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2.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am ; 49(4): 665-692, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227075

ABSTRACT

Optimal care during the antenatal and postnatal phases of the life cycle is a potentially positive determinant of health elsewhere in the continuum. A successful transition from the antenatal to the postnatal period requires early detection, optimal management, and prevention of disease; health promotion; birth preparedness; and complication readiness. Women, their babies, and families need appropriate evidence-based care based on their dignity and human rights before, during, and after birth. In this review, we present an overview of the components of antenatal and postnatal care needed to provide women a culturally sensitive and positive pregnancy and postnatal experience. The challenge of antenatal and postnatal care is determining their core components and underpinning them with evidence without overmedicalizing their practice.


Subject(s)
Postnatal Care , Pregnancy Complications , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Prenatal Care , Parturition , Pregnancy Complications/prevention & control
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 22, 2023 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic brought a new challenge to maternal mortality in Brazil. Throughout 2020, Brazil registered 549 maternal deaths, mainly in second and third-trimester pregnant women. The objective of this study was to estimate the excess maternal deaths in Brazil caused directly and indirectly by Covid-19 in the year 2020. In addition, we sought to identify clinical, social and health care factors associated with the direct maternal deaths caused by Covid-19. METHODS: We performed nationwide analyses based on data from the Mortality Information System (SIM) for general and maternal deaths and the Influenza Epidemiological Surveillance System (SIVEP-Influenza) for estimates of female and maternal deaths due to COVID-19. Two distinct techniques were adopted. First, we describe maternal deaths directly caused by covid-19 and compare them with the historical series of deaths from covid-19 among women of childbearing age (15 to 49 years). Next, we estimated the total excess maternal mortality. Then, we calculated odds ratios for symptoms, comorbidities, social determination proxies and hospital care aspects between COVID-19 maternal deaths and deaths of women of childbearing age who were not pregnant or no maternal deaths. We chose women of childbearing age (15 to 49 years) as a reference because sex and age introduce differentials in the risk of COVID-19 death. RESULTS: Most maternal deaths occurred during pregnancy compared to postpartum deaths month by month in 2020 (µ = 59.8%, SD = 14.3%). The excess maternal mortality in 2020 in Brazil was 1.40 (95% CI 1.35-1.46). Even considering excess mortality due to COVID-19 for the childbearing age female population (MMR 1.14; 95% CI 1.13-1.15), maternal mortality exceeded the expected number. The odds of being a black woman, living in a rural area and being hospitalized outside the residence municipality among maternal deaths were 44, 61 and 28% higher than the control group. Odds of hospitalization (OR 4.37; 95% CI 3.39-5.37), ICU admission (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.50-1.98) and invasive ventilatory support use (OR 1.64; CI 95% 1.42-1.86) among maternal deaths were higher than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: There was excess maternal mortality in 2020 in Brazil. Even with adjustment for the expected excess mortality from Covid-19 in women of childbearing age, the number of maternal deaths exceeds expectations, suggesting that there were deaths among pregnant and postpartum women indirectly caused by the pandemic, compromising access to prenatal care., adequate childbirth and puerperium.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Maternal Death , Pregnancy Complications , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Pandemics , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology
4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 31, 2023 Jan 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196108

