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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(41): e31102, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077961

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To study the changes and effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin 1-7 (Ang1-7) and ACE/AngII in people with different glucose metabolisms and to explore the possible mechanisms underlying the severity of COVID-19 infection in diabetic patients. METHODS: A total of 88 patients with type 2 diabetes, 72 patients with prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose, 30 patients; impaired glucose regulation, 42 patients), and 50 controls were selected. Changes and correlations of ACE2, Ang1-7 and other indicators were detected among the three groups. Patients were divided into four groups according to the course of diabetes: <1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years, and >10 years. ACE2 and Ang1-7 levels were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: ACE2 and Ang1-7 increased with the severity of diabetes (P0 < .05 or P < .01). The levels of ACE2 and Ang1-7 in the longer course group were lower than those in the shorter course group, whereas the levels of ACE, Ang II, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) gradually increased (P < .05). Pearson correlation analysis showed that ACE2 was positively correlated with IL-6, FBG, and 2hPBG levels in the prediabetes group. In the diabetic group, ACE2 was positively correlated with Ang1-7 and negatively correlated with ACE, AngII, IL-6, and C-reactive protein levels. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that IL-6 and ACE were the main factors influencing ACE2 in the diabetic group. CONCLUSION SUBSECTIONS: ACE2/Ang1-7 and ACE/AngII systems are activated, and inflammatory cytokine release increases in prediabetes. With the prolongation of the disease course, the effect of ACE2/Ang1-7 decreased gradually, while the effect of ACE/AngII increased significantly. Dysfunctions of ACE2/Ang1-7 may be one of the important mechanisms underlying the severity of COVID-19 infection in patients with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Prediabetic State , Humans , Angiotensin I/metabolism , Angiotensin II , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein , Glucose , Interleukin-6 , Peptide Fragments/metabolism
3.
Turk J Med Sci ; 52(4): 1093-1102, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067783

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are not many studies conducted to detect and recognize the symptoms during the prediabetes period. In our study, we aimed to determine the symptoms that can be seen in prediabetes and diabetes and their prevalence and to determine the similarities and differences between the two groups. METHODS: Individuals who were diagnosed with prediabetes or diabetes, over the age of 18, literate, and accepted to collaborate were included in our study. The "Diabetes Symptoms Checklist Scale" was used by interviewing 321 participants, 161 prediabetic and 160 diabetic, face-to-face. RESULTS: It has been found that the most common symptom in both the prediabetes and the diabetes group is "fatigue" (88.2% prediabetes, 89.4% diabetes). The symptoms seen in the dimensions of neurology and hyperglycemia are more common in individuals with diabetes than in individuals with prediabetes [neurology score: 1.85 ± 0.84 vs. 1.66 ± 0.64 (p = 0.02), respectively; hyperglycemia score: 2.39 ± 0.94 vs. 2.08 ± 0.83 (p = 0.002), respectively]. It was observed that the symptom burden increased in all subdimensions with the long duration of illness, being a female, not working, having a family history, and not doing exercise, and high fasting blood glucose and high HbA1c values. The level of education, family history, accompanying hyperlipidemia, neurology, and hyperglycemia symptoms are associated with diabetes; and it has been determined that cardiology symptoms are associated with prediabetes. DISCUSSION: Especially; during the follow-up of patients with prediabetes who have a low education level and diabetic family history and concomitant hyperlipidemia, there may be an increase in neurological and hyperglycemic symptoms at the point of development of type 2 diabetes. In this respect, we recommend that these factors, which we found to be predictive of diabetes compared to prediabetes, should be questioned more carefully during patient visits.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hyperglycemia , Prediabetic State , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Prediabetic State/diagnosis , Prediabetic State/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Blood Glucose
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e061756, 2022 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020055

