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2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8813, 2023 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240029

ABSTRACT

Mother-to-child transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been reported since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a study to summarize evidence on the risk of mother-to-child transmission in the first 30 days after birth in high-income countries and to evaluate the association between preventive measures and the risk of infection for the neonate. A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken following PRISMA guidelines. The National Library of Medicine, Web of Science, and Excerpta Medica databases were screened on February 26, 2022. All prospective observational studies addressing the frequency of infection in infants born to mothers SARS-CoV-2 positive were included. Twenty-six studies were included, reporting data of 2653 mothers with SARS-CoV-2 and 2677 neonates. The proportion meta-analysis pointed out an overall estimate of SARS-CoV-2 infection among infants of 2.3% (95% CI: 1.4-3.2%). Data from studies with (1.4%, 95% CI: 0.8-2) and without (1.3%, 95% CI: 0.0-2.7%) rooming-in provided similar risk of infection. Adopting at least two prevention measures during rooming-in resulted in a rate of mother-to-child infection of 1.0% (95%CI: 0.3-1.7%). The results of this study show a low rate of perinatal infection, support the rooming-in and confirm the effectiveness of preventive measures in reducing the risk of mother-to-child viral transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pandemics , Developed Countries , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Observational Studies as Topic
3.
Med J Aust ; 218(11): 528-541, 2023 06 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239586

ABSTRACT

Vaccination in pregnancy is the best strategy to reduce complications from influenza or pertussis infection in infants who are too young to be protected directly from vaccination. Pregnant women are also at risk of influenza complications preventable through antenatal vaccination. Both vaccines are funded under the National Immunisation Program for pregnant women in Australia, but coverage is not routinely reported nationally. We reviewed all reported Australian maternal influenza and pertussis vaccine coverage data for the period 2016-2021, to identify gaps and information needs. Maternal influenza vaccine coverage was suboptimal at < 58% for 2016-2018, with higher coverage of 62-75% reported in two states (Victoria and Western Australia) for 2019-2021. Maternal pertussis vaccine coverage from 2016 was generally higher than for influenza at > 70%, with the highest jurisdictional coverage of 89% reported in Western Australia in 2020. Vaccination rates were often suboptimal among First Nations pregnant women and up to 20% lower than among non-First Nations Australian women; while data were limited, coverage was low among culturally and linguistically diverse women and among women of lower socio-economic status. Jurisdictional perinatal data collections were the best source of information on antenatal vaccine coverage but were only available for a minority of the population; a nationally consistent systematic approach is lacking. Timely and comprehensive data are needed to provide feedback to improve maternal vaccination coverage, particularly among groups with higher risk and/or low uptake, and as new vaccines are recommended, including COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Whooping Cough , Infant , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Pertussis Vaccine , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pregnant Women , Vaccination , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Victoria
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 27(10): 4772-4781, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245181

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 are more likely to have obstetric complications, particularly preterm births, increasing the likelihood of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. We tested the hypothesis by using a multivariable logistic regression analysis to take into account the effects of known confounding variables. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study targeted a random sample of 89 preterm deliveries at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Zagazig University Hospital, from January 2022 to April 2022, who fulfilled the selection criteria using a pretested, well-structured questionnaire that was composed of three main parts. The collected data were coded and analyzed using appropriate statistical methods. RESULTS: This retrospective cohort study included 89 participants with a mean age of 26.6 years, 44.9% were middle-educated, 73% were not working, and the majority were not smoking or abusing substances. Regarding the frequency of COVID-19, dividing the studied participants into two groups, 22.5% had been infected, and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups as regards the demographic characteristics, but smoking statistically increased the smoking (p-value = 0.034). Regarding the relationship between the history of COVID-19 and the past and present obstetric histories, there was no statistically significant difference between them. Even though the SARS-CoV-2 infection is significant (p-value = 0.037), pregnant women who are COVID-19 positive are more likely to have a cesarean section (16/80) than pregnant women who test positive. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant and preterm women were more likely to get SARS-CoV-2 if they smoked, had comorbidities, or were overweight or obese. Among COVID-19 preterm pregnancies, substance misuse and comorbidity were risk factors for a poor neonatal outcome, while women who had a previous history of PPH, were smokers, or had comorbid illnesses had a significantly increased risk of having a poor maternal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Humans , Female , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Cesarean Section , Retrospective Studies , Premature Birth/epidemiology
5.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243887