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little research has been conducted on the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on either birth outcomes or the ability of archival medical records to accurately capture these outcomes. Our study objective is thus to compare the prevalence of preterm birth, stillbirth, low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), congenital microcephaly, and neonatal bloodstream infection (NBSI) before and during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). METHODS: We conducted a facility-based retrospective cohort study in which identified cases of birth outcomes were tabulated at initial screening and subcategorized according to level of diagnostic certainty using Global Alignment of Immunization Safety Assessment in pregnancy (GAIA) definitions. Documentation of any birth complications, delivery type, and maternal vaccination history were also evaluated. The prevalence of each birth outcome was compared in the pre-COVID-19 (i.e., July 2019 to February 2020) and intra-COVID-19 (i.e., March to August 2020) periods via two-sample z-test for equality of proportions. RESULTS: In total, 14,300 birth records were abstracted. Adverse birth outcomes were identified among 22.0% and 14.3% of pregnancies in the pre-COVID-19 and intra-COVID-19 periods, respectively. For stillbirth, LBW, SGA, microcephaly, and NBSI, prevalence estimates were similar across study periods. However, the prevalence of preterm birth in the intra-COVID-19 period was significantly lower than that reported during the pre-COVID-19 period (8.6% vs. 11.5%, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the level of diagnostic certainty declined slightly across all outcomes investigated from the pre-COVID-19 to the intra-COVID-19 period. Nonetheless, diagnostic certainty was especially low for certain outcomes (i.e., stillbirth and NBSI) regardless of period; still, other outcomes, such as preterm birth and LBW, had moderate to high levels of diagnostic certainty. Results were mostly consistent when the analysis was focused on the facilities designated for COVID-19 care. CONCLUSION: This study succeeded in providing prevalence estimates for key adverse birth outcomes using GAIA criteria during the COVID-19 pandemic in Kinshasa, DRC. Furthermore, our study adds crucial real-world data to the literature surrounding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal and neonatal services and outcomes in Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microcephaly , Pregnancy Complications , Premature Birth , Pregnancy , Female , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Pandemics , Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Microcephaly/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fetal Growth Retardation/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Medical Records
5.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e062975, 2022 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117268

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To measure the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal and perinatal health services and outcomes in Mozambique. DESIGN: This is an observational study analysing routine service delivery data using interrupted time series analysis. We used 43 months of district-level panel data with April 2020 as the point of interruption, adjusting for seasonality and population growth to analyse service utilisation outcomes. SETTING: The 222 public health facilities in Nampula Province, Mozambique, from January 2018 to July 2021. OUTCOME MEASURES: The change in the number of antenatal care (ANC) visits and facility deliveries, and the change in the rate of adverse birth outcomes at pandemic onset and over time compared with expected levels and trends, respectively. RESULTS: There were no significant disruptions to ANC at pandemic onset. Following this, there was a significant monthly increase of 29.8 (18.2-41.4) first ANC visits and 11.3 (5.5-17.2) ANC visits within the first trimester per district above prepandemic trends. There was no significant change in the number of fourth ANC visits completed. At the onset of COVID-19, districts experienced a significant decrease of 71.1 (-110.5 to -31.7) facility deliveries, but the rate then increased significantly above prepandemic trends. There was no significant increase in any adverse birth outcomes during the pandemic. Conversely, districts observed a significant monthly decrease of 5.3 uterine rupture cases (-9.9 to -0.6) and 19.2 stillbirths (-33.83 to -4.58) per 100 000 facility deliveries below prepandemic trends. There was a significant drop of 23.5 cases of neonatal sepsis/100 000 facility deliveries per district at pandemic onset. CONCLUSION: Despite pandemic interference, Nampula Province saw no disruptions to ANC, only temporary disruptions to facility deliveries and no increases in adverse birth outcomes. ANC visits surprisingly increased, and the rates of uterine rupture, stillbirth and neonatal sepsis decreased, suggesting that Nampula Province may offer insights about health system resilience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neonatal Sepsis , Pregnancy Complications , Uterine Rupture , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Mozambique/epidemiology , Prenatal Care , Stillbirth
6.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 625, 2022 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) effects on newborns is ongoing. But the research of specific variant's effects is none. This study analyzed the effects of the Omicron variant on the perinatal outcomes of full-term newborns during the Omicron wave period.  METHODS: Between December 2021 and April 2022, this study was conducted on all newborns who visited a single center. We investigated due to the Omicron maternal infection maternal pregnancy complications, delivery methods, birth week, Apgar scores, neonatal resuscitation program requirement, whether respiratory support was required until 12 h after childbirth, suspicious infectious status, and mortality depending on maternal Omicron infection. RESULTS: A total of 127 neonates were enrolled, and 12 were excluded based on exclusion criteria. Sixteen neonates were born to mothers with a history of Omicron COVID-19, and 99 were born to non-infectious mothers. All infected mothers became infected in the 3rd trimester. Of the 16 mothers, seven were symptomatic, and four met the isolation criteria, according to Korean guidelines. The birth weight of newborns to mothers with a history of COVID and those without was 2.958 ± 0.272 kg and 3.064 ± 0.461 kg (p = 0.049), respectively. The 5-min Apgar score at childbirth was 9.29 ± 0.756 and 9.78 ± 0.460 for neonates born to symptomatic and asymptomatic mothers (p = 0.019), respectively. When compared with or without maternal self-isolation, neonates requiring respiratory support 12 h after birth demonstrated a significant difference (p = 0.014; OR, 10.275). Additionally, the presence or absence of transient tachypnea of the newborn showed a significant value (p = 0.010; OR 11.929). CONCLUSIONS: Owing to Omicron COVID-19, newborns were born with lower birth weight, low 5-min Apgar scores, and required respiratory support until 12 h after birth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Complications , Pregnancy , Female , Infant, Newborn , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Resuscitation , Birth Weight
7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 107(5): 1060-1065, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080693