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Glycaemic variability and other metrics are not well characterised in subjects without diabetes. More comprehensive sampling as obtained with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) may improve diagnostic accuracy of the transition from health to pre-diabetes. Our goal is to investigate the glycaemic system as it shifts from health to pre-disease in adult patients without diabetes using CGM metrics. New insights may offer therapeutic promise for reversing dysglycaemia more successfully with dietary, nutritional and lifestyle change before progression occurs to pre-diabetes and diabetes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This systematic review will include comprehensive searches of the PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials.gov databases, with restrictions set to studies published in the last 10 years in English and planned search date 10 March 2022. Reference lists of studies that meet eligibility criteria in the screening process will subsequently be screened for the potential inclusion of additional studies. We will include studies that examine CGM use and report diagnostic criteria such as fasting glucose and/or haemoglobin A1c such that we can assess correlation between CGM metrics and established diagnostic criteria and describe how CGM metrics are altered in the transition from health to pre-diabetes. The screening and data extraction will be conducted by two independent reviewers using Covidence. All included papers will also be evaluated for quality and publication bias using Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tools. If there are two or more studies with quantitative estimates that can be combined, we will conduct a meta-analysis after assessing heterogeneity. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The systematic review methodology does not require formal ethical review due to the nature of the study design. Study findings will be publicly available and published in a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022308222.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Prediabetic State , Adult , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Prediabetic State/diagnosis , Systematic Reviews as Topic
5.
J Integr Complement Med ; 28(9): 757-767, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017651

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Prediabetes is a major public health concern. Different plant extracts are used in homeopathy as mother tinctures (MTs) for the treatment of prediabetes as an adjunct to individualized homeopathic medicines (IHMs); however, their effectiveness remains under-researched. Design: Open-label, randomized (1:1), active-controlled, pragmatic, exploratory trial. Setting: Mahesh Bhattacharyya Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Howrah, West Bengal, India. Subjects: Eighty-nine patients with prediabetes. Interventions: Group 1 (n = 45; IHMs plus any one of the following MTs: Cephalandra indica, Gymnema sylvestre, and Syzygium jambolanum; experimental/verum) versus Group 2 (n = 44; IHMs only; control). Outcome measures: Blood parameters, including-the fasting blood sugar (FBS) level, blood sugar level 2 h after ingestion of 75 g of glucose (oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT] result), and glycosylated hemoglobin percentage (HbA1c%), and symptoms, including the Diabetes Symptom Checklist-Revised (DSC-R) score; all of them were measured at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. Results: Although recruitment of 140 patients was initially planned, the target sample size could not be achieved because of coronavirus disease pandemic-related restrictions. Only 89 patients could be enrolled, and the trial had to be terminated prematurely owing to the time constraints of the project. The data of 82 patients (Group 1, n = 40; Group 2, n = 42) were analyzed using a modified intention-to-treat approach. Improvements in all outcomes were greater in Group 1 than in Group 2, but without a significant difference: FBS level (F1, 80 = 4.095, p = 0.046), OGTT result (F1, 80 = 2.399, p = 0.125), HbA1c% (F1, 80 = 1.612, p = 0.208), and DSC-R score (F1, 80 = 0.023, p = 0.880). Conclusions: A promising but nonsignificant trend favored the combination of MTs and IHMs compared with IHMs alone among the patients with prediabetes, especially in FBS. Therefore, further studies are required. Clinical Trial Registration Number: CTRI/2018/08/015319; secondary identifier (UTN): U1111-1218-6016.


Subject(s)
Homeopathy , Prediabetic State , Blood Glucose/analysis , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Prediabetic State/blood , Prediabetic State/drug therapy
6.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(10): 102614, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007659

