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1.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(1): 189-196, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201742

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Data on neonatal COVID-19 are limited to the immediate postnatal period, with a primary focus on vertical transmission in inborn infants. This study was aimed to assess the characteristics and outcome of COVID-19 in outborn neonates. Methods: All neonates admitted to the paediatric emergency from August 1 to December 31, 2020, were included in the study. SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription- (RT)-PCR test was done on oro/nasopharyngeal specimens obtained at admission. The clinical characteristics and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative neonates were compared and the diagnostic accuracy of a selective testing policy was assessed. Results: A total of 1225 neonates were admitted during the study period, of whom SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR was performed in 969. The RT-PCR test was positive in 17 (1.8%). Mean (standard deviation) gestation and birth weight of SARS-CoV-2-infected neonates were 35.5 (3.2) wk and 2274 (695) g, respectively. Most neonates (11/17) with confirmed COVID-19 reported in the first two weeks of life. Respiratory distress (14/17) was the predominant manifestation. Five (5/17, 29.4%) SARS-CoV-2 infected neonates died. Neonates with COVID-19 were at a higher risk for all-cause mortality [odds ratio (OR): 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-8.9, P=0.03]; however, mortality did not differ after adjusting for lethal malformation (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 0.7-8.7). Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative likelihood ratios (95% CI) of selective testing policy for SARS-CoV-2 infection at admission was 52.9 (28.5-76.1), 83.3 (80.7-85.6), 82.8 (80.3-85.1), 3.17 (1.98-5.07), and 0.56 (0.34-0.93) per cent, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate among the outborn neonates reporting to the paediatric emergency and tested for COVID-19 was observed to be low. The selective testing policy had poor diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing COVID-19 from non-COVID illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26798, 2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191047

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). There have been few reports of postpartum woman with ARDS secondary to COVID-19 who required respiratory support using veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We present the case of a 31-year-old woman who was admitted to hospital at 35 weeks gestation with ARDS secondary to COVID-19 and required ECMO during the postpartum period. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient had obvious dyspnea, accompanied by chills and fever. Her dyspnea worsened and her arterial oxygen saturation decreased rapidly. DIAGNOSIS: ARDS secondary to COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: Emergency bedside cesarean section. Medications included immunotherapy (thymosin α 1), antivirals (lopinavir/ritonavir and ribavirin), antibiotics (imipenem-cilastatin sodium and vancomycin), and methylprednisolone. Ventilatory support was provided using invasive mechanical ventilation. This was replaced by venous-venous ECMO 5 days postpartum. ECMO management focused on blood volume control, coagulation function adjustment, and airway management. OUTCOMES: The patient was successfully weaned for ECMO and the ventilator and made a good recovery. CONCLUSION: Special care, including blood volume control, coagulation function adjustment, and airway management, should be provided to postpartum patients with ARDS secondary to COVID-19 who require ECMO support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Cesarean Section , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy
3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 779, 2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Maternal vaccinations for influenza and pertussis are recommended in New Zealand to protect mothers and their infant from infection. However, maternal immunisation coverage in New Zealand is suboptimal. Furthermore, there is unacceptable inequitable maternal immunisation rates across the country with Maori and Pacific women having significantly lower maternal immunisation rates than those of other New Zealanders. METHODS: This research set out to explore what pregnant/recently pregnant Maori and Pacific women knew about immunisation during pregnancy and what factors influenced their decision to be vaccinated. A semi-structured interview guide was developed with questions focusing on knowledge of pertussis and influenza vaccination during pregnancy and decision-making. Maori and Pacific women aged over 16 years were purposively sampled and interviewed in Dunedin and Gisborne, New Zealand between May and August 2021. Interviews were analysed following a directed qualitative content approach. Data were arranged into coding nodes based on the study aims (deductive analysis) informed by previous literature and within these participant experiences were inductively coded into themes and subthemes. RESULTS: Not all women were aware of maternal vaccine recommendations or they diseases they protected against. Many underestimated how dangerous influenza and pertussis could be and some were more concerned about potential harms of the vaccine. Furthermore, understanding potential harms of infection and protection provided by vaccination did not necessarily mean women would choose to be vaccinated. Those who decided to vaccinate felt well-informed, had vaccination recommended by their healthcare provider, and did so to protect their and their infant's health. Those who decided against vaccination were concerned about safety of the vaccines, lacked the information they needed, were not offered the vaccine, or did not consider vaccination a priority. CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of understanding about vaccine benefits and risks of vaccine-preventable diseases which can result in the reinforcement of negative influences such as the fear of side effects. Furthermore, if vaccine benefits are not understood, inaccessibility of vaccines and the precedence of other life priorities may prevent uptake. Being well-informed and supported to make positive decisions to vaccinate in pregnancy is likely to improve vaccine coverage in Maori and Pacific Island New Zealanders.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Whooping Cough , Female , Humans , Immunization , Infant , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Mothers , New Zealand , Pertussis Vaccine/therapeutic use , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnant Women , Vaccination , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
4.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 32(9): 1098-1102, 2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144003