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the occurrence of maternal primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in Japan. We performed a nested case-control study using data from maternal CMV antibody screening under the Cytomegalovirus in Mother and infant-engaged Virus serology (CMieV) program in Mie, Japan. Pregnant women with negative IgG antibodies at ≤20 weeks of gestation who were retested at ≥28 weeks were enrolled. The study period was divided into 2015-2019 as the pre-pandemic and 2020-2022 as the pandemic period, and the study site included 26 institutions conducting the CMieV program. The incidence rate of maternal IgG seroconversion was compared between the pre-pandemic (7008 women enrolled) and pandemic (2020, 1283 women enrolled; 2021, 1100 women; and 2022, 398 women) periods. Sixty-one women in the pre-pandemic period and five, four, and five women during 2020, 2021, and 2022, respectively, showed IgG seroconversion. The incidence rates in 2020 and 2021 were lower (p < 0.05) than that in the pre-pandemic period. Our data suggest a transient decrease in the incidence of maternal primary CMV infection in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic, which could be due to prevention and hygiene measures taken at the population level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Cytomegalovirus , Incidence , Pandemics , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Japan/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/prevention & control , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Antibodies, Viral
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(21): e33887, 2023 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234544

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been one of the most damaging pandemics in all of human history. Some of the most vulnerable groups within society such as pregnant women and children have also been affected. This observational research, cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate if there was any difference in the incidence of unfavorable outcomes in pregnancy such as miscarriage, intrauterine fetal demise, and early neonatal death during the year prior to the pandemic and the year of the COVID-19 pandemic. This retrospective study was conducted at the University Hospital of Split at the Department of Pathology, Forensic and Cytology and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the same hospital. All data was collected in the time period from March 1st, 2019, to March 1st, 2021. The study included all pregnant women who had an unfavorable pregnancy outcome such as miscarriage and intrauterine fetal demise, as well as early neonatal death at the University Hospital of Split within the time frame mentioned previously. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the year prior to the pandemic and during the year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our study showed that the pandemic did not have a negative effect on pregnant women and their fetuses; there was no increase in miscarriage, intrauterine fetal demise, or perinatal death during the year of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , COVID-19 , Perinatal Death , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Infant, Newborn , Child , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Fetus
7.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234275