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To test the Diabetes College Brazil Study feasibility, the acceptability of study interventions and their preliminary effectiveness, and describe the study protocol modifications due to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Single-center, double-blinded pilot randomized trial with two parallel groups, Exercise and Lifestyle Education (ExLE; 12-week exercise and educational interventions) and Exercise (Ex; 12-week exercise intervention only) involving patients with prediabetes or diabetes. Feasibility (eligibility, recruitment, retention, completeness of variables measures and participation rates), acceptability (satisfaction), and preliminary effectiveness of interventions (variables: functional capacity, physical activity (PA), exercise self-efficacy, diabetes knowledge, health literacy, adherence to Mediterranean food pattern, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), anthropometric measures, cardiac autonomic control, depression, and quality of life (QofL)). RESULTS: Eligibility, recruitment, retention, participation in exercise sessions, and education classes rates were 17%, 93%,82%, 76%, and 71%, respectively. Missing data in the post-intervention assessment (PA, HbA1c, cardiac autonomic control, anthropometric measures, depression, and QofL) were mainly related to research procedure modifications. The interventions were highly acceptable, and most variables improved farther in the ExLE, with moderate effect sizes for PA, diabetes knowledge, health literacy, cardiac autonomic control, and QofL. CONCLUSIONS: The Diabetes College Brazil Study is feasible, and the ExLE may benefit Brazilians living with prediabetes and diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Prediabetic State , Humans , Prediabetic State/therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Brazil/epidemiology , Pilot Projects , Quality of Life , Pandemics , Exercise , Life Style , Feasibility Studies
7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 896378, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963430

ABSTRACT

Aims: Pre-existing conditions, such as age, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes, constitute known risk factors for severe COVID-19. However, the impact of prediabetes mellitus (PDM) on COVID-19 severity is less clear. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of PDM in the acute and long-term phases of COVID-19. Materials and methods: We compared inflammatory mediators, laboratory and clinical parameters and symptoms in COVID-19 patients with prediabetes (PDM) and without diabetes (NDM) during the acute phase of infection and at three months post-hospitalization. Results: Patients with PDM had longer hospital stays and required intensive care unit admission more frequently than NDM. Upon hospitalization, PDM patients exhibited higher serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), which is related to reduced partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) in arterial blood, oxygen saturation (SpO2) and increased COVID-19 severity. However, at three months after discharge, those with PDM did not exhibit significant alterations in laboratory parameters or residual symptoms; however, PDM was observed to influence the profile of reported symptoms. Conclusions: PDM seems to be associated with increased risk of severe COVID-19, as well as higher serum levels of IL-6, which may constitute a potential biomarker of severe COVID-19 risk in affected patients. Furthermore, while PDM correlated with more severe acute-phase COVID-19, no long-term worsening of sequelae was observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Prediabetic State , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Prediabetic State/complications
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(14)2022 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957279

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study evaluated the perception of individuals with prediabetes/diabetes about their living conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic to identify the facilitators, barriers, and reasons to remain physically active at home and adhere to recommended exercise. It included individuals with prediabetes/diabetes who had completed an exercise intervention, which started on-site and moved to a remote home-based regime due to the COVID-19 pandemic and were advised to keep exercising at home. The outcomes were assessed by a bespoke questionnaire that was developed by the research team, the Brazilian Portuguese adapted version of the Exercise Adherence Rating scale, and the Motives for Physical Activity Measure-Revised scale. Of 15 participants (8 female, 58 ± 11 years), most reported positive perceptions about their living conditions and few difficulties maintaining some physical activity at home. However, only 53.8% of them adhered to the recommended exercise. Time flexibility, no need for commuting, and a sense of autonomy were the main facilitators of home exercise, while a lack of adequate space was the main barrier. The descending order of median scores that were obtained in each reason for physical activity was fitness, enjoyment, competence, social, and appearance. Individuals with prediabetes/diabetes maintained some physical activity during the pandemic, mainly motivated by health concerns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Prediabetic State , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Exercise , Exercise Therapy , Female , Humans , Motivation , Pandemics , Prediabetic State/epidemiology , Prediabetic State/therapy
9.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 10(4): 284-296, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915200

