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1.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(S 01): e129-e136, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815659

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare respiratory illness-related hospitalization (RIH) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-related hospitalization (RSVH) in multiple births versus singletons, who received palivizumab during the RSV season and participated in the Canadian registry of palivizumab (CARESS). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, observational study of infants aged <2 years recruited across 32 centers over 12 RSV seasons from 2005 to 2017. Demographic data were collected at enrolment and RIH events were recorded monthly. RESULTS: A total of 25,003 infants were enrolled of whom 6,949 (27.8%) were of multiple birth, and 18,054 (72.2%) were singletons. A significantly larger proportion of the multiple births were premature (80.2%) compared with the singleton group (56.8%). Multiples had a lower gestational age (mean ± standard deviation): 31.2 ± 3.2 versus 33.2 ± 5.5 weeks and birth weight (mean: 1,590 ± 606.8 vs. 2,069.4 ± 1068.5 g; both p < 0.0005). They were younger at enrolment (4.5 ± 5.0 vs. 6.1 ± 6.8 months), and fewer attended daycare (1.9 vs. 4.6%), and experienced exposure to smoking (24.5 vs. 29.9%), but more lived in a crowded household (36.7 vs. 19.4%); all p < 0.0005. Multiples had a longer length of neonatal stay (51.1 ± 65.9 vs. 47.9 ± 67.8 days), and more required respiratory support (65.7 vs. 57.7%), but for shorter duration (22.6 ± 32.9 vs. 24.7 ± 40.6 days); all p < 0.001. RIH and RSVH rates (%) in multiples versus singletons were 4.7; 7.7 and 1.4; and 1.6, respectively. Cox regression showed that multiples had a lower risk of RIH compared with singletons (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.616, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.543-0.698, p < 0.0005), but not RSVH (HR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.57-1.02, p = 0.071). CONCLUSION: Multiple birth infants, who are known to be at greater risk for severe RSVH compared with singletons, are well protected by palivizumab, provided adherence to the monthly injection scheme is guaranteed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Palivizumab/administration & dosage , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Pregnancy, Multiple/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , Registries , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Risk Factors
2.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0265166, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785191

