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1.
Int J Oncol ; 60(3)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726130

ABSTRACT

Biobanks constitute an integral part of precision medicine. They provide a repository of biospecimens that may be used to elucidate the pathophysiology, support diagnoses, and guide the treatment of diseases. The pilot biobank of rare malignant neoplasms has been established in the context of the Hellenic Network of Precision Medicine on Cancer and aims to enhance future clinical and/or research studies in Greece by collecting, processing, and storing rare malignant neoplasm samples with associated data. The biobank currently comprises 553 samples; 384 samples of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissue malignancies, 72 samples of pediatric brain tumors and 97 samples of malignant skin neoplasms. In this article, sample collections and their individual significance in clinical research are described in detail along with computational methods developed specifically for this project. A concise review of the Greek biobanking landscape is also delineated, in addition to recommended technologies, methodologies and protocols that were integrated during the creation of the biobank. This project is expected to re­enforce current clinical and research studies, introduce advances in clinical and genetic research and potentially aid in future targeted drug discovery. It is our belief that the future of medical research is entwined with accessible, effective, and ethical biobanking and that our project will facilitate research planning in the '­omic' era by contributing high­quality samples along with their associated data.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks/trends , Neoplasms/pathology , Precision Medicine/trends , Cell Line, Tumor , Greece , Humans , Precision Medicine/methods
3.
Per Med ; 18(6): 583-593, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526743

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, a recently emerged zoonotic virus, has resulted in unstoppable high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. However, due to a limited knowledge of the dynamics of the SARS-CoV-2 infection, it has been observed that the current COVID-19 therapy has led to some clinical repercussions. We discuss the adverse effects of drugs for COVID-19 primarily based on some clinical trials. As therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of therapy may vary due to different, genetic determinants, sex, age and the ethnic background of test subjects, hence biomarker-based personalized therapy could be more appropriate. We will share our thoughts on the current landscape of personalized therapy as a roadmap to fight against SARS-CoV-2 or another emerging pathogen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Precision Medicine/methods , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Repositioning , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
FEBS J ; 288(21): 6087-6094, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526365

ABSTRACT

Anthony Letai is Professor in Medicine at Harvard Medical School and Dana Farber Cancer Institute, and President of The Society for Functional Precision Medicine. Among Tony's scientific achievements, work from his lab contributed toward the FDA approval of Venetoclax combination treatment for adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Moreover, his studies on cancer cell death have led to the development of BH3 profiling, an assay that allows for the definition of how close a cell is to the threshold required to commit to apoptosis, which can be used to improve clinical outcomes for cancer patients. In this interview, Tony relays the story behind some of his scientific breakthroughs, discusses the importance of function when designing targeted cancer therapies, gives an overview of BH3 profiling and its application to cancer therapy, and recalls the key events and collaborations that drove his successful research career.


Subject(s)
Precision Medicine/methods , Bridged Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic/therapeutic use , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use
5.
Theranostics ; 11(18): 9054-9088, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524532

ABSTRACT

In recent years tremendous effort has been invested in the field of cancer diagnosis and treatment with an overall goal of improving cancer management, therapeutic outcome, patient survival, and quality of life. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT), which works on the principle of light-induced activation of photosensitizers (PS) leading to Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) mediated cancer cell killing has received increased attention as a promising alternative to overcome several limitations of conventional cancer therapies. Compared to conventional therapies, PDT offers the advantages of selectivity, minimal invasiveness, localized treatment, and spatio-temporal control which minimizes the overall therapeutic side effects and can be repeated as needed without interfering with other treatments and inducing treatment resistance. Overall PDT efficacy requires proper planning of various parameters like localization and concentration of PS at the tumor site, light dose, oxygen concentration and heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment, which can be achieved with advanced imaging techniques. Consequently, there has been tremendous interest in the rationale design of PS formulations to exploit their theranostic potential to unleash the imperative contribution of medical imaging in the context of successful PDT outcomes. Further, recent advances in PS formulations as activatable phototheranostic agents have shown promising potential for finely controlled imaging-guided PDT due to their propensity to specifically turning on diagnostic signals simultaneously with photodynamic effects in response to the tumor-specific stimuli. In this review, we have summarized the recent progress in the development of PS-based multifunctional theranostic agents for biomedical applications in multimodal imaging combined with PDT. We also present the role of different imaging modalities; magnetic resonance, optical, nuclear, acoustic, and photoacoustic in improving the pre-and post-PDT effects. We anticipate that the information presented in this review will encourage future development and design of PSs for improved image-guided PDT for cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , Precision Medicine/methods , Humans , Neoplasms/therapy , Photosensitizing Agents/administration & dosage , Photosensitizing Agents/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species , Theranostic Nanomedicine/methods , Tumor Microenvironment/drug effects
6.
Chest ; 160(5): 1729-1738, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517092

