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1.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 11(3)2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244903

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with prediabetes who contract SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) could be at higher risk of developing frank diabetes compared those who do not. This study aims to investigate the incidence of new-onset diabetes in patients with prediabetes after COVID-19 and if it differs from those not infected. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using electronic medical record data, 42 877 patients with COVID-19, 3102 were identified as having a history of prediabetes in the Montefiore Health System, Bronx, New York. During the same time period, 34 786 individuals without COVID-19 with history of prediabetes were identified and 9306 were propensity matched as controls. SARS-CoV-2 infection status was determined by a real-time PCR test between March 11, 2020 and August 17, 2022. The primary outcomes were new-onset in-hospital diabetes mellitus (I-DM) and new-onset persistent diabetes mellitus (P-DM) at 5 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Compared with hospitalized patients without COVID-19 with history of prediabetes, hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with history of prediabetes had a higher incidence of I-DM (21.9% vs 6.02%, p<0.001) and of P-DM 5 months postinfection (14.75% vs 7.51%, p<0.001). Non-hospitalized patients with and without COVID-19 with history of prediabetes had similar incidence of P-DM (4.15% and 4.1%, p>0.05). Critical illness (HR 4.6 (95% CI 3.5 to 6.1), p<0.005), in-hospital steroid treatment (HR 2.88 (95% CI 2.2 to 3.8), p<0.005), SARS-CoV-2 infection status (HR 1.8 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.3), p<0.005), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (HR 1.7 (95% CI 1.6 to 1.8), p<0.005) were significant predictors of I-DM. I-DM (HR 23.2 (95% CI 16.1 to 33.4), p<0.005), critical illness (HR 2.4 (95% CI 1.6 to 3.8), p<0.005), and HbA1c (HR 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.4), p<0.005) were significant predictors of P-DM at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection confers a higher risk for developing persistent diabetes 5 months post-COVID-19 in patients with prediabetes who were hospitalized for COVID-19 compared with COVID-19-negative counterparts with prediabetes. In-hospital diabetes, critical illness, and elevated HbA1c are risk factors for developing persistent diabetes. Patients with prediabetes with severe COVID-19 disease may need more diligent monitoring for developing P-DM postacute SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Prediabetic State , Humans , Prediabetic State/complications , Prediabetic State/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin , Retrospective Studies , Critical Illness , SARS-CoV-2 , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology
2.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 23(2): 188-189, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319376

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for one-third of global mortality. Prediabetes increases the risk of CVDs as well as several other conditions, yet people with prediabetes may not seek intervention, thinking that they do not have diabetes, as the risk of progression may have not been emphasised by the healthcare professional. Accumulating evidence indicates that hyperglycaemia represents a continuum of CVD risk and dichotomising the risk into type 2 diabetes and prediabetes may deter early clinical intervention. It is proffered that the term 'prediabetes' is a misnomer that may disguise a serious condition, fostering complacency and undermining its prognostic significance.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hyperglycemia , Prediabetic State , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Blood Glucose , Prediabetic State/therapy , Prediabetic State/complications , Patient Care , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors
3.
Diabet Med ; 40(8): e15132, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318421

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Lifestyle and dietary modification are effective in the prevention and management of Type 2 diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). However, South Asian (SA) populations living in Western countries have low adherence rates to healthcare advice and experience poor diabetes control and clinical outcomes compared with the general population. This systematic review aimed to summarise the barriers and facilitators of dietary modification within people from South Asian (SA) ethnicity with T2DM or pre-diabetes. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus generated 3739 articles, of which seven were included. Qualitative and quantitative data were inputted utilising COVIDENCE. Qualitative data were analysed by thematic analysis. RESULTS: Thematic analysis identified three facilitators: (1) cultural sensitivity, (2) health education and (3) support networks. Barriers include (1) healthcare inequity, (2) cultural insensitivity, (3) social pressures, (4) misconceptions and (5) time constraints. Good access to health care and motivation were the most common facilitators discussed. Misconceptions on T2DM management and cultural insensitivity contributed to the majority of barriers discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Culturally tailored interventions could improve adherence to diet modification in people with T2DM from SA ethnicity. Interventions involving the application of social media to challenge intergenerational stigmas and misinformation, distributing culturally appropriate resources and providing diets tailored to the SA palate could help.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Prediabetic State , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Ethnicity , Prediabetic State/therapy , Asian People , Diet
4.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am ; 52(1): 1-12, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308856