ABSTRACT

JUSTIFICATION: The WHO 95-95-95 targets for 2030 do not imply that people living with HIV (PLHIV) achieve a good quality of life. The current 30-day dispensing interval for antiretroviral (ART) burdens the healthcare system. Lengthening dispensing intervals could alleviate this burden as well as enhance patient well-being. OBJECTIVES: To capture perceptions on 90-day dispensing interval (90D) for ART from the perspective of PLHIV, people on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), doctors, and pharmacists. METHODS: Multi-centre observational survey led in France from 16 to 20 October 2020, among doctors agreeing to participate via regional coordinated care organisations for HIV, all PLHIV or people on PrEP consulting these outpatient-clinic doctors, and pharmacists doing ART dispensing. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 220 doctors who saw 1087 people (999 PLHIV; 88 on PrEP) and 176 pharmacists from 55 centres. Among the PLHIV, 855 (85.6%, 95% CI: 83.2%-87.7%) and among the patients on PrEP, 70 (79.5%, 95% CI: 69.6%-87.4%) stated they would be interested in 90D. All in all, patients who were more likely to endorse 90D are those who opt exclusively for hospital dispensing (OR 3.22 [1.57-6.58]) and who rotate between hospital and community pharmacy dispensing (OR 3.29 [1.15-9.32]). Patients who were less likely to endorse 90-D were those who consult in a city located outside the 3 French high HIV prevalence regions (OR 0.66 [0.44-0.99]), receive 2 vs 1 pill QD regimens (OR 0.53 [0.31-0.91]), and anticipate at least one vs no limitation to 90D (OR 0.27 [0.17-0.42]). 90D was perceived as possible by 152 pharmacists (86.4%), including 8 (5%) without restriction, and 219 doctors (99.6%), including 42 (19.2%) regardless of PLHIV's immunovirologic status or social conditions (health insurance coverage, access to housing or accommodation, access to rights, resources). Comparison of the benefits and limitations of a 90-day ART dispensing interval as perceived by PLHIV and people on PrEP, doctors and pharmacists shows that doctors anticipate a higher number of benefits than people on ART and/or pharmacists, chiefly that 90D would be more convenient and create less risk of drug shortages and that patients would gain autonomy and a better quality of life. Pharmacists were found to clearly perceive the economic benefits (90D would be less expensive) but anticipate more drawbacks than doctors and the people on ART themselves: more administrative burdens, more non-dispensing if doses get lost, harder to track adherence and more drug-drug interaction issues, and more work as they shall have to warn the patient of potential risks of shortages due to the cost of the stock. CONCLUSION: A clear majority of PLHIV, people on PrEP, doctors, and pharmacists endorsed 90D of ART. Most patients thought that 90D would be a good option, whereas most pharmacists and doctors thought that eligibility for 90D dispensing should depend on immunovirologic factors and social condition criteria. Moreover, pharmacists thought it would be necessary to commit regulatory resources and a better follow-up on adherence and drug-drug interactions.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pharmacists , Quality of Life
3.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 164(7): 63, 2022 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783012
4.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266280, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mitigation measures for the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and burden on health systems created challenges for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) service delivery. We examined PrEP uptake in PEPFAR programs before and after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We studied two PEPFAR program monitoring indicators, using routine Monitoring, Evaluation, Reporting (MER) indicators capturing uptake of PrEP (PrEP_NEW) and overall use of PrEP (PrEP_CURR). We also analyzed descriptive program narratives to understand successes and challenges field teams encountered after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. To assess changes in coverage of PrEP across 21 countries, we calculated the "PrEP to need ratio" (PnR) using a published methodology. We defined the pre-COVID time period as April 1, 2019 -March 31, 2020 and the COVID time period as April 1, 2020 -March 31, 2021. FINDINGS: The total number of persons who initiated PrEP increased by 157% from 233,250 in the pre-COVID-19 period compared with 599,935 in the COVID-19 period. All countries, except five, noted significant increases in PrEP uptake. PrEP uptake among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) increased by 159% from 80,452 AGYW in the pre-COVID-19 period to 208,607 AGYW in the COVID-19 period. There were 77,430 key populations (KP) initiated on PrEP in the pre-COVID-19 period and 209,114 KP initiated in the COVID-19 period (a 170% increase). The PnR increased 214% in the COVID-19 period across all PEPFAR-supported countries. Adaptations, such as multi-month dispensing (MMD) of PrEP; virtual demand creation activities; decentralized, community-based and virtual service delivery, were implemented to maintain PrEP services. CONCLUSIONS: PEPFAR programs continued to maintain and initiate new clients on PrEP despite the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Adaptations such as MMD of PrEP and use of technology were vital in expanding service delivery and increasing PrEP coverage. FUNDING: This project has been supported by the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Adolescent , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 677716, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771106