ABSTRACT

In 2020, a new coronavirus, called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in China. SARS-CoV-2 infection has been shown to be highly morbid in pregnant women, being a risk factor for several obstetric conditions leading to increased maternal and neonatal mortality. A few studies since 2020 have shown SARS-CoV-2 maternal-fetal transmission and noted placental abnormalities grouped under the term placentitis. We hypothesized that these placental lesions could be responsible for abnormalities in placental exchange and therefore abnormalities in cardiotocographic monitoring, leading to premature fetal extraction. The objective is to identify the clinical, biochemical, and histological determinants associated with the occurrence of non-reassuring fetal heart rate (NRFHR) outside labor in fetuses of SARS-CoV-2-infected mothers. We conducted a retrospective multicenter case series of the natural history of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infections resulting in fetal delivery outside labor due to NRFHR. Collaboration was sought with the maternity hospitals in the CEGORIF, the APHP and Brussels hospitals. The investigators were contacted by e-mail on three successive occasions over a period of one year. Data from 17 mothers and 17 fetuses were analyzed. Most women had a mild SARS-CoV-2 infection; only two women presented severe infection. No woman was vaccinated. We found a substantial proportion of maternal coagulopathy at birth: elevation of APTT ratio (62%), thrombocytopenia (41%) and liver cytolysis (58.3%). Iatrogenic prematurity was noted in 15 of 17 fetuses, and 100% were born by cesarean delivery due to emergency criteria. One male neonate died on the day of birth due to peripartum asphyxia. Three cases of maternal-fetal transmission were recorded following WHO criteria. Placental analysis in 15 cases revealed eight cases of SARS-CoV-2 placentitis, causing placental insufficiency. In total, 100% of the placentas analyzed showed at least one lesion suggestive of placentitis. SARS-CoV-2 maternal infection during pregnancy is likely to generate neonatal morbidity in relation to placental damage resulting in placental insufficiency. This morbidity may be the consequence of induced prematurity as well as acidosis in the most severe situations. Placental damage occurred in unvaccinated women and in women with no identified risk factor, in contrast to severe maternal clinical forms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Placental Insufficiency , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Male , Humans , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnant Women , Placental Insufficiency/pathology , Heart Rate, Fetal , Placenta , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
8.
J Neonatal Perinatal Med ; 16(2): 235-237, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240921

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has created a serious health problem in pregnant people. We aimed to address whether vaccination can prevent development of placental disease in SARS-CoV-2 infected mothers. METHODS: We reported the pathology findings obtained from routine histopathological examination of placentas of overall 38 cases. RESULTS: We found low prevalence of placental pathology in vaccinated pregnant people with active SARS-CoV-2 infection in comparison to those unvaccinated cases. CONCLUSION: Based on our findings, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination can prevent development of placental pathological lesions and may lower the risk of serious illness in pregnant people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Humans , Female , Placenta , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccination , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control
9.
J Clin Virol ; 165: 105495, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327692

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS: Due to immaturity of their immune system, passive maternal immunization is essential for newborns during their first months of life. Therefore, in the current context of intense circulation of SARS-CoV-2, identifying factors influencing the transfer ratio (TR) of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 (NAb) appears important. METHODS: Our study nested in the COVIPREG cohort (NCT04355234), included mothers who had a SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive during their pregnancy and their newborns. Maternal and neonatal NAb levels were measured with the automated iFlash system. RESULTS: For the 173 mother-infant pairs included in our study, the median gestational age (GA) at delivery was 39.4 weeks of gestation (WG), and 29.7 WG at maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using a multivariate logistic model, having a NAb TR above 1 was positively associated with a longer delay from maternal positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR to delivery (aOR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03 - 1.17) and with a later GA at delivery (aOR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.09 - 2.52). It was negatively associated with being a male newborn (aOR 0.21, 95% CI: 0.07 - 0.59). In 3rd trimester SARS-CoV-2 infected mothers, NAb TR was inferior to VZV, toxoplasmosis, CMV, measle and rubella's TR. However, in 1st or 2nd trimester infected mothers, only measle TR was different from NAb TR. CONCLUSION: Male newborn of mothers infected by SARS-CoV-2 during their pregnancy appear to have less protection against SARS-CoV-2 in their first months of life than female newborns. Measle TR was superior to NAb TR even in case of 1st or 2nd trimester maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection. Future studies are needed to investigate possible differences in transmission of NAb following infection vs vaccination and its impact on TR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Humans , Female , Male , Infant , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunologic Tests , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
10.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 33(6): 618-624, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324293

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate the available literature regarding effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on newborns, ranging from effects related to in utero and perinatal exposure to maternal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, to pandemic-related stress and socioeconomic changes. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large studies and national registries have shown that the risk of vertical transmission from SARS-CoV-2-infected mothers to newborns is rare and does not appear to be related to postnatal care policies such as mother-newborn separation and breastfeeding. Newborns exposed to SARS-CoV-2 in utero are at higher risk for preterm delivery for reasons still under investigation. When newborns do acquire SARS-CoV-2 infection, their disease course is usually mild. Long-term follow-up data are lacking, but preliminary reports indicate that, similarly to prior natural disasters, being born during the pandemic may be associated with developmental risk. SUMMARY: Although risk of vertical or perinatal transmission is low across a range of postnatal care practices, early indicators suggest developmental risk to the generation born during the pandemic. Long-term follow-up data are critically needed to determine the developmental impact of in utero and early life exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 356, 2023 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326871

