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1.
Open Heart ; 8(2)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, the National Health Service (NHS) recommended that appropriate patients anticoagulated with warfarin should be switched to direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs), requiring less frequent blood testing. Subsequently, a national safety alert was issued regarding patients being inappropriately coprescribed two anticoagulants following a medication change and associated monitoring. OBJECTIVE: To describe which people were switched from warfarin to DOACs; identify potentially unsafe coprescribing of anticoagulants; and assess whether abnormal clotting results have become more frequent during the pandemic. METHODS: With the approval of NHS England, we conducted a cohort study using routine clinical data from 24 million NHS patients in England. RESULTS: 20 000 of 164 000 warfarin patients (12.2%) switched to DOACs between March and May 2020, most commonly to edoxaban and apixaban. Factors associated with switching included: older age, recent renal function test, higher number of recent INR tests recorded, atrial fibrillation diagnosis and care home residency. There was a sharp rise in coprescribing of warfarin and DOACs from typically 50-100 per month to 246 in April 2020, 0.06% of all people receiving a DOAC or warfarin. International normalised ratio (INR) testing fell by 14% to 506.8 patients tested per 1000 warfarin patients each month. We observed a very small increase in elevated INRs (n=470) during April compared with January (n=420). CONCLUSIONS: Increased switching of anticoagulants from warfarin to DOACs was observed at the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic in England following national guidance. There was a small but substantial number of people coprescribed warfarin and DOACs during this period. Despite a national safety alert on the issue, a widespread rise in elevated INR test results was not found. Primary care has responded rapidly to changes in patient care during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19 , Drug Substitution/standards , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , State Medicine/standards , Warfarin/administration & dosage , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Blood Coagulation Tests , Drug Monitoring , Drug Prescriptions , Drug Substitution/adverse effects , Drug Utilization/standards , England , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Primary Health Care/standards , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Warfarin/adverse effects
3.
Anesth Analg ; 133(4): 876-890, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412364

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), often results in severe hypoxemia requiring airway management. Because SARS-CoV-2 virus is spread via respiratory droplets, bag-mask ventilation, intubation, and extubation may place health care workers (HCW) at risk. While existing recommendations address airway management in patients with COVID-19, no guidance exists specifically for difficult airway management. Some strategies normally recommended for difficult airway management may not be ideal in the setting of COVID-19 infection. To address this issue, the Society for Airway Management (SAM) created a task force to review existing literature and current practice guidelines for difficult airway management by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Management of the Difficult Airway. The SAM task force created recommendations for the management of known or suspected difficult airway in the setting of known or suspected COVID-19 infection. The goal of the task force was to optimize successful airway management while minimizing exposure risk. Each member conducted a literature review on specific clinical practice section utilizing standard search engines (PubMed, Ovid, Google Scholar). Existing recommendations and evidence for difficult airway management in the COVID-19 context were developed. Each specific recommendation was discussed among task force members and modified until unanimously approved by all task force members. Elements of Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) Reporting Checklist for dissemination of clinical practice guidelines were utilized to develop this statement. Airway management in the COVID-19 patient increases HCW exposure risk. Difficult airway management often takes longer and may involve multiple procedures with aerosolization potential, and strict adherence to personal protective equipment (PPE) protocols is mandatory to reduce risk to providers. When a patient's airway risk assessment suggests that awake tracheal intubation is an appropriate choice of technique, and procedures that may cause increased aerosolization of secretions should be avoided. Optimal preoxygenation before induction with a tight seal facemask may be performed to reduce the risk of hypoxemia. Unless the patient is experiencing oxygen desaturation, positive pressure bag-mask ventilation after induction may be avoided to reduce aerosolization. For optimal intubating conditions, patients should be anesthetized with full muscle relaxation. Videolaryngoscopy is recommended as a first-line strategy for airway management. If emergent invasive airway access is indicated, then we recommend a surgical technique such as scalpel-bougie-tube, rather than an aerosolizing generating procedure, such as transtracheal jet ventilation. This statement represents recommendations by the SAM task force for the difficult airway management of adults with COVID-19 with the goal to optimize successful airway management while minimizing the risk of clinician exposure.


