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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e26034, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191014

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: To determine the role of ultra-low dose chest computed tomography (uld CT) compared to chest radiographs in patients with laboratory-confirmed early stage SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.Chest radiographs and uld CT of 12 consecutive suspected SARS-CoV-2 patients performed up to 48 hours from hospital admission were reviewed by 2 radiologists. Dosimetry and descriptive statistics of both modalities were analyzed.On uld CT, parenchymal abnormalities compatible with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were detected in 10/12 (83%) patients whereas on chest X-ray in, respectively, 8/12 (66%) and 5/12 (41%) patients for reader 1 and 2. The average increment of diagnostic performance of uld CT compared to chest X-ray was 29%. The average effective dose was, respectively, of 0.219 and 0.073 mSv.Uld CT detects substantially more lung injuries in symptomatic patients with suspected early stage SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia compared to chest radiographs, with a significantly better inter-reader agreement, at the cost of a slightly higher equivalent radiation dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Observer Variation , Predictive Value of Tests , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Radiation Dosage , Radiography, Thoracic/adverse effects , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Radiometry/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/adverse effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
3.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 33, 2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy is widely employed in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) patients. However, the techniques for predicting HFNC outcome remain scarce. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched until April 20, 2021. We included the studies that evaluated the potential predictive value of ROX (respiratory rate-oxygenation) index for HFNC outcome. This meta-analysis determined sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic score, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and pooled area under the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve. RESULTS: We assessed nine studies with 1933 patients, of which 745 patients experienced HFNC failure. This meta-analysis found that sensitivity, specificity, PLR, NLR, diagnostic score, and DOR of ROX index in predicting HFNC failure were 0.67 (95% CI 0.57-0.76), 0.72 (95% CI 0.65-0.78), 2.4 (95% CI 2.0-2.8), 0.46 (95% CI 0.37-0.58), 1.65(95% CI 1.37-1.93), and 5.0 (95% CI 4.0-7.0), respectively. In addition, SROC was 0.75 (95% CI 0.71-0.79). Besides, our subgroup analyses revealed that ROX index had higher sensitivity and specificity for predicting HFNC failure in COVID-19 patients, use the cut-off value > 5, and the acquisition time of other times after receiving HFNC had a greater sensitivity and specificity when compared to 6 h. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that ROX index could function as a novel potential marker to identify patients with a higher risk of HFNC failure. However, the prediction efficiency was moderate, and additional research is required to determine the optimal cut-off value and propel acquisition time of ROX index in the future. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021240607.


Subject(s)
Catheterization , Nasal Cavity , Oximetry , Respiratory Rate , Animals , Catheterization/adverse effects , Humans , Noninvasive Ventilation , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Elife ; 92020 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155739

ABSTRACT

Temporal inference from laboratory testing results and triangulation with clinical outcomes extracted from unstructured electronic health record (EHR) provider notes is integral to advancing precision medicine. Here, we studied 246 SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive (COVIDpos) patients and propensity-matched 2460 SARS-CoV-2 PCR-negative (COVIDneg) patients subjected to around 700,000 lab tests cumulatively across 194 assays. Compared to COVIDneg patients at the time of diagnostic testing, COVIDpos patients tended to have higher plasma fibrinogen levels and lower platelet counts. However, as the infection evolves, COVIDpos patients distinctively show declining fibrinogen, increasing platelet counts, and lower white blood cell counts. Augmented curation of EHRs suggests that only a minority of COVIDpos patients develop thromboembolism, and rarely, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), with patients generally not displaying platelet reductions typical of consumptive coagulopathies. These temporal trends provide fine-grained resolution into COVID-19 associated coagulopathy (CAC) and set the stage for personalizing thromboprophylaxis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Tests , Blood Coagulation , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Platelet Count , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
9.
Echocardiography ; 39(11): 1401-1411, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078440