ABSTRACT

Introduction: HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in the form of a daily oral medication is highly effective at preventing HIV. In the United States, awareness about PrEP has steadily increased over time among individuals vulnerable to HIV, however awareness has not translated into widescale uptake. Estimates are that fewer than 20% of 1.2 million Americans for whom PrEP is indicated are utilizing it. We sought to understand how individuals moved from PrEP awareness to PrEP utilization. Methods: We conducted a series (n = 31) of in-depth interviews with young people, predominantly gay and bisexual men, ages 18-29 years old between February 2015 and January 2016, as part of the evaluation of a multi-year demonstration project funded to test innovative approaches to improve sexual health outcomes and curb the HIV epidemic in California. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. We conducted a thematic analysis. Results: We present a continuum of PrEP awareness that spans three phases-basic, moderate and advanced. Participants rarely reported becoming well-informed about PrEP over the course of an initial exposure to PrEP information. Learning occurred after multiple exposures to PrEP information through numerous intersecting forms, messengers and formal and informal communication channels. Positively framed messages delivered by formal messengers emphasizing PrEP as a sensible HIV prevention strategy and explicitly communicating a regard for sexual wellness were overwhelmingly persuasive and facilitated movement to the advanced awareness phase. Once participants reached the advanced phase of PrEP awareness, uptake was possible. Conclusions: Our analysis provides insights into how PrEP awareness led to PrEP uptake among young gay and bi-sexual men. Building demand among those in the basic awareness phase took longer than those in the moderate phase. Individuals involved in formal and informal PrEP education can set reasonable expectations about whether, when and how eventual uptake may occur when keeping the continuum of PrEP awareness framework in mind. Many young, gay and bi-sexual male prospective PrEP users will benefit from positively framed messages that emphasize personal well-being, including social, sexual and emotional benefits of PrEP use.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adolescent , Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male/psychology , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
7.
World Neurosurg ; 157: e357-e363, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prior studies demonstrated reduced risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in neurosurgical patients secondary to prophylaxis with both heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin. The ability to monitor low-molecular-weight heparin by obtaining anti-factor Xa (anti-Xa) serum levels provides an opportunity to evaluate safety and efficacy. The aim of this study was to describe characteristics of patients who have anti-Xa levels outside of the goal range (0.2-0.4/0.5 IU/mL) and investigate incidence of major bleeding and VTE. METHODS: A single-center, retrospective, observational study was conducted on neurosurgical patients receiving enoxaparin for VTE prophylaxis between August 2019 and December 2020. Significance testing was conducted via Fisher exact test and independent samples t test. RESULTS: The study included 85 patients. Patients were less likely to have an anti-Xa level in the goal range if they were male, had a higher weight, or were morbidly obese. Three neuroendovascular patients (3.5%) experienced a major bleed. Serum anti-Xa levels were significantly higher in patients who experienced major bleeds compared with patients who did not (0.45 ± 0.16 IU/mL vs. 0.28 ± 0.09 IU/mL, P = 0.003). Patients with a supraprophylactic anti-Xa level (>0.5 IU/mL) were more likely to experience a major bleed (P = 0.005). One VTE event occurred: the patient experienced a pulmonary embolism with anti-Xa level at goal. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-Xa-guided enoxaparin dosing for VTE prophylaxis in neurosurgical patients may help prevent major bleeding. These data suggest that a higher anti-Xa level may predispose patients to major bleeding. Further evaluation is needed to identify the goal anti-Xa level for VTE prophylaxis in this population.


Subject(s)
Enoxaparin/blood , Factor Xa Inhibitors/blood , Hemorrhage/blood , Neurosurgical Procedures/trends , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/trends , Adult , Aged , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/blood , Drug Monitoring/methods , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity, Morbid/blood , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
8.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265434, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the established efficacy of PrEP to prevent HIV and the advantages of a user-controlled method, PrEP uptake and persistence by women in both trials and demonstration projects has been suboptimal. We utilized real-world data from an HIV service provider to describe persistence on oral PrEP among female sex workers (FSW) in eThekwini, South Africa. METHODS: We examined time from PrEP initiation to discontinuation among all FSW initiating PrEP at TB HIV Care in eThekwini between 2016-2020. We used a discrete time-to-event data setup and stacked cumulative incidence function plots, displaying the competing risks of 1) not returning for PrEP, 2) client discontinuation, and 3) provider discontinuation. We calculated hazard ratios using complementary log-log regression and sub-hazard ratios using competing risks regression. RESULTS: The number of initiations increased each year from 155 (9.3%, n = 155/1659) in 2016 to 1224 (27.5%, n = 1224/4446) in 2020. Persistence 1-month after initiation was 53% (95% CI: 51%-55%). Younger women were more likely to discontinue PrEP by not returning compared with those 25 years and older. Risk of discontinuation through non-return declined for those initiating in later years. Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, a greater number of initiations and sustained persistence were observed in 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of PrEP persistence were observed, consistent with data among underserved women elsewhere. Encouragingly, the proportion of women persisting increased over time, even as the number of women newly initiating PrEP and staff workload increased. Further research is needed to understand which implementation strategies the program may have enacted to facilitate these improvements and what further changes may be necessary.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Sex Workers/statistics & numerical data , Administration, Oral , Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Medication Adherence/psychology , Sex Workers/psychology , South Africa/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 21, 2022 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666676

