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2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6961, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119270

ABSTRACT

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommend a third dose of COVID-19 vaccine for pregnant women, although data regarding effectiveness during pregnancy are lacking. This national, population-based, historical cohort study of pregnant women in Israel, delivering between August 1, 2021 and March 22, 2022, aims to analyze and compare the third and second doses' vaccine effectiveness in preventing COVID-19-related hospitalizations during pregnancy during two COVID-19 waves (Delta variant in the summer of 2021 and Omicron, BA.1, variant in the winter of 2022). Time-dependent Cox proportional-hazards regression models estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for COVID-related outcomes according to vaccine dose, and vaccine effectiveness as 1-HR. Study includes 82,659 and 33,303 pregnant women from the Delta and Omicron waves, respectively. Compared with the second dose, the third dose effectively prevents overall hospitalizations with SARS-CoV-2 infections, with estimated effectiveness of 92% (95% CI 83-96%) during Delta, and enhances protection against significant disease during Omicron, with effectiveness of 92% (95% CI 26-99%), and 48% (95% CI 37-57%) effectiveness against hospitalization overall. A third dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy, given at least 5 months after the second vaccine dose, enhances protection against adverse COVID-19-related outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , BNT162 Vaccine , RNA, Messenger , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Israel/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(45): 1442-1448, 2022 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116913

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates are highest among adults aged ≥65 years (1); however, COVID-19 can and does cause severe and fatal outcomes in children, including infants (2,3). After the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) BA.1 variant in December 2021, hospitalizations among children aged <5 years, who were ineligible for vaccination, increased more rapidly than did those in other age groups (4). On June 18, 2022, CDC recommended COVID-19 vaccination for infants and children aged ≥6 months (5). Data from the Coronavirus Disease 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET)* were analyzed to describe changes in the age distribution of COVID-19-associated hospitalizations since the Delta-predominant period (June 20-December 18, 2021)† with a focus on U.S. infants aged <6 months. During the Omicron BA.2/BA.5-predominant periods (December 19, 2021­August 31, 2022), weekly hospitalizations per 100,000 infants aged <6 months increased from a nadir of 2.2 (week ending April 9, 2022) to a peak of 26.0 (week ending July 23, 2022), and the average weekly hospitalization rate among these infants (13.7) was similar to that among adults aged 65-74 years (13.8). However, the prevalence of indicators of severe disease§ among hospitalized infants did not increase since the B.1.617.2 (Delta)-predominant period. To help protect infants too young to be vaccinated, prevention should focus on nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination of pregnant women, which might provide protection through transplacental transfer of antibodies (6).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Child , Adult , Infant , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Hospitalization , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology
4.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276923, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098766