ABSTRACT

The placenta is a captivating multifunctional organ of fetal origin and plays an essential role during pregnancy by intimately connecting mother and baby. This study explicates placental pathology and information about 25 placentas collected from the mothers infected with novel coronavirus (SARS-COV-2). So far, congenital transmission of SARS-CoV-2 seems to be remarkably uncommon in spite of many cases of COVID-19 during pregnancy. Out of the 25 placental tissue samples collected, none has shown gene expression of SARS-CoV-2 when confirmed by RT-PCR. At the same time, nasal and throat swab samples collected from newborns of SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers correspondingly tested negative by RT-PCR. The shielding properties of placental barriers against viral infections from mothers to newborns remains a mystery. Major histopathological findings have been recorded as choriodecidual tissue with necrosis, intramural fibrin deposition, chorionic villi with fibrosis, and calcification. Moreover, although recent findings are insufficient to prove direct placental transmission of COVID-19, the abundance of angiotensin-converting enzymes-2 (ACE-2) on the placental surface could potentially contribute to unpleasant outcomes during pregnancy as SARSCoV-2 gains access to human cells via ACE-2. Finally, the significance of these findings is vague and needs further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Angiotensins , Female , Fibrin , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Mothers , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(45): 1442-1448, 2022 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116913

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates are highest among adults aged ≥65 years (1); however, COVID-19 can and does cause severe and fatal outcomes in children, including infants (2,3). After the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) BA.1 variant in December 2021, hospitalizations among children aged <5 years, who were ineligible for vaccination, increased more rapidly than did those in other age groups (4). On June 18, 2022, CDC recommended COVID-19 vaccination for infants and children aged ≥6 months (5). Data from the Coronavirus Disease 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET)* were analyzed to describe changes in the age distribution of COVID-19-associated hospitalizations since the Delta-predominant period (June 20-December 18, 2021)† with a focus on U.S. infants aged <6 months. During the Omicron BA.2/BA.5-predominant periods (December 19, 2021­August 31, 2022), weekly hospitalizations per 100,000 infants aged <6 months increased from a nadir of 2.2 (week ending April 9, 2022) to a peak of 26.0 (week ending July 23, 2022), and the average weekly hospitalization rate among these infants (13.7) was similar to that among adults aged 65-74 years (13.8). However, the prevalence of indicators of severe disease§ among hospitalized infants did not increase since the B.1.617.2 (Delta)-predominant period. To help protect infants too young to be vaccinated, prevention should focus on nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination of pregnant women, which might provide protection through transplacental transfer of antibodies (6).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Child , Adult , Infant , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Hospitalization , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology
7.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 24(11): 1266-1268, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115749

ABSTRACT

A 7-day-old male neonate was admitted due to testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. The neonate was born through cesarian section at 40 weeks and 2 days of gestation. His mother was diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Omicron variant infection 1 day before delivery. The neonate was separated from his mother after birth and was taken care of by his father. Three days after the neonate was born, his father was also diagnosed with COVID-19. The neonate was diagnosed with COVID-19 on day 7 of life. The neonate presented with hyperpyrexia, dyspnea, hypoxia, and feeding difficulties, and the chest CT showed the coexistence of consolidation and ground glass-like changes mainly located below the posterior pleura. He was given symptomatic support treatment such as low flow oxygen therapy and posture management after admission. He was cured and discharged after 10 days of hospitalization. This is the first reported case of neonatal severe COVID-19 caused by Omicron variant infection in China. It is necessary to take appropriate protective measures for the neonate to prevent infection when the mother or caregiver of the neonate is a suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization , Mothers
10.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6961, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119270