ABSTRACT

The individual and societal burdens of living with a chronic disease are a global issue. Diabetes directly increases health care costs to manage the disease and the associated complications and indirectly increases the economic burden through long-term complications that hinder the productivity of humans worldwide. Thus, it is crucial to have accurate information on diabetes-related costs and the geographic and global economic impact when planning interventions and future strategies. Health care systems must work with government agencies to plan national-level pre diabetes and diabetes strategies and policies. Public health services must focus on diabetes screening prevention and remission.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Prediabetic State , United States , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Health Care Costs , Chronic Disease
5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 116(3): 640-652, 2022 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Consensus has not been reached on what constitutes an optimal diet in individuals with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), especially between low-carbohydrate options. OBJECTIVES: We compared 2 low-carbohydrate diets with 3 key similarities (incorporating nonstarchy vegetables and avoiding added sugars and refined grains) and 3 key differences (incorporating compared with avoiding legumes, fruits, and whole, intact grains) for their effects on glucose control and cardiometabolic risk factors in individuals with prediabetes and T2DM. METHODS: Keto-Med was a randomized, crossover, interventional trial. Forty participants aged ≥18 years with prediabetes or T2DM followed the well-formulated ketogenic diet (WFKD) and the Mediterranean-plus diet (Med-Plus) for 12 weeks each, in random order. The diets shared the 3 key similarities noted above. The Med-Plus incorporated legumes, fruits, and whole, intact grains, while the WFKD avoided them. The primary outcome was the percentage change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) after 12 weeks on each diet. Secondary and exploratory outcomes included percentage changes in body weight, fasting insulin, glucose, and blood lipids; average glucose from continuous glucose monitor (CGM), and nutrient intake. RESULTS: The primary analysis was of 33 participants with complete data. The HbA1c values did not differ between diets at 12 weeks. Triglycerides decreased more for the WFKD [percentage changes, -16% (SEM, 4%) compared with -5% (SEM, 6%) for the Med-Plus; P = 0.02] and LDL cholesterol was higher for the WFKD [percentage changes, +10% (SEM, 4%) compared with -5% (SEM, 5%) for the Med-Plus; P = 0.01]. Weight decreased 8% (SEM, 1%) compared with 7% (SEM, 1%) and HDL cholesterol increased 11% (SEM, 2%) compared with 7% (SEM, 3%) for the WFKD compared with the Med-Plus, respectively; however, there was a significant interaction of diet × order for both. Participants had lower intakes of fiber and 3 nutrients on the WFKD compared with the Med-Plus. Twelve-week follow-up data suggest the Med-Plus is more sustainable. CONCLUSIONS: HbA1c values were not different between diet phases after 12 weeks, but improved from baseline on both diets, likely due to several shared dietary aspects. The WFKD led to a greater decrease in triglycerides, but also had potential untoward risks from elevated LDL cholesterol and lower nutrient intakes from avoiding legumes, fruits, and whole, intact grains, as well as being less sustainable. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03810378.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diet, Ketogenic , Diet, Mediterranean , Prediabetic State , Adolescent , Adult , Blood Glucose , Cholesterol, LDL , Cross-Over Studies , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Humans , Triglycerides , Vegetables
6.
Am Fam Physician ; 107(4): 406-414, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295768