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Identifying the time of SARS-CoV-2 viral infection relative to specific gestational weeks is critical for delineating the role of viral infection timing in adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, this task is difficult when it comes to Electronic Health Records (EHR). In combating the COVID-19 pandemic for maternal health, we sought to develop and validate a clinical information extraction algorithm to detect the time of clinical events relative to gestational weeks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used EHR from the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C), in which the EHR are normalized by the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) Common Data Model (CDM). We performed EHR phenotyping, resulting in 270,897 pregnant women (June 1st, 2018 to May 31st, 2021). We developed a rule-based algorithm and performed a multi-level evaluation to test content validity and clinical validity, and extreme length of gestation (<150 or >300). RESULTS: The algorithm identified 296,194 pregnancies (16,659 COVID-19, 174,744 without COVID-19) in 270,897 pregnant women. For inferring gestational age, 95% cases (n = 40) have moderate-high accuracy (Cohen's Kappa = 0.62); 100% cases (n = 40) have moderate-high granularity of temporal information (Cohen's Kappa = 1). For inferring delivery dates, the accuracy is 100% (Cohen's Kappa = 1). The accuracy of gestational age detection for the extreme length of gestation is 93.3% (Cohen's Kappa = 1). Mothers with COVID-19 showed higher prevalence in obesity or overweight (35.1% vs. 29.5%), diabetes (17.8% vs. 17.0%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (0.2% vs. 0.1%), respiratory distress syndrome or acute respiratory failure (1.8% vs. 0.2%). DISCUSSION: We explored the characteristics of pregnant women by different gestational weeks of SARS-CoV-2 infection with our algorithm. TED-PC is the first to infer the exact gestational week linked with every clinical event from EHR and detect the timing of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women. CONCLUSION: The algorithm shows excellent clinical validity in inferring gestational age and delivery dates, which supports multiple EHR cohorts on N3C studying the impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnant Women , Gestational Age , SARS-CoV-2 , Electronic Health Records , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Algorithms , Premature Birth/epidemiology
5.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(11): e1623-e1631, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Outcomes of omicron-associated COVID-19 in pregnancy have not been reported from low-resource settings, and data from sub-Saharan Africa before the emergence of omicron are scarce. Using a national maternal surveillance platform (MATSurvey), we aimed to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes of COVID-19 in Malawi during the omicron wave to the preceding waves of beta and delta. METHODS: All pregnant and recently pregnant patients, up to 42 days following delivery, admitted to 33 health-care facilities throughout Malawi with symptomatic, test-proven COVID-19 during the second (beta [B.1.351]: January to April, 2021), third (delta [B.1.617.2]: June to October, 2021), and fourth (omicron [B.1.1.529]: December 2021 to March, 2022) waves were included, with no age restrictions. Demographic and clinical features, maternal outcomes of interest (severe maternal outcome [a composite of maternal near-miss events and maternal deaths] and maternal death), and neonatal outcomes of interest (stillbirth and death during maternal stay in the health-care facility of enrolment) were compared between the fourth wave and the second and third waves using Fisher's exact test. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for maternal outcomes were estimated using mixed-effects logistic regression. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2021, and March 31, 2022, 437 patients admitted to 28 health-care facilities conducting MATSurvey had symptoms of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed in 261 patients; of whom 76 (29%) had a severe maternal outcome and 45 (17%) died. These two outcomes were less common during the fourth wave (omicron dominance) than the second wave (adjusted OR of severe maternal outcome: 3·96 [95% CI 1·22-12·83], p=0·022; adjusted OR of maternal death: 5·65 [1·54-20·69], p=0·0090) and the third wave (adjusted OR: 3·18 [1·03-9·80], p=0·044; adjusted OR: 3·52 [0·98-12·60], p=0·053). Shortness of breath was the only symptom associated with poor maternal outcomes of interest (p<0·0001), and was less frequently reported in the fourth wave (23%) than in the second wave (51%; p=0·0007) or third wave (50%; p=0·0004). The demographic characteristics and medical histories of patients were similar across the three waves. During the second and third waves, 12 (13%) of 92 singleton neonates were stillborn or died during maternal stay in the health-care facility of enrolment, compared with 0 of the 25 born in the fourth wave (p=0·067 vs preceding waves combined). INTERPRETATION: Maternal and neonatal outcomes from COVID-19 were less severe during the fourth wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Malawi, during omicron dominance, than during the preceding beta and delta waves. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Wellcome Trust, and the National Institute for Health and Care Research. TRANSLATION: For the Chichewa translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Maternal Death , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Malawi/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth/epidemiology
6.
Am J Public Health ; 112(S8): S787-S796, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089550

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To describe prevalence of breast milk feeding among people with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during pregnancy and examine associations between breast milk feeding, timing of maternal infection before delivery, and rooming-in status during delivery hospitalization. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort study using data from Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee of whether people with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy in 2020 initiated breast milk feeding at birth. Results. Among 11 114 (weighted number) people with SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy, 86.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 82.4%, 87.6%) initiated breast milk feeding during birth hospitalization. People with infection within 14 days before delivery had significantly lower prevalence of breast milk feeding (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR] = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.83, 0.94) than did those with infection at least 14 days before delivery. When stratified by rooming-in status, the association between timing of infection and breast milk feeding remained only among infants who did not room in with their mother (APR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.68, 0.88). Conclusions. Pregnant and postpartum people with SARS-CoV-2 infection should have access to lactation support and be advised about the importance of breast milk feeding and how to safely feed their infants in the same room. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(S8):S787-S796. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.307023).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Milk, Human , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Breast Feeding , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology
8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 107(5): 1060-1065, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080693