ABSTRACT

ARDS is a clinically heterogeneous syndrome, rather than a distinct disease. This heterogeneity at least partially explains the difficulty in studying treatments for these patients and contributes to the numerous trials of therapies for the syndrome that have not shown benefit. Recent studies have identified different subphenotypes within the heterogeneous patient population. These different subphenotypes likely have variable clinical responses to specific therapies, a concept known as heterogeneity of treatment effect. Recognizing different subphenotypes and heterogeneity of treatment effect has important implications for the clinical management of patients with ARDS. This review presents studies that have identified different subphenotypes and discusses how they can modify the effects of therapies evaluated in trials that are commonly considered to have shown no overall benefit in patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
Genetic Heterogeneity , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Biological Variation, Population , Humans , Precision Medicine/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/genetics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
7.
Theranostics ; 12(1): 35-47, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512994

ABSTRACT

The past decade has witnessed the blossom of nucleic acid therapeutics and diagnostics (theranostics). Unlike conventional small molecule medicines or protein biologics, nucleic acid theranostics have characteristic features such as the intrinsic ability as "information drugs" to code and execute genetic and theranostic information, ready programmability for nucleic acid engineering, intrinsic stimulatory or regulatory immunomodulation, versatile functionalities, and easy conformational recovery upon thermal or chemical denaturation. Single-stranded circular DNA (circDNA) are a class of single-stranded DNAs (ssDNA) featured with their covalently-closed topology. In addition to the basic advantages of nucleic acids-based materials, such as low cost, biocompatibility, and simplicity of chemical modification, the lack of terminals in circDNA prevents exonuclease degradation, resulting in enhanced biostability relative to the corresponding linear ssDNA. circDNA has been explored for versatile theranostic applications. For instance, circDNA has been extensively studied as templates for bioanalytical signal amplification and the synthesis of nano-/micro-/macro- biomaterials via rolling circle amplification (RCA) and rolling circle transcription (RCT) technologies. circDNA has also been commonly used as the scaffolds for the self-assembly of versatile DNA origami. Finally, circDNA has been implemented as theranostic aptamers, miRNA inhibitors, as well as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas) gene editing donors. In this review article, we will discuss the chemistry, characteristic properties, and the theranostic applications of circDNA (excluding double-stranded circular DNA such as plasmids); we will also envision the challenges and opportunities in this research field.


Subject(s)
DNA, Circular/therapeutic use , Precision Medicine/methods , Gene Editing , Humans
8.
Ther Drug Monit ; 43(4): 451-454, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501177

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The authors report on a case of a 59-year-old man hospitalized in the intensive care unit because of severe SARS-COV-2 infection (COVID-19). BACKGROUND: The patient had several comorbidities, including liver cirrhosis. He developed ventilation-associated bacterial pneumonia for which he was administered cefepime at an initial dose of 2 g/8 hours. Therapeutic drug monitoring was performed, showing overexposure with an initial trough concentration of >60 mg/L. METHODS: Analysis of pharmacokinetic data and model-based dose adjustment was performed using BestDose software. RESULTS: The patient had unexpected pharmacokinetic parameter values. Serum creatinine was only moderately increased, whereas measured creatinine clearance based on urine collection showed impaired renal function. Bacterial minimum inhibitory concentration was also considered in the dosing decisions. After dose reduction to 0.5 g/8 hours, the cefepime trough concentration progressively declined and reached the target values by the end of the therapy. A post-hoc analysis provided a different interpretation of drug overexposure. CONCLUSION: This case report illustrates how physiological, microbiological, and drug concentration data can be used for model-based dosage individualization of cefepime in intensive care unit patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics , Cefepime/pharmacokinetics , Critical Illness/therapy , Drug Dosage Calculations , Precision Medicine/methods , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Cefepime/administration & dosage , Cefepime/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
9.
Per Med ; 18(6): 583-593, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470732