ABSTRACT

This article summarizes the top 20 research studies of 2022 identified as POEMs (patient-oriented evidence that matters), excluding COVID-19. Statins for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease produce only a small absolute reduction in a person's likelihood of dying (0.6%), having a myocardial infarction (0.7%), or having a stroke (0.3%) over three to six years. Supplemental vitamin D does not reduce the risk of a fragility fracture, even in people with low baseline vitamin D levels or a previous fracture. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are preferred medical therapy for panic disorder, and patients who discontinue antidepressants are more likely to relapse (number needed to harm = 6) compared with those who continue. Combination therapy using a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, or tricyclic antidepressant with mirtazapine or trazodone is more effective than monotherapy for first-line treatment of acute severe depression and when monotherapy fails. Using hypnotic agents for insomnia in adults comes with a significant trade-off between effectiveness and tolerability. In patients with moderate to severe asthma, using a combination of albuterol and glucocorticoid inhalers as rescue therapy reduces exacerbations and need for systemic steroids. Observational research shows an increased risk of gastric cancer in patients taking proton pump inhibitors (number needed to harm = 1,191 over 10 years). The American College of Gastroenterology updated its guideline for gastroesophageal reflux disease, and a new guideline provides sound advice for the evaluation and management of irritable bowel syndrome. Adults older than 60 years with prediabetes are more likely to become normoglycemic than to develop diabetes mellitus or die. Treatment of prediabetes via intensive lifestyle intervention or metformin has no impact on long-term cardiovascular outcomes. Persons with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy have similar degrees of improvement with monotherapy using amitriptyline, duloxetine, or pregabalin and greater improvement with combination therapy. When communicating with patients about disease risk, most patients prefer numbers over words because people overestimate word-based probabilities. In terms of drug therapy, the duration of an initial varenicline prescription should be 12 weeks. Many drugs can interact with cannabidiol. No important difference was found among ibuprofen, ketorolac, and diclofenac for treatment of acute nonradicular low back pain in adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians, Primary Care , Prediabetic State , Adult , Humans , Prediabetic State/drug therapy , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/adverse effects , Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
7.
MSMR ; 30(1): 11-18, 2023 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282612

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated trends in the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes among active component service members between 2018 and 2021, before and after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study also investigated the incidence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) diagnoses during the same period. Between 2018 and 2021, the prevalence of obesity among active component service members who completed a Periodic Health Assessment (PHA) increased from 16.1% to 18.8%. The incidence of prediabetes increased from 588.2 to 763.8 cases per 100,000 person-years (p-yrs), and the incidence of T2DM increased from 55.5 to 69.6 per 100,000 p-yrs. The largest relative increases in obesity prevalence were in the youngest (<30 years) age categories. Navy members and Hispanic service members experienced the largest absolute and relative increases in rates of new diabetes diagnoses. These findings indicate that during the COVID-19 pandemic active component service members experienced increased prevalence of obesity, prediabetes, and diabetes. Evaluation of lifestyle factors associated with these chronic diseases among service members may be useful to enhance deployment readiness and operational effectiveness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Military Personnel , Prediabetic State , Humans , Overweight/epidemiology , Prediabetic State/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Incidence , Pandemics , Prevalence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology
8.
Endocr Regul ; 57(1): 53-60, 2023 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281880

ABSTRACT

Objective. Nowadays, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is the most common chronic endocrine disorder affecting an estimated 5-10% of adults worldwide, and this disease also rapidly increased among the population in the Kurdistan region. This research aims to identify DNA methylation change in the TCF7L2 gene as a possible predictive T2D biomarker. Methods. One hundred and thirteen participants were divided into three groups: diabetic (47), prediabetic (36), and control (30). The study was carried out in patients who visited the private clinical sector between August and December 2021 in Koya city (Iraq Kurdistan region) to determine DNA methylation status using a methylation-specific PCR (MSP) with paired primers for each methylated and non-methylated region. In addition, the X2 Kruskal-Wallis statistical and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used, p<0.05 was considered significant. Results. The results showed hypermethylation of DNA in the promoter region in diabetic and prediabetic groups compared to the healthy controls. Different factors affected the DNA methylation level, including body max index, alcohol consumption, family history, and physical activity with the positive Coronavirus. Conclusion. The results obtained indicate that DNA methylation changes in the TCF7L2 promoter region may be used as a potential predictive biomarker of the T2D diagnosis. However, the findings obtained in this study should be supported by additional data.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Prediabetic State , Adult , Humans , DNA Methylation/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Prediabetic State/diagnosis , Prediabetic State/genetics , Iraq , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Biomarkers , Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein/genetics
9.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 211, 2023 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250215