ABSTRACT

Previous coronavirus epidemics were associated with increased maternal morbidity, mortality, and adverse obstetric outcomes. Reports for SARS-CoV-2 indicate that the obstetric population is at increased risk for severe illness, although there are still limited data on mild COVID-19 infection during pregnancy. To determine the association between mild COVID-19 infection during pregnancy, and maternal and neonatal outcomes, we performed a prospective cohort study among pregnant women with COVID-19 and a control group. Postnatal depressive symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. We recruited 84 pregnant women with mild COVID-19 and 88 pregnant women without COVID-19. All participants were unvaccinated. The most common acute COVID-19 symptoms were headache (82.1%), loss of smell (81%), and asthenia (77.4%). The median duration of long COVID symptoms was 60 days (interquartile range, 130). Pregnant women with a COVID-19 diagnosis were at greater risk for obstetric ultrasound abnormalities-mainly, fetal growth restriction (relative risk [RR], 12.40; 95% CI, 1.66-92.5), premature birth (RR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.07-6.43), and postpartum depression (RR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.24-4.21). Our results alert clinicians to the consequences of COVID-19 during pregnancy, even in mild cases, given the increased risk of ultrasound abnormalities, premature birth, long COVID symptoms, and postpartum depression. National guidelines on preventive measures and treatments should be based on scientific evidence, including attention to the impact on health and family needs during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Complications , Premature Birth , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Premature Birth/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Pregnancy Outcome , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology
9.
J Immunol ; 209(8): 1465-1473, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055636

ABSTRACT

Widespread SARS-CoV-2 infection among pregnant individuals has led to a generation of fetuses exposed in utero, but the long-term impact of such exposure remains unknown. Although fetal infection is rare, children born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection may be at increased risk for adverse neurodevelopmental and cardiometabolic outcomes. Fetal programming effects are likely to be mediated at least in part by maternal immune activation. In this review, we discuss recent evidence regarding the effects of prenatal SARS-CoV-2 infection on the maternal, placental, and fetal immune response, as well as the implications for the long-term health of offspring. Extrapolating from what is known about the impact of maternal immune activation in other contexts (e.g., obesity, HIV, influenza), we review the potential for neurodevelopmental and cardiometabolic morbidity in offspring. Based on available data suggesting potential increased neurodevelopmental risk, we highlight the importance of establishing large cohorts to monitor offspring born to SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers for neurodevelopmental and cardiometabolic sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Child , Female , Humans , Immunity , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0274797, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054347

