideline: Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection in pregnancyPublished by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG), with input from the Royal College of Midwives, the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPH), the Royal College of Anaesthetists, and the Obstetric Anaesthetists' Association.This summary is based on version 8 of the guideline, published on 17 April 2020 (https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/2020-04-17-coronavirus-covid-19-infection-in-pregnancy.pdf).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Postnatal Care , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Prenatal Care , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
12.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 164(16): 63, 2022 09.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075707
15.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 119(19): 342-349, 2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002483

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One of the purposes of outpatient treatment for COVID-19 patients is to prevent severe disease courses and hospitalization. There is a need for evidence-based recommendations to be applied in primary care and specialized outpatient settings. METHODS: This guideline was developed on the basis of publications that were retrieved by a systematic search for randomized controlled trials in the Cochrane COVID-19 trial registry. The quality of evidence was assessed with GRADE, and structured consensus generation was carried out with MAGICapp. RESULTS: Unvaccinated COVID-19 outpatients with at least one risk factor for a severe disease course may be treated in the early phase of the disease with sotrovimab, remdesivir, or nirmatrelvir/ritonavir. Molnupiravir may also be used for such patients if no other clinically appropriate treatment options are available. Immunosuppressed persons with COVID-19 who are at high risk, and whose response to vaccination is expected to be reduced, ought to be treated with sotrovimab. It should be noted, however, that the clinical efficacy of sotrovimab against infections with the omicron subtype BA.2 is uncertain at the currently used dose, as the drug has displayed reduced activity against this subtype in vitro. COVID-19 patients at risk of a severe course may be offered budesonide inhalation, according to an off-label recommendation of the German College of General Practitioners and Family Physicians (other medical societies do not recommend either for or against this treatment). Thrombo - embolism prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin may be given to elderly patients or those with a pre-existing illness. No recommendation is made concerning fluvoxamine or colchicine. Acetylsalicylic acid, azithromycin, ivermectin, systemic steroids, and vitamin D should not be used for the outpatient treatment of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Drug treatment is now available for outpatients with COVID-19 in the early phase. Nearly all of the relevant trials have been conducted in unvaccinated subjects; this needs to be kept in mind in patient selection.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19 , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Treatment Outcome
16.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 119, 2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The provision of care to pregnant persons and neonates must continue through pandemics. To maintain quality of care, while minimizing physical contact during the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-related Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2) pandemic, hospitals and international organizations issued recommendations on maternity and neonatal care delivery and restructuring of clinical and academic services. Early in the pandemic, recommendations relied on expert opinion, and offered a one-size-fits-all set of guidelines. Our aim was to examine these recommendations and provide the rationale and context to guide clinicians, administrators, educators, and researchers, on how to adapt maternity and neonatal services during the pandemic, regardless of jurisdiction. METHOD: Our initial database search used Medical subject headings and free-text search terms related to coronavirus infections, pregnancy and neonatology, and summarized relevant recommendations from international society guidelines. Subsequent targeted searches to December 30, 2020, included relevant publications in general medical and obstetric journals, and updated society recommendations. RESULTS: We identified 846 titles and abstracts, of which 105 English-language publications fulfilled eligibility criteria and were included in our study. A multidisciplinary team representing clinicians from various disciplines, academics, administrators and training program directors critically appraised the literature to collate recommendations by multiple jurisdictions, including a quaternary care Canadian hospital, to provide context and rationale for viable options. INTERPRETATION: There are different schools of thought regarding effective practices in obstetric and neonatal services. Our critical review presents the rationale to effectively modify services, based on the phase of the pandemic, the prevalence of infection in the population, and resource availability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Maternal-Child Health Services/organization & administration , Perinatal Care , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19/therapy , Canada , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Inpatients , Organizational Policy , Outpatients , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e060767, 2022 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973843

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is a highly infectious disease, characterised by respiratory, physical and psychological dysfunctions. Rehabilitation could effectively alleviate the symptoms and promote recovery of the physical and mental health of patients with COVID-19. Recently, rehabilitation medical institutions have issued clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and expert consensus statements involving recommendations for rehabilitation assessments and rehabilitation therapies for COVID-19. This systematic review aims to assess the methodological quality and reporting quality of the guidance documents, evaluate the heterogeneity of the recommendations and summarise the recommendations with respect to rehabilitation assessments and rehabilitation therapies for COVID-19 to provide a quick reference for front-line clinicians, therapists and patients as well as reasonable suggestions for future guidelines. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP), Wanfang Database and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and websites of governments or organisations (eg, National Guideline Clearinghouse, Guidelines International Network, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and WHO) will be searched for eligible CPGs and expert consensus statements from inception to August 2022. CPGs and expert consensus statements published in Chinese or English and presenting recommendations for modern functional rehabilitation techniques and/or traditional Chinese medicine rehabilitation techniques for COVID-19 will be included. Reviews, interpretations, old versions of CPGs and expert consensus statements and those for the management of other diseases during the pandemic will be excluded. Two reviewers will independently review each article, extract data, appraise the methodological quality following the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II tool and assess the reporting quality with the Reporting Items for Practice Guidelines in Healthcare statement. The Measurement Scale of Rate of Agreement will be used to evaluate the heterogeneity of the recommendations in different CPGs and expert consensus statements. Agreement between reviewers will be calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient. We will also summarise the recommendations for rehabilitation in patients with COVID-19. The results will be narratively described and presented as tables or figures. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not needed for this systematic review because information from published documents will be used. The findings will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal and reported in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020190761.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/rehabilitation , China , Consensus , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Research Design , Systematic Reviews as Topic
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 873881, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933897

