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1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(44): e309, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed maternal and neonatal outcomes of critically ill pregnant and puerperal patients in the clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Records of pregnant and puerperal women with polymerase chain reaction positive COVID-19 virus who were admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) from March 2020 to August 2021 were investigated. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data, pharmacotherapy, and neonatal outcomes were analyzed. These outcomes were compared between patients that were discharged from ICU and patients who died in ICU. RESULTS: Nineteen women were included in this study. Additional oxygen was required in all cases (100%). Eight patients (42%) were intubated and mechanically ventilated. All patients that were mechanically ventilated have died. Increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) was seen in all patients (100%). D-dimer values increased in 15 patients (78.9%); interleukin-6 (IL-6) increased in 16 cases (84.2%). Sixteen patients used antiviral drugs. Eleven patients were discharged from the ICU and eight patients have died due to complications of COVID-19 showing an ICU mortality rate of 42.1%. Mean number of hospitalized days in ICU was significantly lower in patients that were discharged (P = 0.037). Seventeen patients underwent cesarean-section (C/S) (89.4%). Mean birth week was significantly lower in patients who died in ICU (P = 0.024). Eleven preterm (57.8%) and eight term deliveries (42.1%) occurred. CONCLUSION: High mortality rate was detected among critically ill pregnant/parturient patients followed in the ICU. Main predictors of mortality were the need of invasive mechanical ventilation and higher number of days hospitalized in ICU. Rate of C/S operations and preterm delivery were high. Pleasingly, the rate of neonatal death was low and no neonatal COVID-19 occurred.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Puerperal Disorders/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Cesarean Section , Combined Modality Therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
2.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-16, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574630

ABSTRACT

In a large-scale study, 128176 non-pregnant patients (228 studies) and 10000 pregnant patients (121 studies) confirmed COVID-19 cases included in this Meta-Analysis. The mean (confidence interval [CI]) of age and gestational age of admission (GA) in pregnant women was 33 (28-37) years old and 36 (34-37) weeks, respectively. Pregnant women show the same manifestations of COVID-19 as non-pregnant adult patients. Fever (pregnant: 75.5%; non-pregnant: 74%) and cough (pregnant: 48.5%; non-pregnant: 53.5%) are the most common symptoms in both groups followed by myalgia (26.5%) and chill (25%) in pregnant and dysgeusia (27%) and fatigue (26.5%) in non-pregnant patients. Pregnant women are less probable to show cough (odds ratio [OR] 0.7; 95% CI 0.67-0.75), fatigue (OR: 0.58; CI: 0.54-0.61), sore throat (OR: 0.66; CI: 0.61-0.7), headache (OR: 0.55; CI: 0.55-0.58) and diarrhea (OR: 0.46; CI: 0.4-0.51) than non-pregnant adult patients. The most common imaging found in pregnant women is ground-glass opacity (57%) and in non-pregnant patients is consolidation (76%). Pregnant women have higher proportion of leukocytosis (27% vs. 14%), thrombocytopenia (18% vs. 12.5%) and have lower proportion of raised C-reactive protein (52% vs. 81%) compared with non-pregnant patients. Leucopenia and lymphopenia are almost the same in both groups. The most common comorbidity in pregnant patients is diabetes (18%) and in non-pregnant patients is hypertension (21%). Case fatality rate (CFR) of non-pregnant hospitalized patients is 6.4% (4.4-8.5), and mortality due to all-cause for pregnant patients is 11.3% (9.6-13.3). Regarding the complications of pregnancy, postpartum hemorrhage (54.5% [7-94]), caesarean delivery (48% [42-54]), preterm labor (25% [4-74]) and preterm birth (21% [12-34]) are in turn the most prevalent complications. Comparing the pregnancy outcomes show that caesarean delivery (OR: 3; CI: 2-5), low birth weight (LBW) (OR: 9; CI: 2.4-30) and preterm birth (OR: 2.5; CI: 1.5-3.5) are more probable in pregnant woman with COVID-19 than pregnant women without COVID-19. The most prevalent neonatal complications are neonatal intensive care unit admission (43% [2-96]), fetal distress (30% [12-58]) and LBW (25% [16-37]). The rate of vertical transmission is 5.3% (1.3-16), and the rate of positive SARS-CoV-2 test for neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 is 8% (4-16). Overall, pregnant patients present with the similar clinical characteristics of COVID-19 when compared with the general population, but they may be more asymptomatic. Higher odds of caesarean delivery, LBW and preterm birth among pregnant patients with COVID-19 suggest a possible association between COVID-19 infection and pregnancy complications. Low risk of vertical transmission is present, and SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in all conception products, particularly placenta and breast milk. Interpretations of these results should be done cautiously due to the heterogeneity between studies; however, we believe our findings can guide the prenatal and postnatal considerations for COVID-19 pregnant patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnant Women , Premature Birth , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
3.
Prenat Diagn ; 41(8): 998-1008, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544370