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become an epidemic, much like other non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as cancer, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The pathophysiology of NAFLD, particularly involving insulin resistance and subclinical inflammation, is not only closely linked to that of those NCDs but also to a severe course of the communicable disease COVID-19. Genetics alone cannot explain the large increase in the prevalence of NAFLD during the past 2 decades and the increase that is projected for the next decades. Impairment of glucose and lipid metabolic pathways, which has been propelled by the worldwide increase in the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, is most likely behind the increase in people with NAFLD. As the prevalence of NAFLD varies among subgroups of patients with diabetes and prediabetes identified by cluster analyses, stratification of people with diabetes and prediabetes by major pathological mechanistic pathways might improve the diagnosis of NAFLD and prediction of its progression. In this Review, we aim to understand how diabetes can affect the development of hepatic steatosis and its progression to advanced liver damage. First, we emphasise the extent to which NAFLD and diabetes jointly occur worldwide. Second, we address the major mechanisms that are involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and type 2 diabetes, and we discuss whether these mechanisms place NAFLD in an important position to better understand the pathogenesis of NCDs and communicable diseases, such as COVID-19. Third, we address whether this knowledge can be used for personalised treatment of NAFLD in the future. Finally, we discuss the current treatment strategies for people with type 2 diabetes and their effectiveness in treating the spectrum of hepatic diseases from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Insulin Resistance , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Prediabetic State , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Prediabetic State/metabolism
10.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911628

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study assessed the predictive performance of inflammatory, hepatic, coagulation, and cardiac biomarkers in patients with prediabetes and diabetes mellitus hospitalized for COVID-19 in Austria. METHODS: This was an analysis of a multicenter cohort study of 747 patients with diabetes mellitus or prediabetes hospitalized for COVID-19 in 11 hospitals in Austria. The primary outcome of this study was in-hospital mortality. The predictor variables included demographic characteristics, clinical parameters, comorbidities, use of medication, disease severity, and laboratory measurements of biomarkers. The association between biomarkers and in-hospital mortality was assessed using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses. The predictive performance of biomarkers was assessed using discrimination and calibration. RESULTS: In our analysis, 70.8% had type 2 diabetes mellitus, 5.8% had type 1 diabetes mellitus, 14.9% had prediabetes, and 8.6% had other types of diabetes mellitus. The mean age was 70.3 ± 13.3 years, and 69.3% of patients were men. A total of 19.0% of patients died in the hospital. In multiple logistic regression analysis, LDH, CRP, IL-6, PCT, AST-ALT ratio, NT-proBNP, and Troponin T were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality. The discrimination of NT-proBNP was 74%, and that of Troponin T was 81%. The calibration of NT-proBNP was adequate (p = 0.302), while it was inadequate for Troponin T (p = 0.010). CONCLUSION: Troponin T showed excellent predictive performance, while NT-proBNP showed good predictive performance for assessing in-hospital mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus hospitalized with COVID-19. Therefore, these cardiac biomarkers may be used for prognostication of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Prediabetic State , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Austria/epidemiology , Biomarkers , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Risk Factors , Troponin T
11.
J Investig Med ; 70(7): 1481-1487, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874631

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection is known to increase mortality in patients with diabetes. We aim to demonstrate the differences in disease course and clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19 regarding the presence of impaired fasting glucose, pre-existing diabetes mellitus (DM) or new-onset DM. 236 patients with positive reverse transcription-PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 were included in this single-center, retrospective observational study between March 2020 and May 2021. Laboratory results, comorbidities, medications and imaging findings were noted. Logistic regression was used to estimate associated factors for admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). 43 patients with normal glucose, 53 with impaired fasting glucose, 60 with newly diagnosed DM, and 80 with pre-existing DM were classified. Patients with pre-existing DM had higher fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin than the other groups (p<0.001 for all). Patients with newly diagnosed DM were more likely to need dexamethasone 6 mg (p=0.001). In both newly diagnosed diabetes and impaired fasting glucose groups, 250 mg methylprednisolone was needed at higher rates (p=0.002). Newly diagnosed DM had higher rates of intubation (21.6%) and more mortality (20.0%) (p=0.045 and p=0.028, respectively). Mortality and hospitalization in the ICU were lower in the group receiving antidiabetic treatment. The risk of ICU attendance was higher in patients with impaired fasting glucose (HR=1.71, 95% CI: 0.48 to 6.08) and newly diagnosed DM (HR=1.88, 95% CI: 0.57 to 6.17), compared with pre-existing DM and non-diabetics. Newly diagnosed DM and impaired fasting glucose are associated with increased mortality and intubation in inpatients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Prediabetic State , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/complications , Dexamethasone , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Fasting , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Methylprednisolone , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Popul Health Manag ; 25(2): 235-243, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864946