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of people in Northern Iceland with prediabetes, at risk of developing T2DM or with manifest undiagnosed T2DM, as this information is lacking in Iceland. METHODS: A cross-sectional study. Clients of the three largest primary health care centres in the Health Care Institution of North Iceland (HSN) were invited to participate if fulfilling the following inclusion criteria: a) aged between 18 and 75 years, b) not diagnosed with diabetes, c) speaking and understanding Icelandic or English fluently and d) living in the included service area. Data collection took place via face-to-face interviews between 1 March 2020 and 15 May 2021. Participation included answering the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC), measuring the HbA1c levels and background information. RESULTS: Of the 220 participants, 65.9% were women. The mean age was 52.1 years (SD ± 14.1) and FINDRISC scores were as follows: 47.3% scored ≤8 points, 37.2% scored between 9 and 14 points, and 15.5% scored between 15 and 26 points. The mean HbA1c levels in mmol/mol, were 35.5 (SD ± 3.9) for men and 34.4 (SD ± 3.4) for women, ranging from 24 to 47. Body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 was found in 32% of men and 35.9% of women. Prevalence of prediabetes in this cohort was 13.2%. None of the participants had undiagnosed T2DM. Best sensitivity and specificity for finding prediabetes was by using cut-off points of ≥11 on FINDRISC, which gave a ROC curve of 0.814. CONCLUSIONS: The FINDRISC is a non-invasive and easily applied screening instrument for prediabetes. Used in advance of other more expensive and invasive testing, it can enable earlier intervention by assisting decision making, health promotion actions and prevention of the disease burden within primary health care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is a pre-phase of the registered study "Effectiveness of Nurse-coordinated Follow up Program in Primary Care for People at risk of T2DM" at www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov (NCT01688359). Registered 30 December 2020.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Prediabetic State , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Finland/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin , Prediabetic State/diagnosis , Prediabetic State/epidemiology , Primary Health Care , Risk Factors
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(8)2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225291

ABSTRACT

The immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection requires antibody recognition of the spike protein. In a study designed to examine the molecular features of anti-spike and anti-nucleocapsid antibodies, patient plasma proteins binding to pre-fusion stabilised complete spike and nucleocapsid proteins were isolated and analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry. Amongst the immunoglobulins, a high affinity for human serum albumin was evident in the anti-spike preparations. Careful mass comparison revealed the preferential capture of advanced glycation end product (AGE) forms of glycated human serum albumin by the pre-fusion spike protein. The ability of bacteria and viruses to surround themselves with serum proteins is a recognised immune evasion and pathogenic process. The preference of SARS-CoV-2 for AGE forms of glycated serum albumin may in part explain the severity and pathology of acute respiratory distress and the bias towards the elderly and those with (pre)diabetic and atherosclerotic/metabolic disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Prediabetic State , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin , Serum Albumin, Human , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(41): e31102, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077961

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To study the changes and effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin 1-7 (Ang1-7) and ACE/AngII in people with different glucose metabolisms and to explore the possible mechanisms underlying the severity of COVID-19 infection in diabetic patients. METHODS: A total of 88 patients with type 2 diabetes, 72 patients with prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose, 30 patients; impaired glucose regulation, 42 patients), and 50 controls were selected. Changes and correlations of ACE2, Ang1-7 and other indicators were detected among the three groups. Patients were divided into four groups according to the course of diabetes: <1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years, and >10 years. ACE2 and Ang1-7 levels were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: ACE2 and Ang1-7 increased with the severity of diabetes (P0 < .05 or P < .01). The levels of ACE2 and Ang1-7 in the longer course group were lower than those in the shorter course group, whereas the levels of ACE, Ang II, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) gradually increased (P < .05). Pearson correlation analysis showed that ACE2 was positively correlated with IL-6, FBG, and 2hPBG levels in the prediabetes group. In the diabetic group, ACE2 was positively correlated with Ang1-7 and negatively correlated with ACE, AngII, IL-6, and C-reactive protein levels. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that IL-6 and ACE were the main factors influencing ACE2 in the diabetic group. CONCLUSION SUBSECTIONS: ACE2/Ang1-7 and ACE/AngII systems are activated, and inflammatory cytokine release increases in prediabetes. With the prolongation of the disease course, the effect of ACE2/Ang1-7 decreased gradually, while the effect of ACE/AngII increased significantly. Dysfunctions of ACE2/Ang1-7 may be one of the important mechanisms underlying the severity of COVID-19 infection in patients with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Prediabetic State , Humans , Angiotensin I/metabolism , Angiotensin II , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein , Glucose , Interleukin-6 , Peptide Fragments/metabolism
13.
Turk J Med Sci ; 52(4): 1093-1102, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067783