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to compare the demographic characteristics and symptoms in pregnant and postpartum women who died from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) caused by COVID-19 or by nonspecific cause in different states of Brazil. This is a retrospective cohort study and the analysis was conducted on SARS death records between 02/16/2020 and 04/17/2021, obtained from the Information System for the Epidemiological Surveillance of Influenza (Sistema de Informação da Vigilância Epidemiológica da Gripe, SIVEP-Gripe). Pregnant and postpartum women, aged between 10 and 55 years, who died from SARS, were included and classified into two groups: SARS due to confirmed COVID-19 or SARS due to nonspecific cause. The cases were analyzed according to the women's demographic and epidemiological characteristics, clinical symptoms, risk factors and disease evolution. As results, 19,333 pregnant and postpartum women were identified. From these, 1,279 died (1,026 deaths from COVID-19 and 253 deaths from SARS with nonspecific cause). The groups showed significant differences in age, education, race, and occurrence of obesity and chronic lung disease. The group of women who died from confirmed COVID-19 presented a significantly higher frequency of symptoms of fever, cough, fatigue, loss of taste, and loss of smell, as well as a higher rate of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Data analysis draws attention to the high number of cases of SARS without a causal diagnosis, the low access to ICU and orotracheal intubation (OTI), which might be explained by the demographic and regional inequalities in the access to healthcare.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adolescent , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Demography , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_2): S317-S325, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Information on the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) attributable to the Delta variant in the United States among pregnant people is limited. We assessed the risk for severe COVID-19 by pregnancy status in the period of Delta variant predominance compared with the pre-Delta period. METHODS: Laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections among symptomatic women of reproductive age (WRA) were assessed. We calculated adjusted risk ratios for severe disease including intensive care unit (ICU) admission, receipt of invasive ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and death comparing the pre-Delta period (1 January 2020-26 June 2021) and the Delta period (27 June 2021-25 December 2021) for pregnant and nonpregnant WRA. RESULTS: Compared with the pre-Delta period, the risk of ICU admission during the Delta period was 41% higher (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 1.41 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.17-1.69]) for pregnant WRA and 9% higher (aRR, 1.09 [95% CI, 1.00-1.18]) for nonpregnant WRA. The risk of invasive ventilation or ECMO was higher for pregnant (aRR, 1.83 [95% CI, 1.26-2.65]) and nonpregnant (aRR, 1.34 [95% CI, 1.17-1.54]) WRA in the Delta period. During the Delta period, the risk of death was 3.33 (95% CI, 2.48-4.46) times the risk in the pre-Delta period among pregnant WRA and 1.62 (95% CI, 1.49-1.77) among nonpregnant WRA. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the pre-Delta period, pregnant and nonpregnant WRA were at increased risk for severe COVID-19 in the Delta period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_2): S308-S316, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective was to estimate risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in pregnancy and assess adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. METHODS: We used a population-based, retrospective cohort of all pregnancies with a live birth or fetal death in Florida from 1 March 2020 to 30 April 2021. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case reports were matched to vital registries. Outcomes assessed were risk of infection in pregnancy, preterm birth, maternal or neonatal admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), perinatal or fetal death, and maternal death. Modified Poisson and multinomial logistic regression models were used to derive relative risk estimates. RESULTS: Of 234 492 women with a live birth or fetal death during the study period, 12 976 (5.5%) were identified with COVID-19 during pregnancy. Risk factors for COVID-19 in pregnancy included Hispanic ethnicity (relative risk [RR] = 1.89), Black race (RR = 1.34), being unmarried (RR = 1.04), and being overweight or obese pre-pregnancy (RR = 1.08-1.32). COVID-19 during pregnancy was associated with preterm birth (RR = 1.31), Cesarean delivery (RR = 1.04), and neonatal (RR = 1.17) and maternal (RR = 3.10) ICU admission; no association was found with increased risk of perinatal (RR = 0.72) or fetal death (RR = 0.86). Women infected during any trimester showed increased risk of preterm birth. Fourteen maternal deaths were identified among COVID-19 cases; of those who died, 12 were obese. The death rate per 10 000 was 22.09 among obese and 1.22 among non-obese gravida with COVID-19 during pregnancy (RR = 18.99, P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Obesity is a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy and for more severe COVID-19 illness among pregnant women. SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with preterm birth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Fetal Death , Florida/epidemiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Perinatol ; 42(10): 1338-1345, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050310

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Describe 1-month outcomes among newborns of persons with perinatal COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study of pregnant persons who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between 14 days before and 3 days after delivery and their newborns, from 3/2020 to 3/2021 at two urban high-risk academic hospitals. Phone interviews were conducted to determine 1-month newborn outcomes. RESULTS: Among 9748 pregnant persons, 209 (2.1%) tested positive for perinatal SARS-CoV-2. Symptomatically infected persons were more likely to have a preterm delivery due to worsening maternal condition and their newborns were more likely to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared with asymptomatic persons. Six of 191 (3.1%) infants tested were positive for SARS-CoV-2; none had attributable illness before discharge. Of 169 eligible families, 132 (78.1%) participated in post-discharge interviews; none reported their newborn tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by 1 month of age. CONCLUSION: Symptomatic perinatal COVID-19 had a substantial effect on maternal health but no apparent short-term effect on newborns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Aftercare , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Patient Discharge , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(9): e2233273, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047371