ABSTRACT

Amid the global pandemic, it becomes more apparent that diabetes is a pressing health concern because racial/ethnic minorities with underlying diabetes conditions have been disproportionately affected. The study proposes a multiyear examination to document the role of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in racial/ethnic disparities in diabetes health. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from 2011 to 2019, the study with a pre-post design investigated changes in access to care and diabetes health among non-White minorities compared with Whites before and after the ACA by conducting multivariable linear regression, with state-fixed effects and robust standard errors. Compared with Whites, racial/ethnic minorities showed significant improvements in health insurance coverage, having a personal doctor, and not seeing a doctor because of cost. Blacks (3.2% points, P ≤ 0.000), Hispanics (1.6% points, P = 0.001), and "other" racial/ethnic group (1.5% points, P = 0.003) experienced a greater increase in diagnosed prediabetes than Whites, whereas no and small differences were found in diagnosed diabetes and obesity, respectively. The yearly comparisons of changes in diagnosed prediabetes showed that Blacks compared with Whites had a growing increase from 1.2% points (P = 0.001) in 2014 to 3.3% points (P = 0.001) in 2019. Insurance coverage has declined after 2016, and obesity had an increasing trend across race/ethnicity. The ACA had a positive role in improving access to care and identifying those at risk for diabetes to a larger extent among racial/ethnic minorities. However, the policy impacts have been diminishing in recent years. Continued efforts are needed for sustained policy effects.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Prediabetic State , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Health Services Accessibility , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Insurance Coverage , Obesity , Pandemics , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , United States/epidemiology
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(5): e2214163, 2022 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864297

ABSTRACT

Importance: Community-based COVID-19 testing and vaccination programs play a crucial role in mitigating racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 service delivery. They also represent a platform that can be leveraged to expand access to testing for chronic diseases, including diabetes, that disproportionately affect the Latinx community and other marginalized communities. Objective: To evaluate outcomes associated with a diabetes testing strategy designed to reach low-income Latinx persons by leveraging COVID-19 testing infrastructure and community trust developed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This health care improvement study was conducted from August 1 to October 5, 2021, at an outdoor, community-based COVID-19 testing site at a transport hub in the Mission Neighborhood in San Francisco, California. Because the program was designed to expand access to diabetes screening to the local community, all individuals presenting for on-site testing were eligible. Data were analyzed in November 2021. Interventions: Integration of rapid, point-of-care hemoglobin A1c screening as a testing option in an existing low-barrier COVID-19 testing program. Main Outcomes and Measures: Evaluation was guided by the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework and utilized programmatic data and structured surveys among clients and staff. Results: Of 6631 individuals tested (median [IQR] age 39.3 [29.7-51.3] years; 3417 [52.3%] female, 4348 [65.6%] Latinx), 923 (13.9%) underwent hemoglobin A1c testing with or without COVID-19 testing and 5708 (86.1%) underwent COVID-19 testing only. Individuals tested for diabetes were more likely to be Latinx (763 of 923 individuals [82.7%] who underwent testing were Latinx vs 3585 of 5708 [62.8%] not undergoing testing), have an annual household income of less than $50 000 (450 individuals [81.2%] vs 2409 individuals [66.0%]), and not have health insurance (381 individuals [47.2%] vs 1858 individuals [39.9%]), and 206 (48.0%) had never tested for diabetes before. Overall, 313 (33.9%) and 113 (12.2%) individuals had prediabetes and diabetes, respectively; only 141 of 354 of these individuals (39.8%) had a primary care clinician whom they had seen in the prior 12 months, which was lower among Latinx individuals (113 of 307 individuals [36.8%] vs 28 of 47 [59.6%]). Acceptability of the rapid testing program was high-98% were satisfied with their visit and 96% said they would return for future services; key factors underpinning acceptability included friendly staff, efficiency, and a convenient location. Conclusions and Relevance: In this health care improvement study conducted within an existing community-based COVID-19 testing program, integrating rapid testing for diabetes was feasible, reached low-income Latinx individuals, and identified many persons with prediabetes and diabetes, most of whom lacked access to services in formal health care settings. Leveraging pandemic-related public health responses represents an important opportunity for engaging socioeconomically disadvantaged populations into care for diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prediabetic State , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Male , Pandemics
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(8)2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785746