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stillbirth has been recognized as a possible complication of a SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy, probably due to destructive placental lesions (SARS-CoV-2 placentitis). The aim of this work is to analyse stillbirth and late miscarriage cases in unvaccinated pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the first two waves (wild-type period) in Belgium. METHODS: Stillbirths and late miscarriages in our prospective observational nationwide registry of SARS-CoV-2 infected pregnant women (n = 982) were classified by three authors using a modified WHO-UMC classification system for standardized case causality assessment. RESULTS: Our cohort included 982 hospitalised pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2, with 23 fetal demises (10 late miscarriages from 12 to 22 weeks of gestational age and 13 stillbirths). The stillbirth rate was 9.5‰ for singleton pregnancies and 83.3‰ for multiple pregnancies, which seems higher than for the background population (respectively 5.6‰ and 13.8‰). The agreement between assessors about the causal relationship with SARS-Cov-2 infection was fair (global weighted kappa value of 0.66). Among these demises, 17.4% (4/23) were "certainly" attributable to SARS-CoV-2 infection, 13.0% (3/23) "probably" and 30.4% (7/23) "possibly". Better agreement in the rating was noticed when pathological examination of the placenta and identification of the virus were available, underlining the importance of a thorough investigation in case of intra-uterine fetal demise. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 causality assessment of late miscarriage and stillbirth cases in our Belgian nationwide case series has shown that half of the fetal losses could be attributable to SARS-CoV-2. We must consider in future epidemic emergencies to rigorously investigate cases of intra-uterine fetal demise and to store placental tissue and other material for future analyses.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Stillbirth , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Belgium/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fetal Death , Placenta/pathology , Pregnant Women , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Adult
12.
Placenta ; 138: 88-96, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323550

ABSTRACT

The impact of the COVID-19 infection, caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), during the pandemic has been considerably more severe in pregnant women than non-pregnant women. Therefore, a review detailing the morphological alterations and physiological changes associated with COVID-19 during pregnancy and the effect that these changes have on the feto-placental unit is of high priority. This knowledge is crucial for these mothers, their babies and clinicians to ensure a healthy life post-pandemic. Hence, we review the placental morphological changes due to COVID-19 to enhance the general understanding of how pregnant mothers, their placentas and unborn children may have been affected by this pandemic. Based on current literature, we deduced that COVID-19 pregnancies were oxygen deficient, which could further result in other pregnancy-related complications like preeclampsia and IUGR. Therefore, we present an up-to-date review of the COVID-19 pathophysiological implications on the placenta, covering the function of the placenta in COVID-19, the effects of this virus on the placenta, its functions and its link to other gestational complications. Furthermore, we highlight the possible effects of COVID-19 therapeutic interventions on pregnant mothers and their unborn children. Based on the literature, we strongly suggest that consistent surveillance for the mothers and infants from COVID-19 pregnancies be prioritised in the future. Though the pandemic is now in the past, its effects are long-term, necessitating the monitoring of clinical manifestations in the near future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Placenta , SARS-CoV-2 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
13.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e067083, 2023 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323072