ABSTRACT

Importance: Pregnant people are at high risk for severe COVID-19 but were excluded from mRNA vaccine trials; data on COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness (VE) are needed. Objective: To evaluate the estimated effectiveness of mRNA vaccination against medically attended COVID-19 among pregnant people during Delta and Omicron predominance. Design, Setting, and Participants: This test-negative, case-control study was conducted from June 2021 to June 2022 in a network of 306 hospitals and 164 emergency department and urgent care (ED/UC) facilities across 10 US states, including 4517 ED/UC encounters and 975 hospitalizations among pregnant people with COVID-19-like illness (CLI) who underwent SARS-CoV-2 molecular testing. Exposures: Two doses (14-149 and ≥150 days prior) and 3 doses (7-119 and ≥120 days prior) of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine (≥1 dose received during pregnancy) vs unvaccinated. Main Outcomes and Measures: Estimated VE against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated ED/UC encounter or hospitalization, based on the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for prior vaccination; VE was calculated as (1 - aOR) × 100%. Results: Among 4517 eligible CLI-associated ED/UC encounters and 975 hospitalizations, 885 (19.6%) and 334 (34.3%) were SARS-CoV-2 positive, respectively; the median (IQR) patient age was 28 (24-32) years and 31 (26-35) years, 537 (12.0%) and 118 (12.0%) were non-Hispanic Black and 1189 (26.0%) and 240 (25.0%) were Hispanic. During Delta predominance, the estimated VE against COVID-19-associated ED/UC encounters was 84% (95% CI, 69% to 92%) for 2 doses within 14 to 149 days, 75% (95% CI, 5% to 93%) for 2 doses 150 or more days prior, and 81% (95% CI, 30% to 95%) for 3 doses 7 to 119 days prior; estimated VE against COVID-19-associated hospitalization was 99% (95% CI, 96% to 100%), 96% (95% CI, 86% to 99%), and 97% (95% CI, 79% to 100%), respectively. During Omicron predominance, for ED/UC encounters, the estimated VE of 2 doses within 14 to 149 days, 2 doses 150 or more days, 3 doses within 7 to 119 days, and 3 doses 120 or more days prior was 3% (95% CI, -49% to 37%), 42% (95% CI, -16% to 72%), 79% (95% CI, 59% to 89%), and -124% (95% CI, -414% to 2%), respectively; for hospitalization, estimated VE was 86% (95% CI, 41% to 97%), 64% (95% CI, -102% to 93%), 86% (95% CI, 28% to 97%), and -53% (95% CI, -1254% to 83%), respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, maternal mRNA COVID-19 vaccination, including booster dose, was associated with protection against medically attended COVID-19. VE estimates were higher against COVID-19-associated hospitalization than ED/UC visits and lower against the Omicron variant than the Delta variant. Protection waned over time, particularly during Omicron predominance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger, Stored , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
15.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043973

ABSTRACT

There is accumulating evidence on the perinatal aspects of COVID-19, but available data are still insufficient. The reports on perinatal aspects of COVID-19 have been published on a small group of patients. Vertical transmission has been noted. The SARS-CoV-2 genome can be detected in umbilical cord blood and at-term placenta, and the infants demonstrate elevated SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgM antibody levels. In this work, the analysis of clinical characteristics of RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnant women and their infants, along with the placental pathology correlation results, including villous trophoblast immunoexpression status for SARS-CoV-2 antibody, is presented. RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 amniotic fluid testing was performed. Neonatal surveillance of infection status comprised RT-PCR testing of a nasopharyngeal swab and the measuring of levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 in blood serum. In the initial study group were 161 pregnant women with positive test results. From that group, women who delivered during the hospital stay were selected for further analysis. Clinical data, laboratory results, placental histomorphology results, and neonatal outcomes were compared in women with immunohistochemistry (IHC)-con SARS-CoV-2-positive and IHC SARS-CoV-2-negative placentas (26 cases). A positive placental immunoprofile was noted in 8% of cases (n = 2), whereas 92% of cases were negative (n = 24). Women with placental infection proven by IHC had significantly different pathological findings from those without. One infected neonate was noted (n = 1; 4%). Infection was confirmed in perinatal autopsy, as there was the intrauterine fetal demise. The potential course of the infection with the risk of vertical transmission and implications for fetal-neonatal condition is critical for proper clinical management, which will involve comprehensive, multidisciplinary perinatal care for SARS-CoV-2-positive patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Obstet Gynecol ; 140(2): 262-265, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029091

ABSTRACT

Two years into the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we have now seen three main variant waves. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all pregnant patients with COVID-19 at our institution from March 22, 2020, to February 26, 2022, to evaluate disease severity and perinatal outcomes among the variants. Patients were categorized as pre-Delta (March 22, 2020-May 31, 2021), Delta (July 1, 2021-December 15, 2021), or Omicron (December 16, 2021- February 26, 2022) based on variant tracking from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and genotype sequencing at our institution. There were fewer cases of severe-critical disease (1.8% Omicron vs 13.3% pre-Delta and 24.1% Delta) and adverse perinatal outcomes during the Omicron wave compared with the pre-Delta and Delta waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 730, 2022 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021251