ABSTRACT

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommend a third dose of COVID-19 vaccine for pregnant women, although data regarding effectiveness during pregnancy are lacking. This national, population-based, historical cohort study of pregnant women in Israel, delivering between August 1, 2021 and March 22, 2022, aims to analyze and compare the third and second doses' vaccine effectiveness in preventing COVID-19-related hospitalizations during pregnancy during two COVID-19 waves (Delta variant in the summer of 2021 and Omicron, BA.1, variant in the winter of 2022). Time-dependent Cox proportional-hazards regression models estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for COVID-related outcomes according to vaccine dose, and vaccine effectiveness as 1-HR. Study includes 82,659 and 33,303 pregnant women from the Delta and Omicron waves, respectively. Compared with the second dose, the third dose effectively prevents overall hospitalizations with SARS-CoV-2 infections, with estimated effectiveness of 92% (95% CI 83-96%) during Delta, and enhances protection against significant disease during Omicron, with effectiveness of 92% (95% CI 26-99%), and 48% (95% CI 37-57%) effectiveness against hospitalization overall. A third dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy, given at least 5 months after the second vaccine dose, enhances protection against adverse COVID-19-related outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , BNT162 Vaccine , RNA, Messenger , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Israel/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
11.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276766, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnancies complicated by Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at an increased risk of severe morbidity due to physiologic changes in immunologic, cardiovascular, and respiratory function. There is little is known about how severity of COVID-19 changes protein and metabolite expression in pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the pathophysiology behind various clinical trajectories in pregnant patients diagnosed with COVID-19 using multi-omics profiling. STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective cohort study of 30 pregnant patients at a single tertiary care center. Participants were categorized by severity of COVID-19 disease (control, asymptomatic, mild/moderate, or severe). Maternal serum samples underwent LC-MS-based multiomics analysis for profiling of proteins, lipids, electrolytes, and metabolites. Linear regression models were used to assess how disease severity related to analyte levels. Reactome pathway enrichment analysis was conducted on differential analytes. RESULTS: Of 30 participants, 25 had confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 (6 asymptomatic (one post-infection), 13 mild/moderate (all post-infection), 6 severe), and 5 participants were controls. Severe COVID-19 was associated with distinct profiles demonstrating significant proteomic and lipidomic signatures which were enriched for annotations related to complement and antibody activity. (FDR < 0.05). Downregulated analytes were not significantly enriched but consisted of annotation terms related to lipoprotein activity (FDR > 0.2). Post-infection mild/moderate COVID-19 did not have significantly altered serum protein, metabolite, or lipid metabolite levels compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancies with severe COVID-19 demonstrate greater inflammation and complement activation and dysregulation of serum lipids. This altered multiomic expression provides insight into the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19 in pregnancy and may serve as potential indicators for adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , Proteomics , Pregnancy Outcome , Complement Activation , Lipids
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2240993, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103436

ABSTRACT

Importance: Pregnant persons are at an increased risk of severe COVID-19 from SARS-CoV-2 infection, and COVID-19 vaccination is currently recommended during pregnancy. Objective: To ascertain the association of vaccine type, time from vaccination, gestational age at delivery, and pregnancy complications with placental transfer of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted in Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and included births at the study site between August 9, 2020, and April 25, 2021. Maternal and cord blood serum samples were available for antibody level measurements for maternal-neonatal dyads. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection vs COVID-19 vaccination. Main Outcomes and Measures: IgG antibodies to the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were measured by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody concentrations and transplacental transfer ratios were measured after SARS-CoV-2 infection or receipt of COVID-19 vaccines. Results: A total of 585 maternal-newborn dyads (median [IQR] maternal age, 31 [26-35] years; median [IQR] gestational age, 39 [38-40] weeks) with maternal IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 detected at the time of delivery were included. IgG was detected in cord blood from 557 of 585 newborns (95.2%). Among 169 vaccinated persons without SARS-CoV-2 infection, the interval from first dose of vaccine to delivery ranged from 12 to 122 days. The geometric mean IgG level among 169 vaccine recipients was significantly higher than that measured in 408 persons after infection (33.88 [95% CI, 27.64-41.53] arbitrary U/mL vs 2.80 [95% CI, 2.50-3.13] arbitrary U/mL). Geometric mean IgG levels were higher after vaccination with the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine compared with the BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) vaccine (53.74 [95% CI, 40.49-71.33] arbitrary U/mL vs 25.45 [95% CI, 19.17-33.79] arbitrary U/mL; P < .001). Placental transfer ratios were lower after vaccination compared with after infection (0.80 [95% CI, 0.68-0.93] vs 1.06 [95% CI, 0.98-1.14]; P < .001) but were similar between the mRNA vaccines (mRNA-1273: 0.70 [95% CI, 0.55-0.90]; BNT162b2: 0.85 [95% CI, 0.69-1.06]; P = .25). Time from infection or vaccination to delivery was associated with transfer ratio in models that included gestational age at delivery and maternal hypertensive disorders, diabetes, and obesity. Placental antibody transfer was detectable as early as 26 weeks' gestation. Transfer ratio that was higher than 1.0 was present for 48 of 51 (94.1%) births at 36 weeks' gestation or later by 8 weeks after vaccination. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that maternal and cord blood IgG antibody levels were higher after COVID-19 vaccination compared with after SARS-CoV-2 infection, with slightly lower placental transfer ratios after vaccination than after infection. The findings suggest that time from infection or vaccination to delivery was the most important factor in transfer efficiency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , BNT162 Vaccine , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunoglobulin G , Philadelphia , Placenta , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
13.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 65(4): 860-863, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100025