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Pregnant women are currently considered a vulnerable population to SARS-CoV-2 infection, with increased risk of severe COVID-19, preterm birth and maternal mortality. There is, however, a paucity of data on the burden of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection in sub-Saharan countries. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and health effects of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection in selected sites from Gabon and Mozambique. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: MA-CoV (MAternal CoVid) is an observational, multicentre prospective cohort study where 1000 pregnant women (500 per country) will be enrolled at the antenatal clinic visits. Participants will undergo monthly follow-up at each antenatal care visit, delivery and postpartum visit. The primary study outcome is the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. The clinical presentation of COVID-19 in pregnancy will also be characterised, and incidence of infection during pregnancy will be evaluated, as well as the risk factors of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and the risk of mother to child transmission of SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 infection screening will be performed through PCR diagnosis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol was reviewed and approved by the Comité National d'Éthique pour la Recherche au Gabon, Comité Nacional de Bioética para Saúde de Moçambique and the Ethics Committee of the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona (Spain). Project results will be presented to all stakeholders and published in open access journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05303168.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Infant , Child , Female , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Pregnancy , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Infant Health , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Multicenter Studies as Topic
14.
J Pregnancy ; 2023: 3015072, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322359

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a new pandemic, which was declared by the World Health Organization in 2019 as a threat to public health. According to numerous reports, it can have negative consequences for pregnant women, labour, and neonates born to infected mothers. The aim of this paper was to gather the evidence and to present a summary of the results of studies concerning COVID-19 in pregnant women and their neonates. Methods: Articles from prestigious journals covering the period from 2020 to February 2023, relevant review papers, and original research articles from PubMed were analysed. In order to analyse the available research literature, the Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed databases were used, in which the search for articles was conducted using terms ("pregnancy," "coronavirus," "SARS-CoV-2," and "newborn") and using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines for clinical trials. Meta-analyses and systematic reviews (2022-2023) on symptoms, neonatal course, and risk of COVID-19 infection have been summarized. Summary of meta-analyses and systematic reviews (2022-2023) on the effect and adverse reaction of the COVID-19 vaccination is presented. Results: As a result of the research conducted, it was confirmed that in most pregnant women, no serious signs of the infection were observed, although isolated cases of death related to COVID-19 in pregnant women were reported. Several authors called attention to the more severe course of the infection in pregnant women with obesity. It seemed that no vertical transmission from mother to child was occurring. Nevertheless, the information was not clinching. The condition of the neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 was in most cases described as normal; however, some papers reported deaths of infected neonates. Conclusions: Due to insufficient data, further research is necessary. Further studies and follow-up are recommended, which would make possible an assessment of remote effects of COVID-19 on pregnancy and vital parameters of the newborn.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Parturition , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(5): e2314678, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322210

ABSTRACT

Importance: Existing reports of pregnant patients with COVID-19 disease who require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are limited, with variable outcomes noted for the maternal-fetal dyad. Objective: To examine maternal and perinatal outcomes associated with ECMO used for COVID-19 with respiratory failure during pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective multicenter cohort study examined pregnant and postpartum patients who required ECMO for COVID-19 respiratory failure at 25 hospitals across the US. Eligible patients included individuals who received care at one of the study sites, were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy or up to 6 weeks post partum by positive nucleic acid or antigen test, and for whom ECMO was initiated for respiratory failure from March 1, 2020, to October 1, 2022. Exposures: ECMO in the setting of COVID-19 respiratory failure. Main outcome and measures: The primary outcome was maternal mortality. Secondary outcomes included serious maternal morbidity, obstetrical outcomes, and neonatal outcomes. Outcomes were compared by timing of infection during pregnancy or post partum, timing of ECMO initiation during pregnancy or post partum, and periods of circulation of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Results: From March 1, 2020, to October 1, 2022, 100 pregnant or postpartum individuals were started on ECMO (29 [29.0%] Hispanic, 25 [25.0%] non-Hispanic Black, 34 [34.0%] non-Hispanic White; mean [SD] age: 31.1 [5.5] years), including 47 (47.0%) during pregnancy, 21 (21.0%) within 24 hours post partum, and 32 (32.0%) between 24 hours and 6 weeks post partum; 79 (79.0%) had obesity, 61 (61.0%) had public or no insurance, and 67 (67.0%) did not have an immunocompromising condition. The median (IQR) ECMO run was 20 (9-49) days. There were 16 maternal deaths (16.0%; 95% CI, 8.2%-23.8%) in the study cohort, and 76 patients (76.0%; 95% CI, 58.9%-93.1%) had 1 or more serious maternal morbidity events. The largest serious maternal morbidity was venous thromboembolism and occurred in 39 patients (39.0%), which was similar across ECMO timing (40.4% pregnant [19 of 47] vs 38.1% [8 of 21] immediately postpartum vs 37.5% postpartum [12 of 32]; P > .99). Conclusions and Relevance: In this multicenter US cohort study of pregnant and postpartum patients who required ECMO for COVID-19-associated respiratory failure, most survived but experienced a high frequency of serious maternal morbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Respiratory Insufficiency , Pregnancy , Female , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Postpartum Period , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy
16.
J Cell Mol Med ; 27(11): 1443-1464, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321681