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Identify the potential for and risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission. METHODS: Symptomatic pregnant women with COVID-19 diagnosis in whom PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was performed at delivery using maternal serum and at least one of the biological samples: cord blood (CB), amniotic fluid (AF), colostrum and/or oropharyngeal swab (OPS) of the neonate. The association of parameters with maternal, AF and/or CB positivity and the influence of SARS-CoV-2 positivity in AF and/or CB on neonatal outcomes were investigated. RESULTS: Overall 73.4% (80/109) were admitted in hospital due to COVID-19, 22.9% needed intensive care and there were four maternal deaths. Positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was observed in 14.7% of maternal blood, 13.9% of AF, 6.7% of CB, 2.1% of colostrum and 3.7% of OPS samples. The interval between COVID-19 symptoms and delivery was inversely associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity in the maternal blood (p = 0.002) and in the AF and/or CB (p = 0.049). Maternal viremia was associated with positivity for SARS-CoV-2 in AF and/or CB (p = 0.001). SARS-CoV-2 positivity in the compartments was not associated with neonatal outcomes. CONCLUSION: Vertical transmission is possible in pregnant women with COVID-19 and a shorter interval between maternal symptoms and delivery is an influencing factor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Amniotic Fluid/virology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Colostrum/virology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
4.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 60(6): 1043-1046, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525965

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Aim of this study is to evaluate the prognosis of pregnant women having SARS-CoV-2 infection and investigate whether there was a difference in perinatal outcomes between pregnant women who had SARS-CoV-2 infection and those who did not. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted with 116 singleton pregnancies. Cases enrolling in the study were divided into two groups. While those in the first group had a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 46) the second group consisted of healthy pregnant women (n = 70). RESULTS: Emergency Cesarean section was performed on three SARS-CoV-2 infected pregnancies (30, 33 and 34 gestational weeks). Intensive care unit admission was required for all three cases after delivery and two of them died. Among the pregnancies that had an infection in the third trimester, 71.4% (n = 20) of them had delivery in 14 days after diagnosis and 17.4% (n = 8) of their newborns were followed up at newborn intensive care unit. Overall, only one newborn had a positive swab test result for SARS-CoV-2. There was no statistically significant difference between groups regarding their delivery week (37.02 ± 5.85 vs 38.5 ± 2.33). Similarly, there was no significant difference between groups, concerning mean age, parity, and birth weight (P = 0.707, P = 0.092, P = 0.334; P < 0.05). Furthermore, the difference between SARS-CoV-2 infected pregnancies that were followed up as inpatient or outpatient with respect to the delivery week and birth weight was not significant (p > 0.05). Also, APGAR 5 scores of hospitalized women (9.3 ± 1.1) were found to be lower than the outpatient group (9.8 ± 0.8) (P = 0.043; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: No significant difference was detected between groups in terms of the delivery week, birth weight, and APGAR scores. The inpatient group was found to have lower APGAR 5 scores.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Delivery, Obstetric , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Pregnant Women/psychology , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Birth Weight , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(44): e309, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518464

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed maternal and neonatal outcomes of critically ill pregnant and puerperal patients in the clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Records of pregnant and puerperal women with polymerase chain reaction positive COVID-19 virus who were admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) from March 2020 to August 2021 were investigated. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data, pharmacotherapy, and neonatal outcomes were analyzed. These outcomes were compared between patients that were discharged from ICU and patients who died in ICU. RESULTS: Nineteen women were included in this study. Additional oxygen was required in all cases (100%). Eight patients (42%) were intubated and mechanically ventilated. All patients that were mechanically ventilated have died. Increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) was seen in all patients (100%). D-dimer values increased in 15 patients (78.9%); interleukin-6 (IL-6) increased in 16 cases (84.2%). Sixteen patients used antiviral drugs. Eleven patients were discharged from the ICU and eight patients have died due to complications of COVID-19 showing an ICU mortality rate of 42.1%. Mean number of hospitalized days in ICU was significantly lower in patients that were discharged (P = 0.037). Seventeen patients underwent cesarean-section (C/S) (89.4%). Mean birth week was significantly lower in patients who died in ICU (P = 0.024). Eleven preterm (57.8%) and eight term deliveries (42.1%) occurred. CONCLUSION: High mortality rate was detected among critically ill pregnant/parturient patients followed in the ICU. Main predictors of mortality were the need of invasive mechanical ventilation and higher number of days hospitalized in ICU. Rate of C/S operations and preterm delivery were high. Pleasingly, the rate of neonatal death was low and no neonatal COVID-19 occurred.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Puerperal Disorders/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Cesarean Section , Combined Modality Therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
6.
Arch Iran Med ; 24(9): 713-721, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485772