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are not many studies conducted to detect and recognize the symptoms during the prediabetes period. In our study, we aimed to determine the symptoms that can be seen in prediabetes and diabetes and their prevalence and to determine the similarities and differences between the two groups. METHODS: Individuals who were diagnosed with prediabetes or diabetes, over the age of 18, literate, and accepted to collaborate were included in our study. The "Diabetes Symptoms Checklist Scale" was used by interviewing 321 participants, 161 prediabetic and 160 diabetic, face-to-face. RESULTS: It has been found that the most common symptom in both the prediabetes and the diabetes group is "fatigue" (88.2% prediabetes, 89.4% diabetes). The symptoms seen in the dimensions of neurology and hyperglycemia are more common in individuals with diabetes than in individuals with prediabetes [neurology score: 1.85 ± 0.84 vs. 1.66 ± 0.64 (p = 0.02), respectively; hyperglycemia score: 2.39 ± 0.94 vs. 2.08 ± 0.83 (p = 0.002), respectively]. It was observed that the symptom burden increased in all subdimensions with the long duration of illness, being a female, not working, having a family history, and not doing exercise, and high fasting blood glucose and high HbA1c values. The level of education, family history, accompanying hyperlipidemia, neurology, and hyperglycemia symptoms are associated with diabetes; and it has been determined that cardiology symptoms are associated with prediabetes. DISCUSSION: Especially; during the follow-up of patients with prediabetes who have a low education level and diabetic family history and concomitant hyperlipidemia, there may be an increase in neurological and hyperglycemic symptoms at the point of development of type 2 diabetes. In this respect, we recommend that these factors, which we found to be predictive of diabetes compared to prediabetes, should be questioned more carefully during patient visits.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hyperglycemia , Prediabetic State , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Prediabetic State/diagnosis , Prediabetic State/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Blood Glucose
14.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e061756, 2022 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020055

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Glycaemic variability and other metrics are not well characterised in subjects without diabetes. More comprehensive sampling as obtained with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) may improve diagnostic accuracy of the transition from health to pre-diabetes. Our goal is to investigate the glycaemic system as it shifts from health to pre-disease in adult patients without diabetes using CGM metrics. New insights may offer therapeutic promise for reversing dysglycaemia more successfully with dietary, nutritional and lifestyle change before progression occurs to pre-diabetes and diabetes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This systematic review will include comprehensive searches of the PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials.gov databases, with restrictions set to studies published in the last 10 years in English and planned search date 10 March 2022. Reference lists of studies that meet eligibility criteria in the screening process will subsequently be screened for the potential inclusion of additional studies. We will include studies that examine CGM use and report diagnostic criteria such as fasting glucose and/or haemoglobin A1c such that we can assess correlation between CGM metrics and established diagnostic criteria and describe how CGM metrics are altered in the transition from health to pre-diabetes. The screening and data extraction will be conducted by two independent reviewers using Covidence. All included papers will also be evaluated for quality and publication bias using Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tools. If there are two or more studies with quantitative estimates that can be combined, we will conduct a meta-analysis after assessing heterogeneity. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The systematic review methodology does not require formal ethical review due to the nature of the study design. Study findings will be publicly available and published in a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022308222.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Prediabetic State , Adult , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Prediabetic State/diagnosis , Systematic Reviews as Topic
15.
J Integr Complement Med ; 28(9): 757-767, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017651