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant was first detected in October 2021, which evolved from the original SARS-CoV-2 strain and was found to possess many mutations. Immune evasion was one of the notable consequences of these mutations. Despite Omicron exhibiting increased transmissibility, the rates of hospitalizations and deaths among patients infected with this variant were substantially lower when compared to other strains. However, concluding that the Omicron variant is less severe than other variants of SARS-CoV-2 requires consideration of multiple factors, including the vaccination status of infected patients as well as any previous infections with other variants. This review compiled data about any reported indicators of severity in Omicron-infected patients, including studies comparing Omicron with other variants while adjusting for confounders. A comprehensive search was conducted using different databases to target any studies about Omicron. In total, 62 studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in this study. Many studies reported a significantly reduced risk of hospitalization, ICU admission, need for oxygenation/ventilation, and death in Omicron-infected patients compared to patients infected with other variants, such as Delta. Some studies, however, reported comparable severity in Omicron infected patients as to other variants emphasizing a substantial risk for severe illness. Furthermore, the COVID-19 vaccines were less effective against Omicron relative to previous lineages, except after receiving the booster dose. One study recommended vaccination during pregnancy, which may help prevent future cases of severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in neonates and young infants due to the transfer of humoral response from the mother.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Databases, Factual
18.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(1): 2195331, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314805