ABSTRACT

Previous coronavirus epidemics were associated with increased maternal morbidity, mortality, and adverse obstetric outcomes. Reports for SARS-CoV-2 indicate that the obstetric population is at increased risk for severe illness, although there are still limited data on mild COVID-19 infection during pregnancy. To determine the association between mild COVID-19 infection during pregnancy, and maternal and neonatal outcomes, we performed a prospective cohort study among pregnant women with COVID-19 and a control group. Postnatal depressive symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. We recruited 84 pregnant women with mild COVID-19 and 88 pregnant women without COVID-19. All participants were unvaccinated. The most common acute COVID-19 symptoms were headache (82.1%), loss of smell (81%), and asthenia (77.4%). The median duration of long COVID symptoms was 60 days (interquartile range, 130). Pregnant women with a COVID-19 diagnosis were at greater risk for obstetric ultrasound abnormalities-mainly, fetal growth restriction (relative risk [RR], 12.40; 95% CI, 1.66-92.5), premature birth (RR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.07-6.43), and postpartum depression (RR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.24-4.21). Our results alert clinicians to the consequences of COVID-19 during pregnancy, even in mild cases, given the increased risk of ultrasound abnormalities, premature birth, long COVID symptoms, and postpartum depression. National guidelines on preventive measures and treatments should be based on scientific evidence, including attention to the impact on health and family needs during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Complications , Premature Birth , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Premature Birth/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Pregnancy Outcome , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
8.
Clin Chest Med ; 43(3): 471-488, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035813

ABSTRACT

In this article, we discuss some of the more common obstetric-related conditions that can lead to critical illness and require management in an ICU. These include the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, postpartum hemorrhage, hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet syndrome, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, amniotic fluid embolism, and peripartum cardiomyopathy. We also discuss pulmonary embolism and Covid-19. Despite not being specific to obstetric patients, pulmonary embolism is a common, life-threatening diagnosis in pregnancy with particular risks and management aspects. Covid-19 does not seem to occur with higher frequency in pregnant women, but it leads to higher rates of ICU admissions and mechanical ventilation in pregnant women than in their nonpregnant peers. Its prevalence during our current global pandemic makes it important to discuss in this article. We provide a basis for critical care physicians to be engaged in informed conversations and management in a multidisciplinary manner with other relevant providers in the care of critically ill pregnant and postpartum women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications , Pulmonary Embolism , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/therapy
9.
Am Fam Physician ; 106(3): Online, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2034423
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 966522, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022750