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Prediabetes is a major public health concern. Different plant extracts are used in homeopathy as mother tinctures (MTs) for the treatment of prediabetes as an adjunct to individualized homeopathic medicines (IHMs); however, their effectiveness remains under-researched. Design: Open-label, randomized (1:1), active-controlled, pragmatic, exploratory trial. Setting: Mahesh Bhattacharyya Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Howrah, West Bengal, India. Subjects: Eighty-nine patients with prediabetes. Interventions: Group 1 (n = 45; IHMs plus any one of the following MTs: Cephalandra indica, Gymnema sylvestre, and Syzygium jambolanum; experimental/verum) versus Group 2 (n = 44; IHMs only; control). Outcome measures: Blood parameters, including-the fasting blood sugar (FBS) level, blood sugar level 2 h after ingestion of 75 g of glucose (oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT] result), and glycosylated hemoglobin percentage (HbA1c%), and symptoms, including the Diabetes Symptom Checklist-Revised (DSC-R) score; all of them were measured at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. Results: Although recruitment of 140 patients was initially planned, the target sample size could not be achieved because of coronavirus disease pandemic-related restrictions. Only 89 patients could be enrolled, and the trial had to be terminated prematurely owing to the time constraints of the project. The data of 82 patients (Group 1, n = 40; Group 2, n = 42) were analyzed using a modified intention-to-treat approach. Improvements in all outcomes were greater in Group 1 than in Group 2, but without a significant difference: FBS level (F1, 80 = 4.095, p = 0.046), OGTT result (F1, 80 = 2.399, p = 0.125), HbA1c% (F1, 80 = 1.612, p = 0.208), and DSC-R score (F1, 80 = 0.023, p = 0.880). Conclusions: A promising but nonsignificant trend favored the combination of MTs and IHMs compared with IHMs alone among the patients with prediabetes, especially in FBS. Therefore, further studies are required. Clinical Trial Registration Number: CTRI/2018/08/015319; secondary identifier (UTN): U1111-1218-6016.


Subject(s)
Homeopathy , Prediabetic State , Blood Glucose/analysis , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Humans , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Prediabetic State/blood , Prediabetic State/drug therapy
16.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(10): 102614, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007659

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To test the Diabetes College Brazil Study feasibility, the acceptability of study interventions and their preliminary effectiveness, and describe the study protocol modifications due to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Single-center, double-blinded pilot randomized trial with two parallel groups, Exercise and Lifestyle Education (ExLE; 12-week exercise and educational interventions) and Exercise (Ex; 12-week exercise intervention only) involving patients with prediabetes or diabetes. Feasibility (eligibility, recruitment, retention, completeness of variables measures and participation rates), acceptability (satisfaction), and preliminary effectiveness of interventions (variables: functional capacity, physical activity (PA), exercise self-efficacy, diabetes knowledge, health literacy, adherence to Mediterranean food pattern, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), anthropometric measures, cardiac autonomic control, depression, and quality of life (QofL)). RESULTS: Eligibility, recruitment, retention, participation in exercise sessions, and education classes rates were 17%, 93%,82%, 76%, and 71%, respectively. Missing data in the post-intervention assessment (PA, HbA1c, cardiac autonomic control, anthropometric measures, depression, and QofL) were mainly related to research procedure modifications. The interventions were highly acceptable, and most variables improved farther in the ExLE, with moderate effect sizes for PA, diabetes knowledge, health literacy, cardiac autonomic control, and QofL. CONCLUSIONS: The Diabetes College Brazil Study is feasible, and the ExLE may benefit Brazilians living with prediabetes and diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Prediabetic State , Humans , Prediabetic State/therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin , Brazil/epidemiology , Pilot Projects , Quality of Life , Pandemics , Exercise , Life Style , Feasibility Studies
17.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 896378, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963430

ABSTRACT

Aims: Pre-existing conditions, such as age, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes, constitute known risk factors for severe COVID-19. However, the impact of prediabetes mellitus (PDM) on COVID-19 severity is less clear. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of PDM in the acute and long-term phases of COVID-19. Materials and methods: We compared inflammatory mediators, laboratory and clinical parameters and symptoms in COVID-19 patients with prediabetes (PDM) and without diabetes (NDM) during the acute phase of infection and at three months post-hospitalization. Results: Patients with PDM had longer hospital stays and required intensive care unit admission more frequently than NDM. Upon hospitalization, PDM patients exhibited higher serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), which is related to reduced partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) in arterial blood, oxygen saturation (SpO2) and increased COVID-19 severity. However, at three months after discharge, those with PDM did not exhibit significant alterations in laboratory parameters or residual symptoms; however, PDM was observed to influence the profile of reported symptoms. Conclusions: PDM seems to be associated with increased risk of severe COVID-19, as well as higher serum levels of IL-6, which may constitute a potential biomarker of severe COVID-19 risk in affected patients. Furthermore, while PDM correlated with more severe acute-phase COVID-19, no long-term worsening of sequelae was observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Prediabetic State , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Humans , Prediabetic State/complications
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(14)2022 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957279