ABSTRACT

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) vaccines, designed to be given to pregnant women, are in clinical trials. There is an opportunity to conduct preparatory research now to understand the drivers of and barriers to GBS vaccine acceptance. This will enable targeted interventions so that delays in vaccine uptake might be avoided. A multicenter, mixed-methodology, cross-sectional study evaluated the acceptability of a hypothetical GBS vaccine among pregnant women in two countries with differing health systems. Pregnant women in Philadelphia, US, and Dublin, Ireland, completed an electronic survey and a Discrete Choice Experiment. Five hundred and two women were included in the final analysis. Fifty-three percent of US and 30% of Irish participants reported both awareness and understanding of GBS. The median likelihood score for vaccine receipt (measured on a 10-point scale) was 9 (US: 9 (IQR 7-10), IRL: 9 (IQR 6-10)). Among the US participants, identifying as Black or African American was associated with a lower likelihood of vaccine receipt. Possession of a college degree was associated with increased likelihood of vaccine receipt. Perceived infant benefit was the most important driver of GBS vaccine acceptance. Safety concerns about a novel vaccine was the most prominent barrier identified. Good GBS vaccine uptake is achievable through strong messaging that highlights vaccine safety and the potential infant benefits. Preparation for vaccine implementation should include efforts to increase awareness among pregnant women about GBS infection and a continued focus on improving acceptability of currently recommended maternal vaccines, particularly in population subgroups with low uptake of maternal immunizations.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Streptococcal Infections , Streptococcal Vaccines , Infant , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Pregnant Women , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Vaccination , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Streptococcus agalactiae , Streptococcal Infections/prevention & control
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 320, 2023 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fetal loss is one of the most serious adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, Brazil has recorded an unprecedented number of hospitalizations of pregnant women due to acute respiratory distress (ARD), thereby, we aimed to assess the risk of fetal deaths associated to ARD during pregnancy in Bahia state, Brazil, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is an observational population-based retrospective cohort study, developed with women at or after 20 weeks of pregnancy, residents in Bahia, Brazil. Women who had acute respiratory distress (ARD) in pregnancy during the COVID-19 pandemic (Jan 2020 to Jun 2021) were considered 'exposed'. Women who did not have ARD in pregnancy, and whose pregnancy occurred before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic (Jan 2019 to Dec 2019) were considered 'non-exposed'. The main outcome was fetal death. We linked administrative data (under mandatory registration) on live births, fetal deaths, and acute respiratory syndrome, using a probabilistic linkage method, and analyzed them with multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: 200,979 pregnant women participated in this study, 765 exposed and 200,214 unexposed. We found four times higher chance of fetal death in women with ARD during pregnancy, of all etiologies (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.06 confidence interval [CI] 95% 2.66; 6.21), and due to SARS-CoV-2 (aOR 4.45 CI 95% 2.41; 8.20). The risk of fetal death increased more when ARD in pregnancy was accompanied by vaginal delivery (aOR 7.06 CI 95% 4.21; 11.83), or admission to Intensive Care Unit (aOR 8.79 CI 95% 4.96; 15.58), or use of invasive mechanical ventilation (aOR 21.22 CI 95% 9.93; 45.36). CONCLUSION: Our findings can contribute to expanding the understanding of health professionals and managers about the harmful effects of SARS-CoV-2 on maternal-fetal health and alerts the need to prioritize pregnant women in preventive actions against SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses. It also suggests that pregnant women, infected with SARS-CoV-2, need to be monitored to prevent complications of ARD, including a careful assessment of the risks and benefits of early delivery to prevent fetal death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Pandemics , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Fetal Death/etiology , Live Birth , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology
20.
Birth Defects Res ; 115(5): 572-577, 2023 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314025

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The United States Virgin Islands (USVI) Department of Health (DOH) conducted a second Zika health brigade (ZHB) in 2021 to provide recommended Zika-related pediatric health screenings, including vision, hearing, neurologic, and developmental screenings, for children in the USVI. This was replicated after the success of the first ZHB in 2018, which provided recommended Zika-related pediatric health screenings to 88 infants and children exposed to Zika virus (ZIKV) during pregnancy. METHODS: Ten specialty pediatric care providers were recruited and traveled to the USVI to conduct the screenings. USVI DOH scheduled appointments for children included in CDC's U.S. Zika Pregnancy and Infant Registry (USZPIR). During the ZHB, participants were examined by pediatric ophthalmologists, pediatric audiologists, and pediatric neurologists. We report the percentage of participants who were referred for additional follow-up care or given follow-up recommendations in the 2021 ZHB and compare these referrals and recommendations to those given in the 2018 ZHB. RESULTS: Thirty-three children born to mothers with laboratory evidence of ZIKV infection during pregnancy completed screenings at the 2021 ZHB, of which 15 (45%) children were referred for additional follow-up care. Ophthalmological screenings resulted in the highest number of new referrals for a specialty provider among ZHB participants, with 6 (18%) children receiving referrals for that specialty. Speech therapy was the most common therapy referral, with 10 (30%) children referred, of which 9 (90%) were among those who attended the 2018 ZHB. CONCLUSIONS: Thirty-three children in a jurisdiction with reduced access to healthcare specialists received recommended Zika-related pediatric health screenings at the ZHB. New and continuing medical and developmental concerns were identified and appropriate referrals for follow-up care and services were provided. The ZHB model was successful in creating connections to health services not previously received by the participants.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Pregnancy , Infant , Female , Humans , Child , United States Virgin Islands , Parturition
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