ABSTRACT

The immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection requires antibody recognition of the spike protein. In a study designed to examine the molecular features of anti-spike and anti-nucleocapsid antibodies, patient plasma proteins binding to pre-fusion stabilised complete spike and nucleocapsid proteins were isolated and analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry. Amongst the immunoglobulins, a high affinity for human serum albumin was evident in the anti-spike preparations. Careful mass comparison revealed the preferential capture of advanced glycation end product (AGE) forms of glycated human serum albumin by the pre-fusion spike protein. The ability of bacteria and viruses to surround themselves with serum proteins is a recognised immune evasion and pathogenic process. The preference of SARS-CoV-2 for AGE forms of glycated serum albumin may in part explain the severity and pathology of acute respiratory distress and the bias towards the elderly and those with (pre)diabetic and atherosclerotic/metabolic disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Prediabetic State , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin , Serum Albumin, Human , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
17.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732137

ABSTRACT

Associations between habitual dietary intake of minerals and glucose metabolism have been extensively studied in relation to metabolic disorders. However, similar research has yet to be conducted in individuals after acute pancreatitis (AP). The main aim was to investigate the associations between habitual intake of 13 minerals and glycaemic status: new-onset prediabetes/diabetes after AP (NODAP), pre-existing prediabetes/type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and normoglycaemia after AP (NAP). Associations between the dietary intake of minerals and markers of glucose metabolism (glycated haemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose) were also studied. The EPIC-Norfolk food frequency questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional fashion to determine the habitual intake of 13 dietary minerals. ANCOVA as well as multiple linear regression analyses were conducted and five statistical models were built to adjust for covariates. The study included 106 individuals after AP. In the NODAP group, intake of 4 minerals was significantly less when compared with the NAP group: iron (B = -0.076, p = 0.013), nitrogen (B = -0.066, p = 0.003), phosphorous (B = -0.046, p = 0.006), and zinc (B = -0.078, p = 0.001). Glycated haemoglobin was significantly associated with iodine intake (B = 17.763, p = 0.032) and manganese intake (B = -17.147, p = 0.003) in the NODAP group. Fasting plasma glucose was significantly associated with manganese intake (B = -2.436, p = 0.027) in the NODAP group. Habitual intake of minerals differs between individuals with NODAP, T2DM, and NAP. Prospective longitudinal studies and randomised controlled trials are now warranted to further investigate the associations between mineral intake and NODAP.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Diet , Minerals/administration & dosage , Pancreatitis/complications , Prediabetic State/etiology , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Female , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Insulin/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pancreatitis/metabolism , Prediabetic State/metabolism , Prospective Studies
18.
J Behav Med ; 45(2): 227-239, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616193

ABSTRACT

People with prediabetes are at risk for type 2 diabetes. They may discount the future delay discounting (DD), and not engage in preventive health behaviors. Episodic future thinking (EFT) can reduce DD when future scenarios are cued, but research is needed to assess long-term effects of EFT and when EFT is not cued. This study tested EFT training compared to control for people with prediabetes enrolled in a 6-month weight loss program on DD, weight, HbA1c, and physical activity. Results showed a reliable EFT effect on reducing DD in cued (p = 0.0035), and uncued DD tasks (p = 0.048), and significant overall changes in weight (p < 0.001), HbA1c (p, 0.001) and physical activity (p = 0.003), but no significant differences in these outcomes by group (p's > 0.05). Sixty-eight percent of the sample ended below the prediabetes HbA1c range. These results suggest that DD can be modified over extended periods, and the effects of EFT can be observed without EFT cues. However, these data do not suggest that changes in weight, HbA1c or physical activity were due to EFT training. The study was initiated before the COVID-19 pandemic which provided the opportunity to compare differences for people treated in-person or remotely. Analyses showed no differences in DD, weight, HBA1c or physical activity outcomes were observed between in-person and remote treatment, suggesting telehealth is a scalable approach to treating prediabetes.