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Cardiac involvement in recovered COVID-19 patients assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Subjects recently recovered from COVID-19 and with an abnormal left ventricular global longitudinal strain were enrolled. Cardiac MRI in all the enrolled subjects was done at baseline (within 30-90 days following recovery from COVID-19) with a follow-up scan at 6 months in individuals with an abnormal baseline scan. Additionally, 20 age-and sex-matched individuals were enrolled as healthy controls (HCs). RESULTS: All the 30 enrolled subjects were symptomatic during active COVID-19 disease and were categorized as mild: 11 (36.7%), moderate: 6 (20%), and severe: 13 (43.3%). Of the 30 patients, 16 (53.3%) had abnormal CMR findings. Myocardial edema was reported in 12 (40%) patients while 10 (33.3%) had late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). No difference was observed in terms of conventional left ventricular (LV) parameters; however, COVID-19-recovered patients had significantly lower right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction, RV stroke volume, and RV cardiac index compared to HCs. Follow-up scan was abnormal in 4/16 (25%) with LGE persisting in three patients (who had severe COVID-19 [3/4;75%]). Subjects with severe COVID-19 had a greater frequency of LGE (53.8%) and myocardial edema (61.5%) as compared to mild and moderate cases. Myocardial T1 (1284 ± 43.8 ms vs. 1147.6 ± 68.4 ms; p < .0001) and T2 values (50.8 ± 16.7 ms vs. 42.6 ± 3.6 ms; p = .04) were significantly higher in post COVID-19 subjects compared to HCs. Similarly, T1 and T2 values of severe COVID-19 patients were significantly higher compared to mild and moderate cases. CONCLUSIONS: An abnormal CMR was seen in half of the recovered patients with persistent abnormality in one-fourth at 6 months. Our study suggests a need for closer follow-up among recovered subjects in order to evaluate for long-term cardiovascular sequelae. COVID-19 causes structural changes in the myocardium in a small segment of patients with partial spontaneous resolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Humans , Follow-Up Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , COVID-19/complications , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Stroke Volume , Myocardium/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Ventricular Function, Left , Predictive Value of Tests
10.
Iran J Immunol ; 18(1): 82-92, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly transmits in general population, mainly between health-care workers (HCWs) who are in close contact with patients. OBJECTIVE: To study the seropositivity of HCWs as a high-risk group compared to general population. METHODS: 72 samples were obtained from HCWs working in Masih Daneshvari hospital as one of the main COVID-19 admission centers in Tehran, during April 4 to 6, 2020. Also we collected 2021 blood samples from general population. The SARS-CoV-2 specific IgM, and IgG antibodies in the collected serum specimens were measured by commercial ELISA kits. RESULTS: Based on the clinical manifestations, 25.0%, 47.2%, and 27.8% of HCWs were categorized as symptomatic with typical symptoms, symptomatic with atypical symptoms, and asymptomatic, respectively. Symptomatic individuals with typical and atypical symptoms were 63.2% and 36.8% positive in RT-PCR test, respectively. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in 15.3% and 27.8% of HCWs samples, respectively. Antibody testing in the general population indicated that SARS-CoV-2 specific IgM and IgG were found in (162/2021) 8%, and (290/2021) 14.4%, respectively. The frequency of positive cases of IgM and IgG were significantly increased in HCWs compared to general population (p= 0.028 for IgM and p= 0.002 for IgG). CONCLUSION: The frequency of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies in HCWs was higher than general population indicating a higher viral transmission via close exposure with COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel , Occupational Health , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Time Factors , Young Adult
11.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 117(10): 1706-1708, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056479

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Many studies on alcoholic hepatitis (AH) use the International Classification of Disease (ICD) coding to identify patients. Data regarding the diagnostic accuracy of ICD codes for AH are limited. METHODS: A total of 151 patients with ICD-10 codes for AH were reviewed for the presence or absence of AH using standardized diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: Sixty-eight of the 151 patients met AH criteria, corresponding to a positive predictive value of 45%. Patients with AH experienced higher model for end-stage liver disease and mortality than those who did not ( P < 0.05). DISCUSSION: Our results suggest ICD-10 codes are not reliable for identifying AH. Studies using the ICD codes should be interpreted cautiously.