ABSTRACT

Prenatal stress can affect pregnant women in an epigenetic way during the critical period of conception of their offspring. The study aims to investigate the relationship between peritraumatic distress, prenatal perceived stress, depression, and glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) DNA methylation among pregnant women who experienced COVID-19 lockdown in China. Study data were collected from 30 pregnant women in Wuhan and Huanggang, China. The Peritraumatic Distress Inventory was used to measure peritraumatic distress, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to measure depressive symptoms, and the Perceived Stress Scale was used to measure perceived stress. DNA methylation in the exon 1F promoter region of NR3C1 gene from the venous blood mononuclear cell genome was characterized by bisulfite sequencing. Correlation and linear regression were used for data analysis. The mean level of peritraumatic distress, perceived stress, and depression was 6.30 (SD = 5.09), 6.50 (SD = 5.41), and 6.60 (SD = 4.85), respectively, with 23.33% of pregnant women being depressed. The mean NR3C1 methylation was 0.65 (SD = 0.22). Prenatal depression was positively correlated with the degree of methylation in venous blood from the mother (r = 0.59, p = 0.001), and depression predicted methylation of NR3C1 gene at the CpG 8 site (ß = 0.05, p = 0.03). No association was found between peritraumatic distress as well as perceived stress and methylation of NR3C1. NR3C1 gene was susceptible to epigenetic modification of DNA methylation in the context of prenatal stress, and maternal depression was associated with increased NR3C1 methylation among women who experienced COVID-19 lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Pregnancy Complications , Quarantine , Receptors, Glucocorticoid , Stress Disorders, Traumatic , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , DNA Methylation/genetics , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/genetics , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/genetics , Pregnancy Complications/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Pregnant Women , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/psychology , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/genetics , Stress Disorders, Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Traumatic/genetics , Stress Disorders, Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/genetics , Stress, Psychological/psychology
11.
Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab ; 17(4): 365-374, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997014

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Normal thyroid status throughout pregnancy is important for both maternal and fetal health. Despite the bulk of contemporary research honing on thyroid function in gestation and the relevant disorders, there are still gaps in our current knowledge about the etiology and treatment of thyroid diseases in pregnant women. AREAS COVERED: This article analyzes the adaptation of the thyroid gland to gestational physiological changes and attempts to explain the effect of several factors on thyroid function in pregnancy. It also stresses proper utilization and interpretation of thyroid tests during pregnancy and underlines the significance of proper screening and treatment of pregnant women aiming at favorable health outcomes. EXPERT OPINION: Appropriate strategies for diagnosing and treating thyroid disease in pregnancy are important. Laboratory thyroid testing plays a leading role, but test results should be interpreted with caution. Given the possible serious maternal and fetal/neonatal complications of thyroid disease in pregnancy, we recommend universal screening with TSH measurements of all pregnant women. Additional assessment with determination of the levels of free thyroid hormones and thyroid antibodies may be necessary under certain conditions. The economic burden of such interventions should be considered.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy Complications , Thyroid Diseases , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/diagnosis , Pregnant Women , Thyroid Diseases/diagnosis , Thyroid Function Tests
12.
JBI Evid Synth ; 20(9): 2344-2353, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994501

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this systematic review is to assess the incidence, prevalence, and timing of common postpartum (up to 1 year after delivery) medical, surgical/procedural, and psychosocial complications and mortality. INTRODUCTION: Childbirth is the most common cause for hospitalization, and cesarean delivery is the most commonly performed inpatient surgery. After delivery, mothers are at risk of short- and long-term complications that can impact their well-being. The results of this review will inform evidence-based recommendations for patient education, monitoring, and follow-up. INCLUSION CRITERIA: We will include studies performed in Canada and/or the United States that report the incidence or prevalence of medical, procedural/surgical, and psychosocial complications within 1 year postpartum. Observational studies (analytical cross-sectional studies, retrospective and prospective cohorts), randomized or non-randomized controlled trials with a control or standard of care group, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses will be included. Studies with fewer than 100 patients, participants younger than 18 years, no reporting of duration, or focus on patients with a specific condition rather than a general postpartum population will be excluded. METHODS: The search strategy was codeveloped with a medical librarian and included full-text English-language articles published within the past 10 years (2011-2021) in PubMed, CINHAL, Web of Science, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Screening, critical appraisal, and data extraction will be performed by two independent reviewers using Covidence, standardized JBI tools, and a standardized form, respectively. For each complication, the incidence or prevalence, timing of the frequency measurement, and duration of follow-up from individual studies will be determined. Meta-analysis will be performed if feasible. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42022303047.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy Complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Systematic Reviews as Topic , United States/epidemiology
13.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272862, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993498