Subject(s)
Delay Discounting , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Prediabetic State , Weight Loss , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/psychology , Humans , Prediabetic State/psychology , Thinking
19.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 9(2)2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598547

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Early diagnosis of prediabetes based on blood sampling for the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is crucial for intervention but multiple barriers hinder its uptake. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and precision of a self-administered capillary OGTT for type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in high-risk individuals. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants with history of gestational diabetes or prediabetes were recruited in primary care. Due to their prediabetic status and previous diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus, a proportion of participants had previous experience doing OGTT. They self-administered the capillary OGTT and concurrently their venous glucose samples were obtained. They filled a questionnaire to collect their demographic information, views of their capillary OGTT, and their preferred site of the test. RESULTS: Among 30 participants enrolled in this feasibility study, 93.3% of them felt confident of performing the capillary OGTT themselves, and 70.0% preferred the test at home. Older, less educated participants found it less acceptable. Mean capillary glucose values were significantly higher than venous glucose values, with mean difference at 0.31 mmol/L (95% CI 0.13 to 0.49) at fasting, and 0.47 mmol/L (95% CI 0.12 to 0.92) 2 hours post-OGTT. Capillary and venous glucose measurements were correlated for fasting (r=0.95; p<0.001) and 2-hour-post-OGTT (r=0.95;p<0.001). The Fleiss-Kappa Score (0.79, p<0.0001) indicated fair agreement between the two methods. The capillary OGTT had excellent sensitivity (94.1%) and negative predictive value (NPV=91.7%) in identifying prediabetes or T2DM status, vis-a-vis to venous glucose samples. CONCLUSION: Self-administered capillary OGTT is feasible and acceptable, especially among younger adults, with excellent sensitivity and NPV compared with plasma-based OGTT.


Subject(s)
Diabetes, Gestational , Prediabetic State , Adult , Blood Glucose , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Feasibility Studies , Female , Glucose Tolerance Test , Humans , Prediabetic State/diagnosis , Pregnancy
20.
Clin Lab ; 68(6)2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate renal function by urinalysis in COVID-19 patients following the administration of vancomycin. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed between October 2020 and January 2021, during which time patients were hospitalized in the Prince Mohammed Bin Abdulaziz Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The patients were free of kidney disease. Urinalysis was performed by an automated laboratory system, and the collected results were based upon age, gender, diabetic status, whether the patients had received vancomycin, the mortality rate, and the urinalysis panel including coinfection by bacteria and yeast. RESULTS: A total of 227 patients were included in this study, 147 (64.75%) of whom were male and 80 (35.25%) of whom were female; 54.63% were diabetic, 11.89% were prediabetic, and 33.48% were non-diabetic patients. Proteinuria, hematuria, glycosuria, coinfection, and ketonuria were detected among all participants within the study group, specifically among diabetic patients. The mortality rate was 16.2% among the study group; 6.6% had re-ceived vancomycin, and 9.6% had not received vancomycin. No significant correlation was found between nephrotoxicity and abnormalities in the urine and the mortality rate among members of our study group. CONCLUSIONS: Proteinuria, hematuria, glycosuria, ketonuria, and coinfection were common among members of our study group, especially in the diabetic group. Urinalysis abnormalities were less frequent in the vancomycin group than in the others, except the prediabetic group. No correlation between mortality and vancomycin was identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Glycosuria , Ketosis , Prediabetic State , Female , Hematuria , Humans , Kidney/physiology , Male , Proteinuria , Retrospective Studies , Urinalysis , Vancomycin/adverse effects
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