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, in Wuhan, China, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was emerged due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). It seems that children and neonates, similar to adult and elderly individuals, are at risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, adequate data are not available about neonates infected with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: This study evaluated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in neonates born to mothers or relatives with COVID-19. This cross-sectional study was performed on 25,044 consecutive Iranian participants in Tehran, Iran, from January 2020 to August 2020. Viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted from 500 µl of the oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal specimens of the participants. The genomic RNA of SARS-CoV-2 was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. RESULTS: Out of all participants, 98 (0.40%) cases were neonates born to mothers or relatives with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, the current study was performed on these neonates. Out of 98 studied neonates, 6 (6.1%) cases had positive PCR results for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, among 98 studied neonates' mothers, 25 (25.5%) cases had positive PCR results for SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study demonstrated that the rate of COVID-19 in neonates born to mothers or relatives with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Iranian population is about 6.1%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Iran/epidemiology , Mothers , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prevalence , RNA , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
19.
Neonatology ; 119(5): 619-628, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020583

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to compare neonatal outcomes and resource use of neonates born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2 positivity during pregnancy with neonates born to mothers without SARS-CoV-2 positivity. METHODS: We conducted a two-country cohort study of neonates admitted between January 1, 2020, and September 15, 2021, to tertiary neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Canada and Sweden. Neonates from mothers who were SARS-CoV-2 positive during pregnancy were compared with three randomly selected NICU neonates of mothers who were not test-positive, matched on gestational age, sex, and birth weight (±0.25 SD). Subgroup analyses were conducted for neonates born <33 weeks' gestation and mothers who were SARS-CoV-2 positive ≤10 days prior to birth. Primary outcome was duration of respiratory support. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality, neonatal morbidity, late-onset sepsis, receipt of breast milk at discharge, and length of stay. RESULTS: There were 163 exposed and 468 matched neonates in Canada, and 303 exposed and 903 matched neonates in Sweden. There was no statistically significant difference in invasive or noninvasive respiratory support durations, mortality, respiratory and other neonatal morbidities, or resource utilizations between two groups in both countries in entire cohort and in subgroup analyses. Receipt of breast milk at discharge was lower in the Canadian neonates of mothers who were SARS-CoV-2 positive ≤10 days before birth (risk ratio 0.68, 95% CI: 0.57-0.82). CONCLUSION: Maternal SARS-CoV-2 positivity was not associated with increased durations of respiratory support, morbidities, mortality, or length of hospital stay in Canada and Sweden among neonates admitted to tertiary NICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 1395238, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020469

ABSTRACT

Background: Viral hepatitis are considered as the cause of solemn health problem for the human kind, particularly among pregnant women in the 21th century. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV infection among pregnant women attending at Borumeda General Hospital, Dessie, Northeast Ethiopia. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Borumeda General Hospital from April to May, 2020. A consecutive total of 124 pregnant women who were attending at the antenatal clinic (ANC) of the hospital were included. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the associated factors and some sociodemographic characteristics. Five milliliters of venous blood was collected from each study participant, and a laboratory test using a rapid HBsAg and anti-HCV kit was done. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 22. Results: The mean age of the study subjects was 25.81 (±5.967) years. The overall seroprevalence of either HBV or HCV infections among the study participants was 14 (11.3%). HBsAg and anti-HCV were positive among 10 (8.1%) and 4 (3.2%) study participants, respectively. There was no coinfection result between HBV and HCV among pregnant women. Pregnant women who had abortion history [AOR 5.723; 95% CI 1.100-29.785, P value = 0.038] and hospitalization history with IV medication [AOR 6.939; 95% CI 1.017-47.322, P value = 0.048] exhibited statistically significant association with HBV infection. Conclusions: Seroprevalence of HBV and HCV infections among pregnant women was high, and the rate of HBV particularly can be considered in the high endemic category of the WHO classification scheme. Continuous screening of pregnant mothers, provision of hepatitis B vaccine for females at the child-bearing age, and health education to create awareness about HBV and HCV should be implemented.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis C Antibodies , Hospitals, General , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnant Women , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
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