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world's population by causing changes in behavior, such as social distancing, masking, restricting people's movement, and evaluating existing medication as potential therapies. Many pre-existing medications such as tocilizumab, ivermectin, colchicine, interferon, and steroids have been evaluated for being repurposed to use for the treatment of COVID-19. None of these agents have been effective except for steroids and, to a lesser degree, tocilizumab. Ivermectin has been one of the suggested repurposed medications which exhibit an in vitro inhibitory activity on SARS-CoV-2 replication. The most recommended dose of ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19 is 150-200 µg/kg twice daily. As ivermectin adoption for COVID-19 increased, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a warning on its use during the pandemic. However, the drug remains of interest to clinicians and has shown some promise in observational studies. This narrative reviews the toxicological profile and some potential therapeutic effects of ivermectin. Based on the current dose recommendation, ivermectin appears to be safe with minimum side effects. However, serious questions remain about the effectiveness of this drug in the treatment of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Ivermectin/adverse effects , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Ivermectin/administration & dosage , Ivermectin/pharmacokinetics , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods
11.
J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol ; 33(1): 103-107, 2022 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613394

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The use of Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) prophylaxis has been recommended by the National task force constituted by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) for the prevention of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among healthcare workers (HCWs). However, this recommendation was based essentially on the preclinical data and limited clinical experience. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of HCQ as a pre-exposure prophylaxis for COVID-19 infection among Indian HCWs. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among HCWs of a tertiary care hospital in north India. The HCQ prophylaxis was initiated among 996 HCWs and they were followed up to 8 weeks for conversion to COVID-19 positive status and any adverse drug reaction (ADR). RESULTS: About 10.3% of the study participants were tested positive for COVID-19 which was comparable to the positivity rate among HCWs not taking HCQ prophylaxis (9.7%). CONCLUSIONS: HCQ was well tolerated at a weekly dose of 400 mg for 8 weeks but provided no additional benefit in prevention of COVID-19 among HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , India , Tertiary Care Centers , Treatment Failure
12.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(12): e25845, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568146

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In public clinics in Kenya, separate, sequential delivery of the component services of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) (e.g. HIV testing, counselling, and dispensing) creates long wait times that hinder clients' ability and desire to access and continue PrEP. We conducted a mixed methods study in four public clinics in western Kenya to identify strategies for operationalizing a one-stop shop (OSS) model and evaluate whether this model could improve client wait time and care acceptability among clients and providers without negatively impacting uptake or continuation. METHODS: From January 2020 through November 2020, we collected and analysed 47 time-and-motion observations using Mann-Whitney U tests, 29 provider and client interviews, 68 technical assistance reports, and clinic flow maps from intervention clinics. We used controlled interrupted time series (cITS) to compare trends in PrEP initiation and on-time returns from a 12-month pre-intervention period (January-December 2019) to an 8-month post-period (January-November 2020, excluding a 3-month COVID-19 wash-out period) at intervention and control clinics. RESULTS: From the pre- to post-period, median client wait time at intervention clinics dropped significantly from 31 to 6 minutes (p = 0.02), while median provider contact time remained around 23 minutes (p = 0.4). Intervention clinics achieved efficiency gains by moving PrEP delivery to lower volume departments, moving steps closer together (e.g. relocating supplies; cross-training and task-shifting), and differentiating clients based on the subset of services needed. Clients and providers found the OSS model highly acceptable and additionally identified increased privacy, reduced stigma, and higher quality client-provider interactions as benefits of the model. From the pre- to post-period, average monthly initiations at intervention and control clinics increased by 6 and 2.3, respectively, and percent of expected follow-up visits occurring on time decreased by 18% and 26%, respectively; cITS analysis of PrEP initiations (n = 1227) and follow-up visits (n = 2696) revealed no significant difference between intervention and control clinics in terms of trends in PrEP initiation and on-time returns (all p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: An OSS model significantly improved client wait time and care acceptability without negatively impacting initiations or continuations, thus highlighting opportunities to improve the efficiency of PrEP delivery efficiency and client-centredness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Implementation Science , Kenya , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 20(5): 781-787, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555988