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study evaluated the perception of individuals with prediabetes/diabetes about their living conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic to identify the facilitators, barriers, and reasons to remain physically active at home and adhere to recommended exercise. It included individuals with prediabetes/diabetes who had completed an exercise intervention, which started on-site and moved to a remote home-based regime due to the COVID-19 pandemic and were advised to keep exercising at home. The outcomes were assessed by a bespoke questionnaire that was developed by the research team, the Brazilian Portuguese adapted version of the Exercise Adherence Rating scale, and the Motives for Physical Activity Measure-Revised scale. Of 15 participants (8 female, 58 ± 11 years), most reported positive perceptions about their living conditions and few difficulties maintaining some physical activity at home. However, only 53.8% of them adhered to the recommended exercise. Time flexibility, no need for commuting, and a sense of autonomy were the main facilitators of home exercise, while a lack of adequate space was the main barrier. The descending order of median scores that were obtained in each reason for physical activity was fitness, enjoyment, competence, social, and appearance. Individuals with prediabetes/diabetes maintained some physical activity during the pandemic, mainly motivated by health concerns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Prediabetic State , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Exercise , Exercise Therapy , Female , Humans , Motivation , Pandemics , Prediabetic State/epidemiology , Prediabetic State/therapy
19.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 10(4): 284-296, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915200

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become an epidemic, much like other non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as cancer, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The pathophysiology of NAFLD, particularly involving insulin resistance and subclinical inflammation, is not only closely linked to that of those NCDs but also to a severe course of the communicable disease COVID-19. Genetics alone cannot explain the large increase in the prevalence of NAFLD during the past 2 decades and the increase that is projected for the next decades. Impairment of glucose and lipid metabolic pathways, which has been propelled by the worldwide increase in the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, is most likely behind the increase in people with NAFLD. As the prevalence of NAFLD varies among subgroups of patients with diabetes and prediabetes identified by cluster analyses, stratification of people with diabetes and prediabetes by major pathological mechanistic pathways might improve the diagnosis of NAFLD and prediction of its progression. In this Review, we aim to understand how diabetes can affect the development of hepatic steatosis and its progression to advanced liver damage. First, we emphasise the extent to which NAFLD and diabetes jointly occur worldwide. Second, we address the major mechanisms that are involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and type 2 diabetes, and we discuss whether these mechanisms place NAFLD in an important position to better understand the pathogenesis of NCDs and communicable diseases, such as COVID-19. Third, we address whether this knowledge can be used for personalised treatment of NAFLD in the future. Finally, we discuss the current treatment strategies for people with type 2 diabetes and their effectiveness in treating the spectrum of hepatic diseases from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Insulin Resistance , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Prediabetic State , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Prediabetic State/metabolism
20.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911628

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study assessed the predictive performance of inflammatory, hepatic, coagulation, and cardiac biomarkers in patients with prediabetes and diabetes mellitus hospitalized for COVID-19 in Austria. METHODS: This was an analysis of a multicenter cohort study of 747 patients with diabetes mellitus or prediabetes hospitalized for COVID-19 in 11 hospitals in Austria. The primary outcome of this study was in-hospital mortality. The predictor variables included demographic characteristics, clinical parameters, comorbidities, use of medication, disease severity, and laboratory measurements of biomarkers. The association between biomarkers and in-hospital mortality was assessed using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses. The predictive performance of biomarkers was assessed using discrimination and calibration. RESULTS: In our analysis, 70.8% had type 2 diabetes mellitus, 5.8% had type 1 diabetes mellitus, 14.9% had prediabetes, and 8.6% had other types of diabetes mellitus. The mean age was 70.3 ± 13.3 years, and 69.3% of patients were men. A total of 19.0% of patients died in the hospital. In multiple logistic regression analysis, LDH, CRP, IL-6, PCT, AST-ALT ratio, NT-proBNP, and Troponin T were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality. The discrimination of NT-proBNP was 74%, and that of Troponin T was 81%. The calibration of NT-proBNP was adequate (p = 0.302), while it was inadequate for Troponin T (p = 0.010). CONCLUSION: Troponin T showed excellent predictive performance, while NT-proBNP showed good predictive performance for assessing in-hospital mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus hospitalized with COVID-19. Therefore, these cardiac biomarkers may be used for prognostication of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Prediabetic State , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Austria/epidemiology , Biomarkers , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Risk Factors , Troponin T
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