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, a recently emerged zoonotic virus, has resulted in unstoppable high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. However, due to a limited knowledge of the dynamics of the SARS-CoV-2 infection, it has been observed that the current COVID-19 therapy has led to some clinical repercussions. We discuss the adverse effects of drugs for COVID-19 primarily based on some clinical trials. As therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of therapy may vary due to different, genetic determinants, sex, age and the ethnic background of test subjects, hence biomarker-based personalized therapy could be more appropriate. We will share our thoughts on the current landscape of personalized therapy as a roadmap to fight against SARS-CoV-2 or another emerging pathogen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Precision Medicine/methods , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Repositioning , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
10.
Per Med ; 18(6): 573-582, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456228

ABSTRACT

Advancing frontiers of clinical research, we discuss the need for intelligent health systems to support a deeper investigation of COVID-19. We hypothesize that the convergence of the healthcare data and staggering developments in artificial intelligence have the potential to elevate the recovery process with diagnostic and predictive analysis to identify major causes of mortality, modifiable risk factors and actionable information that supports the early detection and prevention of COVID-19. However, current constraints include the recruitment of COVID-19 patients for research; translational integration of electronic health records and diversified public datasets; and the development of artificial intelligence systems for data-intensive computational modeling to assist clinical decision making. We propose a novel nexus of machine learning algorithms to examine COVID-19 data granularity from population studies to subgroups stratification and ensure best modeling strategies within the data continuum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Precision Medicine/methods , Algorithms , Artificial Intelligence/trends , Data Analysis , Data Science/trends , Delivery of Health Care , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Machine Learning , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403611

ABSTRACT

An aptamer is a short sequence of synthetic oligonucleotides which bind to their cognate target, specifically while maintaining similar or higher sensitivity compared to an antibody. The in-vitro selection of an aptamer, applying a conjoining approach of chemistry and molecular biology, is referred as Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment (SELEX). These initial products of SELEX are further modified chemically in an attempt to make them stable in biofluid, avoiding nuclease digestion and renal clearance. While the modification is incorporated, enough care should be taken to maintain its sensitivity and specificity. These modifications and several improvisations have widened the window frame of aptamer applications that are currently not only restricted to in-vitro systems, but have also been used in molecular imaging for disease pathology and treatment. In the food industry, it has been used as sensor for detection of different diseases and fungal infections. In this review, we have discussed a brief history of its journey, along with applications where its role as a therapeutic plus diagnostic (theranostic) tool has been demonstrated. We have also highlighted the potential aptamer-mediated strategies for molecular targeting of COVID-19. Finally, the review focused on its future prospective in immunotherapy, as well as in identification of novel biomarkers in stem cells and also in single cell proteomics (scProteomics) to study intra or inter-tumor heterogeneity at the protein level. Small size, chemical synthesis, low batch variation, cost effectiveness, long shelf life and low immunogenicity provide advantages to the aptamer over the antibody. These physical and chemical properties of aptamers render them as a strong biomedical tool for theranostic purposes over the existing ones. The significance of aptamers in human health was the key finding of this review.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , COVID-19 , Precision Medicine/methods , SELEX Aptamer Technique/methods , Aptamers, Nucleotide/chemistry , Aptamers, Nucleotide/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4396, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387353

ABSTRACT

Rapid development of antisense therapies can enable on-demand responses to new viral pathogens and make personalized medicine for genetic diseases practical. Antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) are promising candidates to fill such a role, but their challenging synthesis limits their widespread application. To rapidly prototype potential PMO drug candidates, we report a fully automated flow-based oligonucleotide synthesizer. Our optimized synthesis platform reduces coupling times by up to 22-fold compared to previously reported methods. We demonstrate the power of our automated technology with the synthesis of milligram quantities of three candidate therapeutic PMO sequences for an unserved class of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). To further test our platform, we synthesize a PMO that targets the genomic mRNA of SARS-CoV-2 and demonstrate its antiviral effects. This platform could find broad application not only in designing new SARS-CoV-2 and DMD antisense therapeutics, but also for rapid development of PMO candidates to treat new and emerging diseases.