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 has emerged as a major pandemic of the century and little is known about the impact of maternal infection on placental histopathology. Histopathologic examination of placental tissue can contribute to significant information regarding the pathophysiology of the disease and how it affects the fetal outcome. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Department of Pathology, Government Doon Medical College and Hospital, Dehradun, on the placenta of 50 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-positive pregnant females confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from August 2020 to October 2020. Fifty term historical placentas were taken as control. Placenta sections were fixed in formalin, processed into paraffin blocks, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stain, and visualized for any abnormality. Results: The most prominent histological finding in the placenta of pregnant women affected by COVID-19 was chorangiosis, which is a feature of fetal vascular malperfusion seen in 28 (56%) cases. Other features included maternal vascular malperfusions (MVM) such as villous crowding and agglutination in 12 (24%) cases. Tenney-Parker change was seen in 13 (26%) patients. Intervillous fibrinoid deposition and intervillous hemorrhage were seen in 37 (74%) patients and 7 (14%) patients showed significant calcification. Other findings observed were less common. Conclusion: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 may be associated with a significant impact on fetal and maternal circulation causing features of fetal and maternal malperfusion such as chorangiosis, villous crowding, and agglutination. Indicating that the infection could cause a potential rise in the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes such as intrauterine fetal growth retardation, preterm birth, or stillbirth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Placenta Diseases , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Placenta/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Premature Birth/pathology , Fetal Growth Retardation , Placenta Diseases/pathology
14.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 60(11): 1163-1167, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099938

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the management and short-term outcomes of neonates delivered by mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 158 neonates born to mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant admitted to the isolation ward of Children's Hospital of Fudan University from March 15th, 2022 to May 30th, 2022. The postnatal infection control measures for these neonates, and their clinical characteristics and short-term outcomes were analyzed. They were divided into maternal symptomatic group and maternal asymptomatic group according to whether their mothers had SARS-CoV-2 symptoms. The clinical outcomes were compared between the 2 groups using Rank sum test and Chi-square test. Results: All neonates were under strict infection control measures at birth and after birth. Of the 158 neonates, 75 (47.5%) were male. The gestational age was (38+3±1+3) weeks and the birth weight was (3 201±463)g. Of the neonates included, ten were preterm (6.3%) and the minimum gestational age was 30+1 weeks. Six neonates (3.8%) had respiratory difficulty and 4 of them were premature and required mechanical ventilation. All 158 neonates were tested negative for SARS-COV-2 nucleic acid by daily nasal swabs for the first 7 days. A total of 156 mothers (2 cases of twin pregnancy) infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, the time from confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection to delivery was 7 (3, 12) days. Among them, 88 cases (56.4%) showed clinical symptoms, but none needed intensive care treatment. The peripheral white blood cell count of the neonates in maternal symptomatic group was significantly higher than that in maternal symptomatic group (23.0 (18.7, 28.0) × 109 vs. 19.6 (15.4, 36.6) × 109/L, Z=2.44, P<0.05). Conclusions: Neonates of mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant during third trimester have benign short-term outcomes, without intrauterine infection through vertical transmission. Strict infection control measures at birth and after birth can effectively protect these neonates from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Mothers , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276923, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098766