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, pregnant women have been at high risk for psychological distress. Lifestyle factors may be modifiable elements to help reduce and promote resilience to prenatal stress. We used Machine-Learning (ML) algorithms applied to questionnaire data obtained from an international cohort of 804 pregnant women to determine whether physical activity and diet were resilience factors against prenatal stress, and whether stress levels were in turn predictive of sleep classes. A support vector machine accurately classified perceived stress levels in pregnant women based on physical activity behaviours and dietary behaviours. In turn, we classified hours of sleep based on perceived stress levels. This research adds to a developing consensus concerning physical activity and diet, and the association with prenatal stress and sleep in pregnant women. Predictive modeling using ML approaches may be used as a screening tool and to promote positive health behaviours for pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications , Female , Humans , Machine Learning , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Prospective Studies , Stress, Psychological/psychology
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2226531, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990382

ABSTRACT

Importance: Little is known about changes in obstetric outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: To assess whether obstetric outcomes and pregnancy-related complications changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included pregnant patients receiving care at 463 US hospitals whose information appeared in the PINC AI Healthcare Database. The relative differences in birth outcomes, pregnancy-related complications, and length of stay (LOS) during the pandemic period (March 1, 2020, to April 31, 2021) were compared with the prepandemic period (January 1, 2019, to February 28, 2020) using logistic and Poisson models, adjusting for patients' characteristics, and comorbidities and with month and hospital fixed effects. Exposures: COVID-19 pandemic period. Main Outcomes and Measures: The 3 primary outcomes were the relative change in preterm vs term births, mortality outcomes, and mode of delivery. Secondary outcomes included the relative change in pregnancy-related complications and LOS. Results: There were 849 544 and 805 324 pregnant patients in the prepandemic and COVID-19 pandemic periods, respectively, and there were no significant differences in patient characteristics between periods, including age (≥35 years: 153 606 [18.1%] vs 148 274 [18.4%]), race and ethnicity (eg, Hispanic patients: 145 475 [47.1%] vs 143 905 [17.9%]; White patients: 456 014 [53.7%] vs 433 668 [53.9%]), insurance type (Medicaid: 366 233 [43.1%] vs 346 331 [43.0%]), and comorbidities (all standardized mean differences <0.10). There was a 5.2% decrease in live births during the pandemic. Maternal death during delivery hospitalization increased from 5.17 to 8.69 deaths per 100 000 pregnant patients (odds ratio [OR], 1.75; 95% CI, 1.19-2.58). There were minimal changes in mode of delivery (vaginal: OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.996-1.02; primary cesarean: OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; vaginal birth after cesarean: OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95-1.00; repeated cesarean: OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.95-0.97). LOS during delivery hospitalization decreased by 7% (rate ratio, 0.931; 95% CI, 0.928-0.933). Lastly, the adjusted odds of gestational hypertension (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.06-1.11), obstetric hemorrhage (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.10), preeclampsia (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06), and preexisting chronic hypertension (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.03-1.09) increased. No significant changes in preexisting racial and ethnic disparities were observed. Conclusions and Relevance: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there were increased odds of maternal death during delivery hospitalization, cardiovascular disorders, and obstetric hemorrhage. Further efforts are needed to ensure risks potentially associated with the COVID-19 pandemic do not persist beyond the current state of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Maternal Death , Pregnancy Complications , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Term Birth , United States/epidemiology
15.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 581, 2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951118