Subject(s)
Airway Management/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/standards , Infection Control/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Societies, Medical/standards , Adult , Advisory Committees/standards , Airway Extubation/methods , Airway Extubation/standards , Airway Management/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards
7.
Curr Opin Hematol ; 28(6): 394-400, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377996

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the clinical experience of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in hematopoietic cell transplant and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy recipients over the past year and to identify key knowledge gaps for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Immunocompromised individuals and those with chronic health conditions are especially susceptible to infections, which have had a disproportionate impact on health outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Several studies have evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of transplant and cellular therapy (TCT) recipients who developed COVID-19. Age, sex, comorbid conditions, and social determinants of health are important predictors of the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and of the eventual severity of the disease. Various treatment approaches have been investigated over the last year. The paradigm of management strategies continues to evolve as more experience is accumulated. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize some important findings as they relate to the clinical characteristics of TCT recipients who develop COVID-19. We also discuss some treatment approaches that are currently recommended and opine on vaccination in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/standards , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/standards , Immunocompromised Host , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/immunology , Transplant Recipients/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
Curr Opin Hematol ; 28(6): 389-393, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377995

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) impacted every facet of hematopoietic cell transplantation. This article reviews the adjustments to recipient and donor care that occurred in response to this unprecedented event. RECENT FINDINGS: Transplant centers modified algorithms, patient flow, education, and how we provided care. Our donor center partners reworked how donors were evaluated and products delivered to the transplant center. Our professional societies provided guidelines for patient and donor care and rapidly modified these based upon the never-ending stream of new data learned about SARS-CoV-2. Our research organizations provided rapid analyses to ensure the care modifications necessitated did not have a profound negative impact on our patients or donors. SUMMARY: The efforts of transplant providers and donor centers worldwide allowed patients to receive the transplant needed with assurances that they were receiving the best care available despite the worldwide challenge.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tissue Donors/supply & distribution , Transplant Recipients/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/virology , Humans
9.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 20(5): e154-e159, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360886

ABSTRACT

There is disagreement between international guidelines on the level of personal protective equipment (PPE) required for chest compressions for patients with suspected COVID-19. This discrepancy centres on whether they are considered to be an aerosol-generating procedure (AGP), thus requiring airborne protection to prevent transmission to healthcare workers (HCWs). The need to don higher-level PPE has to be weighed against the resulting delay to emergency treatment.We performed a literature search on this topic which found eight relevant studies. All were observational with low patient numbers and multiple confounding factors, but describe cases of acute respiratory infection transmission during chest compressions. One systematic review concluded that chest compressions were not an AGP. Two simulated studies (released as preprints) potentially demonstrate aerosol generation. Given that there is evidence for infection transmission during chest compressions, we conclude that a precautionary approach with appropriate PPE is necessary to protect HCW from contracting a potentially fatal infection.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Aerosols/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Occupational Health , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , United Kingdom
10.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 36(4): 757-765, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359308