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Identifying the time of SARS-CoV-2 viral infection relative to specific gestational weeks is critical for delineating the role of viral infection timing in adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, this task is difficult when it comes to Electronic Health Records (EHR). In combating the COVID-19 pandemic for maternal health, we sought to develop and validate a clinical information extraction algorithm to detect the time of clinical events relative to gestational weeks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used EHR from the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C), in which the EHR are normalized by the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) Common Data Model (CDM). We performed EHR phenotyping, resulting in 270,897 pregnant women (June 1st, 2018 to May 31st, 2021). We developed a rule-based algorithm and performed a multi-level evaluation to test content validity and clinical validity, and extreme length of gestation (<150 or >300). RESULTS: The algorithm identified 296,194 pregnancies (16,659 COVID-19, 174,744 without COVID-19) in 270,897 pregnant women. For inferring gestational age, 95% cases (n = 40) have moderate-high accuracy (Cohen's Kappa = 0.62); 100% cases (n = 40) have moderate-high granularity of temporal information (Cohen's Kappa = 1). For inferring delivery dates, the accuracy is 100% (Cohen's Kappa = 1). The accuracy of gestational age detection for the extreme length of gestation is 93.3% (Cohen's Kappa = 1). Mothers with COVID-19 showed higher prevalence in obesity or overweight (35.1% vs. 29.5%), diabetes (17.8% vs. 17.0%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (0.2% vs. 0.1%), respiratory distress syndrome or acute respiratory failure (1.8% vs. 0.2%). DISCUSSION: We explored the characteristics of pregnant women by different gestational weeks of SARS-CoV-2 infection with our algorithm. TED-PC is the first to infer the exact gestational week linked with every clinical event from EHR and detect the timing of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women. CONCLUSION: The algorithm shows excellent clinical validity in inferring gestational age and delivery dates, which supports multiple EHR cohorts on N3C studying the impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnant Women , Gestational Age , SARS-CoV-2 , Electronic Health Records , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Algorithms , Premature Birth/epidemiology
16.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 625, 2022 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) effects on newborns is ongoing. But the research of specific variant's effects is none. This study analyzed the effects of the Omicron variant on the perinatal outcomes of full-term newborns during the Omicron wave period.  METHODS: Between December 2021 and April 2022, this study was conducted on all newborns who visited a single center. We investigated due to the Omicron maternal infection maternal pregnancy complications, delivery methods, birth week, Apgar scores, neonatal resuscitation program requirement, whether respiratory support was required until 12 h after childbirth, suspicious infectious status, and mortality depending on maternal Omicron infection. RESULTS: A total of 127 neonates were enrolled, and 12 were excluded based on exclusion criteria. Sixteen neonates were born to mothers with a history of Omicron COVID-19, and 99 were born to non-infectious mothers. All infected mothers became infected in the 3rd trimester. Of the 16 mothers, seven were symptomatic, and four met the isolation criteria, according to Korean guidelines. The birth weight of newborns to mothers with a history of COVID and those without was 2.958 ± 0.272 kg and 3.064 ± 0.461 kg (p = 0.049), respectively. The 5-min Apgar score at childbirth was 9.29 ± 0.756 and 9.78 ± 0.460 for neonates born to symptomatic and asymptomatic mothers (p = 0.019), respectively. When compared with or without maternal self-isolation, neonates requiring respiratory support 12 h after birth demonstrated a significant difference (p = 0.014; OR, 10.275). Additionally, the presence or absence of transient tachypnea of the newborn showed a significant value (p = 0.010; OR 11.929). CONCLUSIONS: Owing to Omicron COVID-19, newborns were born with lower birth weight, low 5-min Apgar scores, and required respiratory support until 12 h after birth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Complications , Pregnancy , Female , Infant, Newborn , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Resuscitation , Birth Weight
18.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(11): e1623-e1631, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Outcomes of omicron-associated COVID-19 in pregnancy have not been reported from low-resource settings, and data from sub-Saharan Africa before the emergence of omicron are scarce. Using a national maternal surveillance platform (MATSurvey), we aimed to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes of COVID-19 in Malawi during the omicron wave to the preceding waves of beta and delta. METHODS: All pregnant and recently pregnant patients, up to 42 days following delivery, admitted to 33 health-care facilities throughout Malawi with symptomatic, test-proven COVID-19 during the second (beta [B.1.351]: January to April, 2021), third (delta [B.1.617.2]: June to October, 2021), and fourth (omicron [B.1.1.529]: December 2021 to March, 2022) waves were included, with no age restrictions. Demographic and clinical features, maternal outcomes of interest (severe maternal outcome [a composite of maternal near-miss events and maternal deaths] and maternal death), and neonatal outcomes of interest (stillbirth and death during maternal stay in the health-care facility of enrolment) were compared between the fourth wave and the second and third waves using Fisher's exact test. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for maternal outcomes were estimated using mixed-effects logistic regression. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2021, and March 31, 2022, 437 patients admitted to 28 health-care facilities conducting MATSurvey had symptoms of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed in 261 patients; of whom 76 (29%) had a severe maternal outcome and 45 (17%) died. These two outcomes were less common during the fourth wave (omicron dominance) than the second wave (adjusted OR of severe maternal outcome: 3·96 [95% CI 1·22-12·83], p=0·022; adjusted OR of maternal death: 5·65 [1·54-20·69], p=0·0090) and the third wave (adjusted OR: 3·18 [1·03-9·80], p=0·044; adjusted OR: 3·52 [0·98-12·60], p=0·053). Shortness of breath was the only symptom associated with poor maternal outcomes of interest (p<0·0001), and was less frequently reported in the fourth wave (23%) than in the second wave (51%; p=0·0007) or third wave (50%; p=0·0004). The demographic characteristics and medical histories of patients were similar across the three waves. During the second and third waves, 12 (13%) of 92 singleton neonates were stillborn or died during maternal stay in the health-care facility of enrolment, compared with 0 of the 25 born in the fourth wave (p=0·067 vs preceding waves combined). INTERPRETATION: Maternal and neonatal outcomes from COVID-19 were less severe during the fourth wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Malawi, during omicron dominance, than during the preceding beta and delta waves. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Wellcome Trust, and the National Institute for Health and Care Research. TRANSLATION: For the Chichewa translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Maternal Death , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Malawi/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth/epidemiology
19.
Georgian Med News ; (328-329): 100-107, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2092168

