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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 801, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is dearth of information on COVID-19's impact on pregnant women. However, literature reported trends of COVID-19 differ, depending on the presence of clinical features upon presentation. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to assess differences in risk factors, management, complications, and pregnancy and perinatal outcomes in symptomatic vs. asymptomatic pregnant women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: A search was run on electronic databases to identify studies reporting COVID-19 in pregnancy. Meta-analysis was performed and odds ratios and mean difference with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Review Manager 5.4. Review Prospero registration number CRD42020204662. RESULTS: We included ten articles reporting data from 3158 pregnancies; with 1900 symptomatic and 1258 asymptomatic pregnant women. There was no significant difference in the mean age, gestational age, and body mass index between the two groups. The meta-analysis suggested that pregnant women who were obese (OR:1.37;95%CI:1.15 to 1.62), hypertensive (OR:2.07;95%CI:1.38 to 3.10) or had a respiratory disorder (OR:1.64;95%CI:1.25 to 2.16), were more likely to be symptomatic when infected with SARS-CoV-2. Pregnant women with Black (OR:1.48;95%CI:1.19 to 1.85) or Asian (OR:1.64;95%CI:1.23 to 2.18) ethnicity were more likely to be symptomatic while those with White ethnicity (OR:0.63;95%CI:0.52 to 0.76) were more likely to be asymptomatic. Cesarean-section delivery (OR:1.40;95%CI:1.17 to 1.67) was more likely amongst symptomatic pregnant women. The mean birthweight(g) (MD:240.51;95%CI:188.42 to 293.51), was significantly lower, while the odds of low birthweight (OR:1.85;95%CI:1.06 to 3.24) and preterm birth (< 37 weeks) (OR:2.10;95%CI:1.04 to 4.23) was higher amongst symptomatic pregnant women. Symptomatic pregnant women had a greater requirement for maternal ICU admission (OR:13.25;95%CI:5.60 to 31.34) and mechanical ventilation (OR:15.56;95%CI:2.96 to 81.70) while their neonates had a higher likelihood for Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admission (OR:1.96;95%CI:1.59 to 2.43). The management strategies in the included studies were poorly discussed, hence could not be analyzed. CONCLUSION: The evidence suggests that the presence of risk factors (co-morbidities and ethnicity) increased the likelihood of pregnant women being symptomatic. Higher odds of complications were also observed amongst symptomatic pregnant women. However, more adequately conducted studies with adjusted analysis and parallel comparison groups are required to reach conclusive findings.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Delivery, Obstetric/adverse effects , Female , Fetal Death , Gestational Age , Global Health , Humans , Infant, Premature , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/ethnology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnant Women , Premature Birth/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Natl Black Nurses Assoc ; 31(2): 15-24, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092202

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to discern and examine causative factors that are likely to influence the higher consequences of health disparities experienced by pregnant and postpartum African-American women with COVID-19. Although understudied, pregnancy in the presence of COVID-19 increases the risk for illness severity. Data suggest that pregnant women with COVID-19 are more likely to be hospitalized, to be admitted to the intensive care unit, and to require life support. Similarly, COVID-19 poses significant challenges to maternal and obstetric care during the postpartum recovery period. African- American women bear a disproportionately higher morbidity and mortality burden for diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Pre-existing chronic health conditions may place pregnant and postpartum women at a higher risk for developing severe health consequences from COVID-19 before, during, and after delivery. In addition, social determinants of health are hypothesized to modulate the deleterious impact of COVID-19 among pregnant and postpartum African-American women.


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19 , African Americans/psychology , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/ethnology , Female , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Maternal Health Services/organization & administration , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/ethnology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Social Determinants of Health/ethnology
3.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 2(4): 100246, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064759