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine had attracted significant attention in the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic but current recommendations do not support its use. However, the evidence against its use as pre-exposure prophylaxis have been of low to moderate quality and have been limited by high risk of bias. METHODS: Following institutional ethics committee approval, healthcare workers (n = 1294) completing their first week-long COVID in-patient duty, subsequent institutional quarantine and RT-PCR testing for COVID-19 infection were included for this prospective cohort study. Demographic data, hydroxychloroquine usage and related adverse effects were captured through a 'Caring for the Caregivers' surveillance system. A chi-Square test of independence was used to determine the effect of hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis. RESULTS: Among the 1294 participants (age: 31 ± 7 years, 61% women), 273 (21.1%) healthcare workers used hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis as per Indian Council of Medical Research recommendations and 83/1294 (6.4%) tested positive after their duty. There was no significant difference in COVID-19 incidence between those on hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis and those not on it (5.9% vs 6.6%, χ2 = 0.177, p = 0.675; RR = 0.89, 95% CI - 0.53 to 1.52). There were no significant adverse effects to hydroxychloroquine usage. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated no benefit of hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis and provides quality evidence against its use in COVID-19 prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
Int J STD AIDS ; 33(1): 99-102, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542034

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The national PrEP programme launched in Ireland in November 2019 with tenofovir/emtricitabine free to those meeting eligibility criteria. We assessed the impact of the first year of the PrEP programme on new HIV diagnoses in the largest sexual health and HIV service in Ireland. METHODS: A free PrEP service was established in November 2019. We reviewed the number of new diagnoses of HIV between November 2018-2019, before the introduction of the national PrEP programme and compared this with the number of new HIV diagnosis between November 2019-2020. RESULTS: There were 95 new HIV diagnoses (63.3% MSM) between November 2018 and 2019 and 73 new HIV diagnoses (65.7% MSM) between November 2019 and 2020. There was a statistically significant decline in new HIV diagnoses between the 2 years (P = 0.0003). 546 patients were prescribed PrEP as of December 2020.106 patients (19.4%) changed their PrEP dosing regimen due to lockdown. 178 individuals (32.6%) had a rectal infection diagnosed. CONCLUSION: There has been a reduction in new HIV diagnoses in our cohort (although this has occurred during a global pandemic). It is too early to say if PrEP reduces late presentations of HIV based on our findings. A significant number of rectal infections were identified in the PrEP clinic suggesting ongoing risk despite pandemic restrictions. Further research into sexual practices during COVID-19 is needed to assess if this had an impact on the lower rates of HIV acquisition.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Communicable Disease Control , HIV , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
MedUNAB ; 24(2): 151-154, 20210820.
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1539051

ABSTRACT

Los Coronaviridae son una familia de virus ARN que han afectado, a lo largo de la historia, a mamíferos y aves. Estos patógenos, conocidos y estudiados por varias décadas, también han sido los responsables de infecciones que usualmente se presentan en el tracto respiratorio en humanos. Su más reciente variante SARS-CoV-2, fue identificada a finales del año 2019 en la ciudad china de Wuhan donde el virus fue identificado como el causante de múltiples neumonías severas en la población (1). Dicho brote tuvo una extensión que superó las expectativas, creando el hito más grande del siglo XXI. El 11 de marzo de 2020 el virus fue declarado pandemia, su transmisión de forma directa de persona a persona jugó un papel muy importante en el rápido esparcimiento de este nuevo coronavirus. Su gran abanico de presentación clínica, que parte desde formas completamente asintomáticas hasta llegar a infecciones de tracto respiratorio más graves e incluso mortales, jamás antes vistas (2), se convirtió en un reto social, político y médico.


The Coronaviridae are a family of RNA viruses that have affected mammals and birds throughout history. These pathogens, known and studied for several decades, have also been responsible for infections that usually occur in the respiratory tract in humans. Its most recent variant SARS-CoV-2 was identified at the end of 2019 in the Chinese city of Wuhan where the virus was identified as the cause of multiple severe pneumonia in the population (1). This outbreak had an extension that exceeded expectations, creating the largest milestone of the 21st century. On March 11, 2020, the virus was declared a pandemic, its direct transmission from person to person played a very important role in the rapid spread of this new coronavirus. Its wide range of clinical presentation, ranging from completely asymptomatic forms to reaching more serious and even fatal respiratory tract infections, never seen before (2), became a social, political and medical challenge.