ABSTRACT

Currently, in relation to the effect of this pandemic on pregnancy, there are more questions than certainties about the real impact of COVID-19 on pregnant women. Studies are updated and often contradict each other. There is no evidence to suggest that pregnant women with COVID-19 have higher morbidity than affected non-pregnant women. We aimed to know whether maternal morbidities were more frequent in pregnant woman with COVID-19 compared to non-infected pregnant women. A retrospective case control study was conducted during a period of 6 months. Medical records were reviewed. A 120 files of COVID-19 infected women from Mosul city, and 95 files of non-infected pregnant women were reviewed and analyzed. We found that Infection with COVID-19 had a significant effect on pregnancy outcome, infected women were more likely to have higher incidence rates of adverse perinatal outcomes in both mothers and the newborns. Also, higher odds of complications associated with severe disease form Findings of our study came in line with previous studies in other countries, however, more medical care and support should be provided to pregnant women infected with COVID-19, particularly severe cases. Further studies with larger sample size are still needed for good understanding of the effect of virus on pregnancy outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Pregnancy Outcome
20.
Med J Aust ; 217 Suppl 9: S7-S13, 2022 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090766

ABSTRACT

Early treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections can prevent hospitalisation and death in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who have one or more risk factors for serious COVID-19 progression. While early treatment presents a range of logistical challenges, clinicians are nevertheless aided by a growing number of approved medications for early treatment of COVID-19. Medications include drugs that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 viral replication, anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody formulations that provide passive immunisation, and immunomodulatory drugs that suppress the body's inflammatory response. Several drugs with different modes of action are approved in Australia for early treatment of COVID-19, including nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir, molnupiravir, and monoclonal antibody formulations. Although these drugs are recommended, clinicians are encouraged to remain up to date on current indications, contraindications and the clinical efficacy of these drugs against SARS-CoV-2 variants currently circulating in communities. Other treatments, including hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin and dietary supplements, have been popularised but are not recommended for early treatment of COVID-19. As new drugs and new data on use of existing approved drugs become available, clinicians face a growing challenge in determining the optimal treatments from the array of options. As it stands, early treatment of COVID-19 needs to be individualised depending on age, pregnancy status, existing medications, and renal and liver disease status. Future treatments in development might have roles in patients with lower risk profiles and in reducing transmission as we learn to live with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Humans , Pregnancy , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
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