Subject(s)
End Stage Liver Disease , Hepatitis, Alcoholic , Hepatitis, Alcoholic/diagnosis , Humans , International Classification of Diseases , Predictive Value of Tests , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(4): 1108-1114, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2045555

ABSTRACT

It was previously reported that coronavirus caused myocardial injury in hospitalized patients. However, delayed cardiac involvement in symptomatic patient recovery from COVID-19 is not yet well known. The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiac involvement by using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in symptomatic post-COVID-19 recovered patients. Thirty (30) patients who recovered from COVID-19 and had recently reported cardiac symptoms were studied in a prospective observational study performed at Popular Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from March 2021 to September 2021. They underwent CMR examinations. CMR scanning protocol included the following: black blood, cine sequence, both short-axis and long-axis, T2-weight short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequence, T2- weighted imaging (T2WI) and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and quantitative mapping sequences-native T1/T2 mapping and post-contrast T1 mapping. Myocardial edema and late gadolinium enhancement were assessed in all patients. Quantitative evaluation of native T1/T2 and ECV value and cardiac function were evaluated. There were 30 people in all in this study. The average age of the participants in the study was 36.6 years. Fourteen (46.6%) of the patients had abnormal cardiac MRI results, while the remaining 15(53.3%) had negative CMR findings. Among positive findings patients, 8(57.1%) of 14 had increased T2 signal. Increased myocardial edema was found in the same no of patients, involving 53.2% (128 of 224) of LV segments. Only 2 cases (2 of 14) showed mid myocardial and subepicardial LGE, involving 18 of 224, 8.03% of myocardial segments. Global native T1, T2 and ECV values are significantly elevated in all CMR positive findings patients. Native T1 1231ms (IQR: 1281.25-1257.5 versus 1155.5 (IQR: 1137.25-1172.75), T2 40 (IQR: 34.5-43.25) versus 35.5 (IQR: 34-37), ECV 31 (29.75-33.25) versus 23.5 (21.25-24.0), p<0.001; p<0.011 and p<0.001 respectively. Reduced RV functional were found in positive as compared with negative CMR findings patients, EF, 32.05 (IQR: 25.25-39.0) versus 54.5 (IQR: 52.0-57.75) and EDV, 117.5 (IQR: 102.0-134.25) versus 95.0 (IQR: 71.75-99.75), p<0.001 and p<0.001 respectively. In this study cardiac involvement was found in the post-COVID-19 recovered patient with cardiac symptoms. Cardiac MRI findings included myocardial edema, fibrosis and reduced right ventricular function. So attention should be paid to symptomatic post-COVID-19 recovered patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiomyopathies , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathies/pathology , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/adverse effects , Predictive Value of Tests , Tertiary Care Centers
13.
Can J Cardiol ; 38(11): 1676-1683, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute myocarditis is a rare complication of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination. Little is known about the natural history of this complication. METHODS: Baseline and convalescent (≥ 90 days) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging assessments were performed in 20 consecutive patients meeting Updated Lake Louise Criteria for acute myocarditis within 10 days of mRNA-based vaccination. CMR-based changes in left ventricular volumes, mass, ejection fraction (LVEF), markers of tissue inflammation (native T1 and T2 mapping), and fibrosis (late gadolinium enhancement [LGE] and extracellular volume [ECV]) were assessed between baseline and convalescence. Cardiac symptoms and clinical outcomes were captured. RESULTS: Median age was 23.1 years (range 18-39 years), and 17 (85%) were male. Convalescent evaluations were performed at a median (IQR) 3.7 (3.3-6.2) months. The LVEF showed a mean 3% absolute improvement, accompanied by a 7% reduction in LV end-diastolic volume and 5% reduction in LV mass (all P < 0.015). Global LGE burden was reduced by 66% (P < 0.001). Absolute reductions in global T2, native T1, and ECV of 2.1 ms, 58 ms, and 2.9%, repectively, were documented (all P ≤ 0.001). Of 5 patients demonstrating LVEF ≤ 50% at baseline, all recovered to above this threshold in convalescence. A total of 18 (90%) patients showed persistence of abnormal LGE although mean fibrosis burden was < 5% of LV mass in 85% of cases. No patient experienced major clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis showed rapid improvements in CMR-based markers of edema, contractile function, and global LGE burden beyond 3 months of recovery in this young patient cohort. However, regional fibrosis following edema resolution was commonly observed, justifying need for ongoing surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Injuries , Myocarditis , Humans , Male , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Female , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/pathology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Convalescence , Ventricular Function, Left , Stroke Volume , Predictive Value of Tests , Fibrosis , RNA, Messenger , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Myocardium/pathology
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023676