ABSTRACT

Background: Older age and medical comorbidities are identified risk factors for developing severe coronavirus disease 2019. However, there are limited data on risk stratification, clinical and laboratory course, and optimal management of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy. Objective: Our study aimed to describe the clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019, effect of comorbidities on disease severity, laboratory trends, and pregnancy outcomes of symptomatic and asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-positive pregnant women. Study Design: This is a case series of pregnant and postpartum women who received positive test results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 between March 3, 2020, and May 11, 2020, within 3 hospitals of the Yale New Haven Health delivery network. Charts were reviewed for basic sociodemographic and prepregnancy characteristics, coronavirus disease 2019 course, laboratory values, and pregnancy outcomes. Results: Of the 1567 tested pregnant and postpartum women between March 3, 2020, and May 11, 2020, 9% (n=141) had a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 result. Hispanic women were overrepresented in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-positive group (n=61; 43.8%). In addition, Hispanic ethnicity was associated with a higher rate of moderate and severe diseases than non-Hispanic (18% [11/61] vs 3.8% [3/78], respectively; odds ratio, 5.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.46-20.7; P=.01). Of note, 44 women (31.2%) were asymptomatic, 37 of whom (26.2%) were diagnosed on universal screening upon admission for delivery. Moreover, 59% (n=83) were diagnosed before delivery, 36% (n=51) upon presentation for childbirth, and 5% (n=7) after delivery. Severe disease was diagnosed in 6 cases (4.3%), and there was 1 maternal death. Obese women were more likely to develop moderate and severe diseases than nonobese women (16.4% [9/55] vs 3.8% [3/79]; odds ratio, 4.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-19.25; P=.02). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were diagnosed in 22.3% of women (17/77) who delivered after 20 weeks' gestation. Higher levels of C-reactive protein during antepartum coronavirus disease 2019-related admission were more common in women with worse clinical course; however, this association did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: Coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy may result in severe disease and death. Hispanic women were more likely to receive a positive test result for severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 than other ethnic groups. Obesity and Hispanic ethnicity represent risk factors for moderate and severe diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Health Status Disparities , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , New York/epidemiology , Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/ethnology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
7.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 224(4): 389.e1-389.e9, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-871684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 may be associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnancy, but there are few controlled data to quantify the magnitude of these risks or to characterize the epidemiology and risk factors. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to quantify the associations of coronavirus disease 2019 with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnancy and to characterize the epidemiology and risk factors. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a matched case-control study of pregnant patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 cases who delivered between 16 and 41 weeks' gestation from March 11 to June 11, 2020. Uninfected pregnant women (controls) were matched to coronavirus disease 2019 cases on a 2:1 ratio based on delivery date. Maternal demographic characteristics, coronavirus disease 2019 symptoms, laboratory evaluations, obstetrical and neonatal outcomes, and clinical management were chart abstracted. The primary outcomes included (1) a composite of adverse maternal outcome, defined as preeclampsia, venous thromboembolism, antepartum admission, maternal intensive care unit admission, need for mechanical ventilation, supplemental oxygen, or maternal death, and (2) a composite of adverse neonatal outcome, defined as respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, 5-minute Apgar score of <5, persistent category 2 fetal heart rate tracing despite intrauterine resuscitation, or neonatal death. To quantify the associations between exposure to mild and severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 and adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, unadjusted and adjusted analyses were performed using conditional logistic regression (to account for matching), with matched-pair odds ratio and 95% confidence interval based on 1000 bias-corrected bootstrap resampling as the effect measure. Associations were adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: A total of 61 confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 cases were enrolled during the study period (mild disease, n=54 [88.5%]; severe disease, n=6 [9.8%]; critical disease, n=1 [1.6%]). The odds of adverse composite maternal outcome were 3.4 times higher among cases than controls (18.0% vs 8.2%; adjusted odds ratio, 3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-13.4). The odds of adverse composite neonatal outcome were 1.7 times higher in the case group than to the control group (18.0% vs 13.9%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-4.8). Stratified analyses by disease severity indicated that the morbidity associated with coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy was largely driven by the severe or critical disease phenotype. Major risk factors for associated morbidity were black and Hispanic race, advanced maternal age, medical comorbidities, and antepartum admissions related to coronavirus disease 2019. CONCLUSION: Coronavirus disease 2019 during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, an association that is primarily driven by morbidity associated with severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019. Black and Hispanic race, obesity, advanced maternal age, medical comorbidities, and antepartum admissions related to coronavirus disease 2019 are risk factors for associated morbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/ethnology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Logistic Models , Maternal Age , Perinatal Death/etiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/ethnology , Pregnancy Outcome , Risk Factors
11.
J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol ; 42(2): 100-107, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733462

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the beliefs held by the public regarding sexual health, pregnancy, and breastfeeding during COVID-19 era. METHODS: It was an online cross-sectional survey conducted through the Survey Monkey® platform and after proper ethical approval a self-designed questionnaire was circulated by the snowballing sampling technique through the Whatsapp platform. RESULTS: 1636 people respondent to the survey questionnaire. 63% of the participants mentioned that kissing could spread nCoV-SARS. Unprotected sexual intercourse with the spouse can cause infection spread, was reported by about one-third (35.9%). Nearly one-fifth (22%) thought that unprotected sexual intercourse with unknown partners/persons could not spread the infection. About half (49.7%) of the participants reported COVID-19 infection can be transmitted from mother to the child/fetus during the process of birth or during pregnancy and one-fifth (21.3%) of the participants reported going ahead with the Cesarean section if the mother is suspected of having or is confirmed to have COVID-19 infection. About one-fifth feared for risk of birth defects and abortion in case the mother is infected with COVID-19. 28% of the participants reported COVID-19 infection can be transmitted to newborn by breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that a significant proportion of people have misinformation about sexual intimacy, pregnancy, and breastfeeding in the ongoing pandemic which needs to be addressed.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/ethnology , COVID-19/transmission , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy/ethnology , Sexual Behavior/ethnology , Sexual Health/ethnology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , India/ethnology , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/ethnology , Spouses/ethnology , Young Adult
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