Subject(s)
Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic/instrumentation , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/instrumentation , High-Throughput Screening Assays/instrumentation , Morpholinos/chemical synthesis , Oligonucleotides, Antisense/chemical synthesis , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/drug therapy , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/microbiology , Disease Models, Animal , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Humans , Morpholinos/pharmacology , Morpholinos/therapeutic use , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/drug therapy , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/genetics , Oligonucleotides, Antisense/pharmacology , Oligonucleotides, Antisense/therapeutic use , Precision Medicine/methods , RNA, Messenger/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA, Viral/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Time Factors , Vero Cells
15.
Pharmacol Res ; 173: 105848, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373221

ABSTRACT

Making gender bias visible allows to fill the gaps in knowledge and understand health records and risks of women and men. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has shown a clear gender difference in health outcomes. The more severe symptoms and higher mortality in men as compared to women are likely due to sex and age differences in immune responses. Age-associated decline in sex steroid hormone levels may mediate proinflammatory reactions in older adults, thereby increasing their risk of adverse outcomes, whereas sex hormones and/or sex hormone receptor modulators may attenuate the inflammatory response and provide benefit to COVID-19 patients. While multiple pharmacological options including anticoagulants, glucocorticoids, antivirals, anti-inflammatory agents and traditional Chinese medicine preparations have been tested to treat COVID-19 patients with varied levels of evidence in terms of efficacy and safety, information on sex-targeted treatment strategies is currently limited. Women may have more benefit from COVID-19 vaccines than men, despite the occurrence of more frequent adverse effects, and long-term safety data with newly developed vectors are eagerly awaited. The prevalent inclusion of men in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with subsequent extrapolation of results to women needs to be addressed, as reinforcing sex-neutral claims into COVID-19 research may insidiously lead to increased inequities in health care. The huge worldwide effort with over 3000 ongoing RCTs of pharmacological agents should focus on improving knowledge on sex, gender and age as pillars of individual variation in drug responses and enforce appropriateness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Equity/trends , Pharmacology, Clinical/trends , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/methods , Sex Characteristics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/antagonists & inhibitors , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/blood , Humans , Pharmacology, Clinical/methods , Precision Medicine/methods , Precision Medicine/trends
16.
J Neuromuscul Dis ; 7(3): 361-364, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372059

ABSTRACT

This is a brief report of a patient who has refractory Myasthenia Gravis, on multiple long-term immunosuppressive therapies and contracted COVID-19 during this 2020 pandemic. She was quarantined for total of 14 days and recovered successfully without any complications (no myasthenia exacerbation or crisis, no COVID-19 related complications), with no changes to her immunosuppressive therapy. Treatment of MG patients with COVID-19 needs to be tailored to individual patient.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Myasthenia Gravis/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , COVID-19 , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Pandemics , Precision Medicine/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4876, 2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356557

ABSTRACT

While the printed circuit board (PCB) has been widely considered as the building block of integrated electronics, the world is switching to pursue new ways of merging integrated electronic circuits with textiles to create flexible and wearable devices. Herein, as an alternative for PCB, we described a non-printed integrated-circuit textile (NIT) for biomedical and theranostic application via a weaving method. All the devices are built as fibers or interlaced nodes and woven into a deformable textile integrated circuit. Built on an electrochemical gating principle, the fiber-woven-type transistors exhibit superior bending or stretching robustness, and were woven as a textile logical computing module to distinguish different emergencies. A fiber-type sweat sensor was woven with strain and light sensors fibers for simultaneously monitoring body health and the environment. With a photo-rechargeable energy textile based on a detailed power consumption analysis, the woven circuit textile is completely self-powered and capable of both wireless biomedical monitoring and early warning. The NIT could be used as a 24/7 private AI "nurse" for routine healthcare, diabetes monitoring, or emergencies such as hypoglycemia, metabolic alkalosis, and even COVID-19 patient care, a potential future on-body AI hardware and possibly a forerunner to fabric-like computers.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Precision Medicine/instrumentation , Textiles , Wearable Electronic Devices , Wireless Technology/instrumentation , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Equipment Design , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic/instrumentation , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Precision Medicine/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sweat/physiology
18.
Elife ; 102021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328262