ABSTRACT

Since the first outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), ongoing efforts have been made to discover an efficacious vaccine against COVID-19 to combat the pandemic. In most countries, both mRNA and DNA vaccines have been administered, and their side effects have also been reported. The clinical course of COVID-19 and the effects of vaccination against COVID-19 are both influenced by patients' health status and involve a systemic physiological response. In view of the systemic function of endocrine hormones, endocrine disorders themselves and the therapeutics used to treat them can influence the outcomes of vaccination for COVID-19. However, there are very limited data to support the development of clinical guidelines for patients with specific medical backgrounds based on large clinical trials. In the current severe circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic, position statements made by clinical specialists are essential to provide appropriate recommendations based on both medical evidence and clinical experiences. As endocrinologists, we would like to present the medical background of COVID-19 vaccination, as well as precautions to prevent the side effects of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with specific endocrine disorders, including adrenal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, autoimmune thyroid disease, hypogonadism, and pituitary disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , Endocrine System Diseases , Endocrinologists/standards , Societies, Medical/standards , Vaccination/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Endocrine System Diseases/immunology , Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
11.
Klin Onkol ; 34(3): 211-219, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory tract infection caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2, initially emerged in China in late 2019. The rapid global spread of this novel virus led the World Health Organization declare a pandemic with > 30,000,000 confirmed cases, 946,000 deaths and > 21,000,000 recoveries reported as of 18 September 2020, according to the Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. Initial reports from Asia suggested that elderly patients with multiple comorbidities, specifically diabetes, hypertension, and obesity were at an increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 following a SARS-CoV-2 infection. As data on these risks have evolved, evidence has increasingly shown that patients with cancer are indeed a particularly vulnerable group. However, the effects of various confounding factors, including an older than average patient population who often have underlying comorbidities including a suppressed immune system and/ or a hypercoagulable state, have been difficult to separate from the effects of having cancer. Common presenting symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 including dyspnoea, cough, fever, fatigue, dysgeusia and, less commonly, diarrhoea and/ or a hyperinflammatory syndrome are equally confusing to clinicians as they all are common symptoms of both cancer and toxicity from anti-cancer therapy. Furthermore, the radiographic dilemma of distinguishing between immune-checkpoint inhibitor-induced pneumonitis from that caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection and conflicting data on the effects of certain therapies on patient outcomes has left clinicians with considerable angst on how to help patients with acute or worsening symptoms in an optimal way. Predicted increase in mortality follows not only from the delay in discovery and progress resulting from temporary closing of research laboratories at cancer centers but also from diversion of resources to patient care and temporary suspension of clinical trial enrolment both by companies and local institutions. The possibilities of travelling to specialized medical centers whose activities are essential for the delivery and improvement of patient care were reduced, too. Viral mutations might also occur during transmission and spread; this leads to a statement that SARS-CoV-2 will forever remain a looming threat to the oncological community. What is crucial to remember is that cancer itself is a pandemic with > 18,000,000 people dia-gnosed worldwide every year. Many societies, including the European Society for Medical Oncology and the American Society of Clinical Oncology, are providing clinical recommendations for the management of patients with cancer during this challenging time, recognizing that continuation in the precise treatment of our patients is critical for our role of physicians. PURPOSE: The aim of the presentation is to point out the contact or overlapping areas of both mentioned disease entities for the purpose of possible simplification of dia-gnostic and therapeutic management of a cancer patient with suspected or already proven  COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Medical Oncology/standards , Neoplasms/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/virology
12.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 73(8): e46-e59, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332946

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To provide clinical guidance to rheumatology providers who treat children with pediatric rheumatic disease (PRD) in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: The task force, consisting of 7 pediatric rheumatologists, 2 pediatric infectious disease physicians, 1 adult rheumatologist, and 1 pediatric nurse practitioner, was convened on May 21, 2020. Clinical questions and subsequent guidance statements were drafted based on a review of the queries posed by the patients as well as the families and healthcare providers of children with PRD. An evidence report was generated and disseminated to task force members to assist with 3 rounds of asynchronous, anonymous voting by email using a modified Delphi approach. Voting was completed using a 9-point numeric scoring system with predefined levels of agreement (categorized as disagreement, uncertainty, or agreement, with median scores of 1-3, 4-6, and 7-9, respectively) and consensus (categorized as low, moderate, or high). To be approved as a guidance statement, median vote ratings were required to fall into the highest tertile for agreement, with either moderate or high levels of consensus. RESULTS: To date, 39 guidance statements have been approved by the task force. Those with similar recommendations were combined to form a total of 33 final guidance statements, all of which received median vote ratings within the highest tertile of agreement and were associated with either moderate consensus (n = 5) or high consensus (n = 28). CONCLUSION: These guidance statements have been generated based on review of the available literature, indicating that children with PRD do not appear to be at increased risk for susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. This guidance is presented as a "living document," recognizing that the literature on COVID-19 is rapidly evolving, with future updates anticipated.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/standards , COVID-19 , Pediatrics/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatology/standards , Academies and Institutes , Advisory Committees , Child , Consensus , Delphi Technique , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
14.
J Neuroimmunol ; 357: 577627, 2021 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260801

ABSTRACT

In this consensus statement, we provide updated recommendations on multiple sclerosis (MS) management during the COVID-19 crisis and the post-pandemic period applicable to neurology services around the world. Statements/recommendations were generated based on available literature and the experience of 13 MS expert panelists using a modified Delphi approach online. The statements/recommendations give advice regarding implementation of telemedicine; use of disease-modifying therapies and management of MS relapses; management of people with MS at highest risk from COVID-19; management of radiological monitoring; use of remote pharmacovigilance; impact on MS research; implications for lowest income settings, and other key issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Internationality , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Disease Management , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pharmacovigilance , Telemedicine/standards , Telemedicine/trends
15.
Clin Biochem ; 95: 1-12, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242901