ABSTRACT

Rapid scoring systems validated in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) may be useful beyond their original purpose. Our aim was to assess the utility of CHA2DS2-VASc, HAS-BLED, and 2MACE scores in predicting long-term mortality in the population of the Bialystok Coronary Project, including AF patients. The initial study population consisted of 7409 consecutive patients admitted for elective coronary angiography between 2007 and 2016. The study endpoint was all-cause mortality, which occurred in 1244 (16.8%) patients during the follow-up, ranging from 1283 to 3059 days (median 2029 days). We noticed substantially increased all-cause mortality in patients with higher values of all compared scores. The accuracy of the scores in predicting all-cause mortality was also assessed using the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. The greatest predictive value for mortality was recorded for the CHA2DS2-VASc score in the overall study population (area under curve [AUC] = 0.665; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.645-0.681). We observed that the 2MACE score (AUC = 0.656; 95%CI 0.619-0.681), but not the HAS-BLED score, had similar predictive value to the CHA2DS2-VASc score for all-cause mortality in the overall study population. In AF patients, all scores did not differ in all-cause mortality prediction. Additionally, we found that study participants with CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥3 vs. <3 had a 3-fold increased risk of long-term all-cause mortality (odds ratio 3.05; 95%CI 2.6-3.6). Our study indicates that clinical scores initially validated in AF patients may be useful for predicting mortality in a broader population (e.g., in patients referred for elective coronary angiography). According to our findings, all compared scores have a moderate predictive value. However, in our study, the CHA2DS2-VASc and 2MACE scores outperformed the HAS-BLED score in terms of the long-term all-cause mortality prediction.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Stroke , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnostic imaging , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Coronary Angiography , Humans , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Stroke/etiology
17.
Intern Med ; 61(17): 2625-2629, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022249

ABSTRACT

Myocarditis is being increasingly reported as a rare complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccines. We herein report a case of myocarditis following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination in a man. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) revealed an area of high signal intensity on short T1 inversion recovery (STIR) and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), which are characteristic of myocarditis. Follow-up CMRI performed six months later revealed improvement in the myocardial edema and LGE findings. CMRI is a useful non-invasive imaging modality for making an initial diagnosis as well as for follow-up in cases of myocarditis after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Myocarditis/complications , Myocarditis/etiology , Predictive Value of Tests , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination
18.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 24(1): 50, 2022 09 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The underlying pathophysiology of post-coronavirus disease 2019 (long-COVID-19) syndrome remains unknown, but increased cardiometabolic demand and state of mitochondrial dysfunction have emerged as candidate mechanisms. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) provides insight into pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease and 31-phosphorus CMR spectroscopy (31P-CMRS) allows non-invasive assessment of the myocardial energetic state. The main aim of the study was to assess whether long COVID-19 syndrome is associated with abnormalities of myocardial structure, function, perfusion and energy metabolism. METHODS: Prospective case-control study. A total of 20 patients with a clinical diagnosis of long COVID-19 syndrome (seropositive) and no prior underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 10 matching healthy controls underwent 31P-CMRS and CMR at 3T at a single time point. All patients had been symptomatic with acute COVID-19, but none required hospital admission. RESULTS: Between the long COVID-19 syndrome patients and matched contemporary healthy controls there were no differences in myocardial energetics (phosphocreatine to ATP ratio), in cardiac structure (biventricular volumes), function (biventricular ejection fractions, global longitudinal strain), tissue characterization (T1 mapping and late gadolinium enhancement) or perfusion (myocardial rest and stress blood flow, myocardial perfusion reserve). One patient with long COVID-19 syndrome showed subepicardial hyperenhancement on late gadolinium enhancement imaging compatible with prior myocarditis, but no accompanying abnormality in cardiac size, function, perfusion, extracellular volume fraction, native T1, T2 or cardiac energetics. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective case-control study, the overwhelming majority of patients with a clinical long COVID-19 syndrome with no prior CVD did not exhibit any abnormalities in myocardial energetics, structure, function, blood flow or tissue characteristics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Predictive Value of Tests , Spectrum Analysis
19.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 36(12): 4403-4409, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996912