ABSTRACT

During health emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers face numerous ethical challenges while catering to the needs of patients in healthcare settings. Although the data recapitulating high-income countries ethics frameworks are available, the challenges faced by clinicians in resource-limited settings of low- and middle-income countries are not discussed widely due to a lack of baseline data or evidence. The Nepali healthcare system, which is chronically understaffed and underequipped, was severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in its capacity to manage health services and resources for needy patients, leading to ethical dilemmas and challenges during clinical practice. This study aimed to develop a standard guideline that would address syndemic ethical dilemmas during clinical care of COVID-19 patients who are unable to afford standard-of-care. A mixed method study was conducted between February and June of 2021 in 12 government designated COVID-19 treatment hospitals in central Nepal. The draft guideline was discussed among the key stakeholders in the pandemic response in Nepal. The major ethical dilemmas confronted by the study participants (50 healthcare professionals providing patient care at COVID-19 treatment hospitals) could be grouped into five major pillars of ethical clinical practice: rational allocation of medical resources, updated treatment protocols that guide clinical decisions, standard-of-care regardless of patient's economic status, effective communication among stakeholders for prompt patient care, and external factors such as political and bureaucratic interference affecting ethical practice. This living clinical ethics guideline, which has been developed based on the local evidence and case stories of frontline responders, is expected to inform the policymakers as well as the decision-makers positioned at the concerned government units. These ethics guidelines could be endorsed with revisions by the concerned regulatory authorities for the use during consequent waves of COVID-19 and other epidemics that may occur in the future. Other countries affected by the pandemic could conduct similar studies to explore ethical practices in the local clinical and public health context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethics, Clinical , Evidence-Based Medicine , Health Services , Humans , Nepal , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic
19.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263267, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The hospitalization of children during the COVID-19 pandemic has affected their physical and mental health. Pediatric nurses have faced challenges in providing high-quality nursing care for children and their families. However, the pediatric nursing care recommendations for COVID-19 patients in the hospital setting remain unclear. The current scoping review provides recommendations for nursing interventions for pediatric COVID-19 patients in the hospital setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The selected articles containing management and nursing recommendations for COVID-19 that have occurred in pediatric patients ages 0-19 years old. A search strategy was developed and implemented in seven databases. We included peer-reviewed articles that reported observational or interventional studies, as well as policy papers, guides or guidelines, letters and editorials, and web articles. A total of 134 articles and other documents relevant to this review were included. We categorized the results based on The Nursing Intervention Classification (NIC) taxonomy which consists of six domains (e.g., Physiological: Basic); eleven classes (e.g., Nutrition Support); and eighteen intervention themes (e.g., Positioning, Family Presence Facilitation, Family Support, and Discharge Planning). CONCLUSION: Apart from the intervention of physical problems, there is a need to promote patient- and family-centered care, play therapy, and discharge planning to help children and families cope with their new situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Hospitalization , Nursing Care/methods , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mental Health , Young Adult
20.
Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars ; 48(Suppl 1): 1-87, 2020 05.
Article in Turkish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835513

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, in the city of Wuhan, in the Hubei province of China, treatment-resistant cases of pneumonia emerged and spread rapidly for reasons unknown. A new strain of coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 [SARS-CoV-2]) was identified and caused the first pandemic of the 21st century. The virus was officially detected in our country on March 11, 2020, and the number of cases increased rapidly; the virus was isolated in 670 patients within 10 days. The rapid increase in the number of patients has required our physicians to learn to protect both the public and themselves when treating patients with this highly infectious disease. The group most affected by the outbreak and with the highest mortality rate is elderly patients with known cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is necessary for cardiology specialists to take an active role in combating the epidemic. The aim of this article is to make a brief assessment of current information regarding the management of cardiovascular patients affected by COVID-19 and to provide practical suggestions to cardiology specialists about problems and questions they have frequently encountered.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cardiology/standards , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
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