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A consensus guidance is provided for testing, utility and verification of SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care test (POCT) performance and implementation of a quality management program, focusing on nucleic acid and antigen targeted technologies. DESIGN AND METHODS: The recommendations are based on current literature and expert opinion from the members of Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists (CSCC), and are intended for use inside or outside of healthcare settings that have varied levels of expertise and experience with POCT. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Here we discuss sampling requirements, biosafety, SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care testing methodologies (with focus on Health Canada approved tests), test performance and limitations, test selection, testing utility, development and implementation of quality management systems, quality improvement, and medical and scientific oversight.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Consensus , Point-of-Care Testing/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Societies, Scientific/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Canada/epidemiology , Humans , Qualitative Research , Quality Improvement/standards , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
17.
Adv Skin Wound Care ; 34(6): 293-300, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225635

ABSTRACT

GENERAL PURPOSE: To introduce the 15 recommendations of the International Ostomy Guideline (IOG) 2020, covering the four key arenas of education, holistic aspects, and pre- and postoperative care; and to summarize key concepts for clinicians to customize for translation into their practice. TARGET AUDIENCE: This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES: After participating in this educational activity, the participant will:1. Analyze supporting evidence for the education recommendations in the IOG 2020.2. Identify a benefit of the International Charter of Ostomate Rights.3. Distinguish concepts related to pre- and postoperative ostomy-related care.4. Select a potential barrier to IOG 2020 guideline implementation.


The second edition of the WCET® International Ostomy Guideline (IOG) was launched in December 2020 as an update to the original guideline published in 2014. The purpose of this article is to introduce the 15 recommendations covering four key arenas (education, holistic aspects, and pre- and postoperative care) and summarize key concepts for clinicians to customize for translation into their practice. The article also includes information about the impact of the novel coronavirus 2019 on ostomy care.


Subject(s)
Health Personnel/education , Ostomy/rehabilitation , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Humans , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Skin Care/methods , Wound Healing
18.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(9): 1507-1515, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206212

ABSTRACT

With an almost unremittent progression of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections all around the world, there is a compelling need to introduce rapid, reliable, and high-throughput testing to allow appropriate clinical management and/or timely isolation of infected individuals. Although nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) remains the gold standard for detecting and theoretically quantifying SARS-CoV-2 mRNA in various specimen types, antigen assays may be considered a suitable alternative, under specific circumstances. Rapid antigen tests are meant to detect viral antigen proteins in biological specimens (e.g. nasal, nasopharyngeal, saliva), to indicate current SARS-CoV-2 infection. The available assay methodology includes rapid chromatographic immunoassays, used at the point-of-care, which carries some advantages and drawbacks compared to more conventional, instrumentation-based, laboratory immunoassays. Therefore, this document by the International Federation for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) Taskforce on COVID-19 aims to summarize available data on the performance of currently available SARS-CoV-2 antigen rapid detection tests (Ag-RDTs), providing interim guidance on clinical indications and target populations, assay selection, and evaluation, test interpretation and limitations, as well as on pre-analytical considerations. This document is hence mainly aimed to assist laboratory and regulated health professionals in selecting, validating, and implementing regulatory approved Ag-RDTs.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/standards , Point-of-Care Testing/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Asymptomatic Infections/classification , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans
19.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 135: 182-186, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203118

ABSTRACT

Published research on COVID-19 is increasing rapidly and integrated in guidelines. The trustworthiness of guidelines can vary depending on the methods used to assemble and evaluate the evidence, the completeness and transparency of reporting on the process undertaken and how conflicts of interest are addressed. With a global consortium of partners and collaborators, we have created a catalogue of COVID-19 recommendations as our direct response to the increased need for structured access to high quality guidance in the field. The COVID19 map of recommendations and gateway to contextualization (https://covid19.recmap.org) is a living project: emerging guideline literature is added on an ongoing basis, allowing granular access to individual recommendations. Building on prior work on mapping recommendations for the World Health Organization tuberculosis guidelines, a novel feature of this map is the self-directed contextualization of the recommendations using the GRADE-Adolopment approach to adopt, adapt or synthesize de novo recommendations for context specific questions. Through our map, stakeholders access the evidence underpinning a recommendation, select what needs to be contextualized and go through the steps of development of adapted recommendations. This one-stop shop portal of evidence-informed recommendations, built with intuitive functionalities, easy to navigate and with a support team ready to guide users across the maps, represents a long-needed tool for decision-makers, guideline developers and the public at large.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Decision Making , Health Policy , Internationality , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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