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: More than five million individuals died because of problems connected to COVID-19. SARS-Cov-2 poses a particular challenge to expectant mothers, who comprise one of the most vulnerable segments of the population. Our aim is to demonstrate the maternal and neonatal safety of the COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science (WOS), Embase, Ovid, MedRxiv, and BioRxiv databases from inception till December 2021 and then updated it in April 2022. Additionally, we searched ClinicalTrials.gov, Research Square and grey literature. Cohort, case-control studies, and randomized controlled trials detecting the safety of the Covid-19 vaccine during pregnancy were included. We used the Cochrane tool and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to assess the risk of bias of the included studies and the GRADE scale to assess the quality of evidence. A meta-analysis was conducted using review manager 5.4. RESULTS: We included 13 studies with a total number of 56,428 patients. Our analysis showed no statistically significant difference in the following outcomes: miscarriage (1.56% vs 0.3%. RR 1.23; 95%CI 0.54 to 2.78); length of maternal hospitalization (MD 0.00; 95%CI -0.08 to 0.08); puerperal fever (1.71% vs 1.1%. RR 1.04; 95%CI 0.67 to 1.61); postpartum hemorrhage (4.27% vs 3.52%. RR 0.84; 95%CI 0.65 to 1.09); instrumental or vacuum-assisted delivery (4.16% vs 4.54%. RR 0.94; 95%CI 0.57 to 1.56); incidence of Apgar score ≤ 7 at 5 min (1.47% vs 1.48%. RR 0.86; 95%CI 0.54 to 1.37); and birthweight (MD -7.14; 95%CI -34.26 to 19.99). CONCLUSION: In pregnancy, the current meta-analysis shows no effect of SAR-CoV-2 vaccination on the risk of miscarriage, length of stay in the hospital, puerperal fever, postpartum hemorrhage, birth weight, or the incidence of an Apgar score of ≤ 7 at 5 min.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications , Abortion, Spontaneous , Birth Weight , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Length of Stay , Postpartum Hemorrhage , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
16.
Pregnancy Hypertens ; 28: 168-173, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1946289

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of preeclampsia among cases of COVID-19 infection during pregnancy and the association between both conditions, in a multicenter cohort of Brazilian women with respiratory symptoms. STUDY DESIGN: Ancillary analysis of the Brazilian Network of COVID-19 in Obstetrics (REBRACO) study. We performed a nested case-control analysis selecting all women with COVID-19 and compared outcomes between women with and without PE. MAIN OUTCOMES: Maternal, gestational, and clinical characteristics and perinatal outcomes. MEASURES: Prevalence ratio (PR) and its 95%CI for each of the predictors and outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 203 women were included: 21 (10.3%) in PE group and 182 (89.7%) in non-PE group. Preeclampsia was not different among women with and without COVID-19 (10.3% vs 13.1%, p-value = 0.41), neither complication such as eclampsia and HELLP syndrome. Chronic hypertension (33.4%) (p < 0.01) and obesity (60.0%) (p = 0.03) were the most frequent comorbidities in PE group, and they were significantly more frequent in this group. Women with PE had more cesarean section (RR 5.54 [1.33 - 23.14]) and their neonates were more frequently admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (PR 2.46[1.06 - 5.69]), most likely due to preterm-birth-related complications. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of PE among women with COVID-19 infection during pregnancy was around 10%; women with COVID-19 and a history of chronic hypertension or obesity are more likely to have preeclampsia. Cesarean section is increased among women with PE and COVID-19, with increased rates of neonatal admission to intensive care units, mostly due to prematurity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy Complications , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cesarean Section , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Obesity , Pre-Eclampsia/diagnosis , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology
17.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(2): 356-363, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1912582

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study intends to address the COVID-19 pandemic process with specific regard to pregnant women, aiming to determine their state-trait anxiety levels. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study has a quantitative design. Ethical permissions were obtained, data were collected digitally, and power analysis was performed for sample size. The sample size was calculated as 656 pregnant women. In the collection of the data, the Personal Information Form, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used. RESULTS: In our study, the majority of pregnant women (86.3%) were concerned about the pandemic process, with more than half thinking that their pregnancy (62.9%) and delivery processes would be affected (66.2%). In the meantime, 60.2% of the pregnant women postponed their health checks and they indicated being most concerned about their babies (57.1%). In 51.2% of the pregnant women, the state anxiety levels were low, and 89.8% of the trait anxiety levels were moderate. CONCLUSIONS: In crisis periods like the pandemic, pregnant women are among the priority groups. Screening, prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of affective disorders in the prenatal period are important for maternal and fetal health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
18.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 24(9): 341-348, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889029