Os Coronaviridae são uma família de vírus RNA que afetaram mamíferos e pássaros ao longo da história. Esses patógenos, conhecidos e estudados há várias décadas, também são responsáveis por infecções que geralmente ocorrem no trato respiratório em humanos. Sua variante mais recente, SARS-CoV-2, foi identificada no final de 2019 na cidade chinesa de Wuhan, onde o vírus foi identificado como causa de múltiplas pneumonias graves na população (1). Este surto teve uma extensão que superou as expectativas, criando o maior marco do século XXI. Em 11 de março de 2020, o vírus foi declarado pandêmico, sua transmissão direta de pessoa a pessoa desempenhou um papel muito importante na rápida disseminação deste novo coronavírus. Seu amplo espectro de apresentação clínica, desde formas totalmente assintomáticas até infecções mais graves e até fatais do trato respiratório, nunca antes vistas (2), tornou-se um desafio social, político e médico.


Subject(s)
Ivermectin , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis
19.
Lancet ; 397(10279): 1116-1126, 2021 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525995

ABSTRACT

Men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA were the first population to be identified with AIDS and continue to be at very high risk of HIV acquisition. We did a systematic literature search to identify the factors that explain the reasons for the ongoing epidemic in this population, using a social-ecological perspective. Common features of the HIV epidemic in American MSM include role versatility and biological, individual, and social and structural factors. The high-prevalence networks of some racial and ethnic minority men are further concentrated because of assortative mixing, adverse life experiences (including high rates of incarceration), and avoidant behaviour because of negative interactions with the health-care system. Young MSM have additional risks for HIV because their impulse control is less developed and they are less familiar with serostatus and other risk mitigation discussions. They might benefit from prevention efforts that use digital technologies, which they often use to meet partners and obtain health-related information. Older MSM remain at risk of HIV and are the largest population of US residents with chronic HIV, requiring culturally responsive programmes that address longer-term comorbidities. Transgender MSM are an understudied population, but emerging data suggest that some are at great risk of HIV and require specifically tailored information on HIV prevention. In the current era of pre-exposure prophylaxis and the undetectable equals untransmittable campaign, training of health-care providers to create culturally competent programmes for all MSM is crucial, since the use of antiretrovirals is foundational to optimising HIV care and prevention. Effective control of the HIV epidemic among all American MSM will require scaling up programmes that address their common vulnerabilities, but are sufficiently nuanced to address the specific sociocultural, structural, and behavioural issues of diverse subgroups.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , HIV Infections/transmission , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Minority Groups/psychology , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Sexual Partners/psychology , Transgender Persons/psychology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
Trials ; 22(1): 808, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising strategy to break COVID-19 transmission. Although hydroxychloroquine was evaluated for treatment and post-exposure prophylaxis, it is not evaluated for COVID-19 PrEP yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of PrEP with hydroxychloroquine against placebo in healthcare workers at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection during an epidemic period. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial in three hospitals in Barcelona, Spain. From 350 adult healthcare workers screened, we included 269 participants with no active or past SARS-CoV-2 infection (determined by a negative nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 PCR and a negative serology against SARS-CoV-2). Participants allocated in the intervention arm (PrEP) received 400 mg of hydroxychloroquine daily for the first four consecutive days and subsequently, 400 mg weekly during the study period. Participants in the control group followed the same treatment schedule with placebo tablets. RESULTS: 52.8% (142/269) of participants were in the hydroxychloroquine arm and 47.2% (127/269) in the placebo arm. Given the national epidemic incidence decay, only one participant in each group was diagnosed with COVID-19. The trial was stopped due to futility and our study design was deemed underpowered to evaluate any benefit regarding PrEP efficacy. Both groups showed a similar proportion of participants experiencing at least one adverse event (AE) (p=0.548). No serious AEs were reported. Almost all AEs (96.4%, 106/110) were mild. Only mild gastrointestinal symptoms were significantly higher in the hydroxychloroquine arm compared to the placebo arm (27.4% (39/142) vs 15.7% (20/127), p=0.041). CONCLUSIONS: Although the efficacy of PrEP with hydroxychloroquine for preventing COVID-19 could not be evaluated, our study showed that PrEP with hydroxychloroquine at low doses is safe. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04331834 . Registered on April 2, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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