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, two mainstream guidelines for defining when to end the isolation of SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals have been in use: the one-size-fits-all approach (i.e. patients are isolated for a fixed number of days) and the personalized approach (i.e. based on repeated testing of isolated patients). We use a mathematical framework to model within-host viral dynamics and test different criteria for ending isolation. By considering a fixed time of 10 days since symptom onset as the criterion for ending isolation, we estimated that the risk of releasing an individual who is still infectious is low (0-6.6%). However, this policy entails lengthy unnecessary isolations (4.8-8.3 days). In contrast, by using a personalized strategy, similar low risks can be reached with shorter prolonged isolations. The obtained findings provide a scientific rationale for policies on ending the isolation of SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Patient Isolation , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Pandemics , Patient Isolation/methods , Patient Isolation/standards , Precision Medicine/methods , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/standards , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Load
19.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 250, 2021 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312651

ABSTRACT

A personalized mechanical ventilation approach for patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) based on lung physiology and morphology, ARDS etiology, lung imaging, and biological phenotypes may improve ventilation practice and outcome. However, additional research is warranted before personalized mechanical ventilation strategies can be applied at the bedside. Ventilatory parameters should be titrated based on close monitoring of targeted physiologic variables and individualized goals. Although low tidal volume (VT) is a standard of care, further individualization of VT may necessitate the evaluation of lung volume reserve (e.g., inspiratory capacity). Low driving pressures provide a target for clinicians to adjust VT and possibly to optimize positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), while maintaining plateau pressures below safety thresholds. Esophageal pressure monitoring allows estimation of transpulmonary pressure, but its use requires technical skill and correct physiologic interpretation for clinical application at the bedside. Mechanical power considers ventilatory parameters as a whole in the optimization of ventilation setting, but further studies are necessary to assess its clinical relevance. The identification of recruitability in patients with ARDS is essential to titrate and individualize PEEP. To define gas-exchange targets for individual patients, clinicians should consider issues related to oxygen transport and dead space. In this review, we discuss the rationale for personalized approaches to mechanical ventilation for patients with ARDS, the role of lung imaging, phenotype identification, physiologically based individualized approaches to ventilation, and a future research agenda.


Subject(s)
Precision Medicine/methods , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Precision Medicine/trends , Respiration, Artificial/trends , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Respiratory Mechanics/physiology
20.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e933088, 2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314975

ABSTRACT

Synthetic mRNA and the expression of therapeutic proteins have accelerated vaccine development to prevent infection and heralds a new era in targeted immunotherapy in oncology. Therapeutic mRNA vaccines rely on available tumor tissue for gene sequencing analysis to compare the patient's normal cellular DNA sequences and those of the tumor. Carrier-based mRNA vaccines for cancer immunotherapy are now in development that use delivery systems based on peptides, lipids, polymers, and cationic nano-emulsions. There have also been recent developments in dendritic cell-based mRNA vaccines. For patients with available tumor tissue samples, it is possible to develop mRNA vaccines that result in the expression of tumor antigens by antigen-presenting cells (APCs), resulting in innate and adaptive immune responses. Ongoing developments in mRNA immunotherapy include modifications in the route of administration and combined delivery of multiple mRNA vaccines with checkpoint inhibitors. This Editorial aims to present a brief overview of how mRNA immunotherapy may change the therapeutic landscape of personalized medicine for patients with solid malignant tumors.


Subject(s)
Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Medical Oncology/methods , Precision Medicine/methods
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