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is well established that controlled immune activation and balance is critical for women's reproductive health and successful pregnancy outcomes. Research in recent decades in both clinical and animal studies has demonstrated that aberrant immune activation and inflammation play a role in the development and progression of women's reproductive health and pregnancy-related disorders. Inflammasomes are multi-protein cytoplasmic complexes that mediate immune activation. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the role of inflammasome activation in pregnancy-related disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Increased activation of inflammasome is associated with multiple women's health reproductive disorders and pregnancy-associated disorders, including preeclampsia (PreE). Inflammasome activation is also associated with the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease caused by the SARS-Cov-2 virus. We and others have observed a positive association between increased PreE incidences with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we present our recent data indicating increased inflammasome activation, represented by caspase-1 activity, in women with COVID-19 and PreE compared to normotensive pregnant women COVID-19. The role of inflammation in pregnancy-related disorders is an area of intense research interest. With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and the associated increase in PreE observed clinically, there is a greater need to identify mechanisms of pathophysiology and targets to treat this maternal disorder. Inflammasome activation is associated with PreE and COVID-19 infection and may hold therapeutic potential to improve outcomes associated with PreE and curb the morbidity attributed to PreE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy Complications , Animals , Female , Humans , Inflammasomes , Inflammation , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; 42(6): 1905-1910, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860545

ABSTRACT

The maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is a significant indicator of the quality of a health care system. Despite considerable progress in reducing MMR in Iran in the past few years, we still face a long road ahead in eliminating preventable maternal deaths. In the present study, we evaluated all 80 cases of maternal deaths in 20 hospitals under the supervision of Tehran University of Medical Sciences between March 20 2013 and March 19 2020. During this time, these hospitals recorded 335,216 live births, with an MMR of 24 per 100,000 live births. The average age of deceased mothers was 31.9 ± 6.9 years. Direct causes accounted for 48.75% of maternal deaths, with haemorrhage being the most common direct cause of mortality (17.5%). Moreover, cancer (17.5%) and cardiovascular diseases (17.5%) were the most common indirect causes of maternal mortality. Even after accounting for the COVID-19 pandemic's effects, we have noticed an increase in maternal mortality. As a result, implementing a comprehensive approach for high-risk pregnancies is critical.Impact StatementWhat is already known on this subject? Although we have been able to reduce MMR in Iran to a reasonable level, previous measures would not be sufficient to accomplish future goals. Furthermore, we have a long way to go before reaching the ultimate goal of eradicating avoidable maternal deaths by 2030.What do the results of this study add? The causes, determinants and risk factors of maternal mortality were investigated in this study. With this level of detail, we can observe a steadily increase in MMR in recent years, regardless of the COVID-19 pandemic. The majority of pregnancy-related deaths can be avoided.What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? MMR reduction is a measurable goal that can be attained by improving financial resources, implementing safe delivery, team training, preparing multidisciplinary care with integration for high-risk pregnant women, establishing good provider relationships, and communicating with patients and providers for early warning signs and structural changes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Maternal Death , Pregnancy Complications , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cause of Death , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Maternal Death/etiology , Maternal Death/prevention & control , Maternal Mortality , Pandemics , Pregnancy
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847308

ABSTRACT

The physiological changes during pregnancy may increase the risk of complications in pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroid hormone and its role in immunity is appears to be of particular importance in this recent pandemic. Nevertheless, there is little research about the role of vitamin D levels regarding COVID-19 in pregnant women to date. This study aimed to establish a relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in pregnant women and COVID-19. A comparative case-control study was performed with a study population of 256 pregnant women (82 pregnant women with infection and 174 women in control group). Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower in pregnant women with COVID-19 infection than in those without infection. In addition, 89% of COVID-19-positive pregnant women had 25(OH)D deficiency, while in the control group the percentage was 75.30%, finding statistically significant differences (ORa = 2.68; 95% CI 1.19-6.06; p = 0.01). Our results find a relationship between vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women and COVID-19 infection. This finding could be relevant for actual clinical practice. Thus, more research is needed in this field.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications , Vitamin D Deficiency , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnant Women , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamins
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