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary embolism is one of the leading causes of death in patients with COVID-19. Autopsy findings showed that the incidence of thromboembolic events was higher than clinically suspected. In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between pulmonary embolism severity index (PESI) and simplified PESI (sPESI) on admission to the hospital, as well as adverse events in hospitalized COVID-19 patients without clinically documented venous and/or pulmonary embolism. The adverse events investigated were the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, the need for intensive care unit admission, invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation, and in-hospital mortality. DESIGN: A retrospective and observational study. SETTING: Two large-volume tertiary hospitals in the same city. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 720 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with a positive polymerase chain reaction were evaluated. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of the study population, 48.6% (350) were women, and the median age was 66 years (19-96). The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 20.5%. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, a significant relationship was found between the whole adverse events considered and PESI, as well as sPESI (p < 0.001). According to the results, sPESI ≥2 predicts in-hospital mortality with a sensitivity of 61.4% and specificity of 83.3% (area under the curve = 0.817, 95% confidence interval 0.787-0.845, p < 0.001). Similarly, PESI classes IV and V also were found as independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality (for PESI class IV, odds ratio = 2.81, p < 0.017; for PESI class V, odds ratio = 3.94, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: PESI and sPESI scoring systems were both found to be associated with adverse events, and they can be used to predict in-hospital mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients without documented venous and/or pulmonary embolism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Humans , Female , Aged , Male , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Risk Assessment , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Predictive Value of Tests
20.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 28: 10760296221117997, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1986656

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To derive and validate a D-dimer cutoff for ruling out pulmonary embolism (PE) in COVID-19 patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed in an integrated healthcare system including 22 adult ED's between March 1, 2020, and January 31, 2021. Results were validated among patients enrolled in the RECOVER Registry, representing data from 154 ED's from 26 US states. Consecutive ED patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19, a D-dimer performed within 48 h of ED arrival, and with objectively confirmed PE were compared to those without PE. After identifying a D-dimer threshold at which the 95% confidence lower bound of the negative predictive value for PE was higher than 98% in the derivation cohort, it was validated using RECOVER registry data. RESULTS: Among 3978 patients with a D-dimer result, 3583 with confirmed COVID-19 infection were included in the derivation cohort. Overall, PE incidence was 4.1% and a D-dimer cutoff of <2 µ/mL (2000 ng/mL) was associated with a NPV of 98.5% (95% CI = 98.0%-98.9%). In the validation cohort of 13,091 patients with a D-dimer, 7748 had confirmed COVID-19 infection, and the PE incidence was 1.14%. A D-dimer cutoff of <2 µ/mL was associated with a NPV of 99.5% (95% CI = 99.3%-99.7%). CONCLUSION: A D-dimer cutoff of <2 µ/ml was associated with a high negative predictive value for PE among patients with COVID-19. However, the resultant sensitivity for PE result at that threshold without pre-test probability assessment would be considered clinically unsafe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Predictive Value of Tests , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
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