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence and fast spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) threatens the world as a new public health crisis. Little is known about its effects during pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 on maternal and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: In this systematic review, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases were searched focusing on pregnancy and perinatal outcomes of COVID-19. RESULTS: The initial search yielded 1236 articles, from which finally 21 unique studies, involving 151 pregnant women and 17 neonates, met the criteria. Mean ± SD age of included mothers and mean ± SD gestational age at admission were 30.6 ± 6.2 years and 30.8 ± 8.9 weeks, respectively. The common symptoms were fever, cough, fatigue, dyspnea and myalgia. The mortality rates of pregnant women and neonates were 28 out of 151 (18.5%) and 4 out of 17 (23.5%), respectively. Most of the neonates were preterm at the time of delivery. Three neonates had positive RT-PCR test on the first day after birth and three others on day two. On the average, neonate's PCR became positive on day 4 for the first time. CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis of COVID-19 is crucial due to the possibility of the prenatal complications. Strict prevention strategies may reduce the risk of mother to infant transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Iran/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality
7.
Neoreviews ; 22(9): e570-e573, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394614

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women are at increased risk for severe morbidity and mortality following infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), leading some countries to recommend vaccination of pregnant women against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These recommendations are based on studies conducted early in the pandemic, and thus, the pregnant women in these studies most likely did not have pre-existing immunity to SARS-CoV-2 at the time of infection. The susceptibility of pregnant women and their infants to SARS-CoV-2 and the severity of infection may be attenuated as the pandemic progresses and an increasing number of women will have pre-existing immunity (following natural infection or vaccination prior to pregnancy) during pregnancy. The reactogenicity, immunogenicity and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines administered in pregnancy may also be affected by the pre-existing immunity of pregnant women. Maternal vaccine trials should be evaluated in the context of their timing in the pandemic and interpreted based on the pre-existing immunity of pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Vaccination
8.
Placenta ; 109: 72-74, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386464

ABSTRACT

Whether early SARS-CoV-2 definitively increases the risk of stillbirth is unknown, though studies have suggested possible trends of stillbirth increase during the pandemic. This study of third trimester stillbirth does not identify an increase in rates during the first wave of the pandemic period, however investigation of the placental pathology demonstrates trends towards more vascular placental abnormalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Placenta Diseases/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Female , Fetal Death/etiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Placenta/pathology , Placenta Diseases/etiology , Placenta Diseases/pathology , Placenta Diseases/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2120456, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351178

ABSTRACT

Importance: Prior studies on COVID-19 and pregnancy have reported higher rates of cesarean delivery and preterm birth and increased morbidity and mortality. Additional data encompassing a longer time period are needed. Objective: To examine characteristics and outcomes of a large US cohort of women who underwent childbirth with vs without COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study compared characteristics and outcomes of women (age ≥18 years) who underwent childbirth with vs without COVID-19 between March 1, 2020, and February 28, 2021, at 499 US academic medical centers or community affiliates. Follow-up was limited to in-hospital course and discharge destination. Childbirth was defined by clinical classification software procedural codes of 134-137. A diagnosis of COVID-19 was identified using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) diagnosis of U07.1. Data were analyzed from April 1 to April 30, 2021. Exposures: The presence of a COVID-19 diagnosis using ICD-10. Main Outcomes and Measures: Analyses compared demographic characteristics, gestational age, and comorbidities. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included hospital length of stay, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, and discharge status. Continuous variables were analyzed using t test, and categorical variables were analyzed using χ2. Results: Among 869 079 women, 18 715 (2.2%) had COVID-19, and 850 364 (97.8%) did not. Most women were aged 18 to 30 years (11 550 women with COVID-19 [61.7%]; 447 534 women without COVID-19 [52.6%]) and were White (8060 White women [43.1%] in the COVID-19 cohort; 499 501 White women (58.7%) in the non-COVID-19 cohort). There was no significant increase in cesarean delivery among women with COVID-19 (6088 women [32.5%] vs 273 810 women [32.3%]; P = .57). Women with COVID-19 were more likely to have preterm birth (3072 women [16.4%] vs 97 967 women [11.5%]; P < .001). Women giving birth with COVID-19, compared with women without COVID-19, had significantly higher rates of ICU admission (977 women [5.2%] vs 7943 women [0.9%]; odds ratio [OR], 5.84 [95% CI, 5.46-6.25]; P < .001), respiratory intubation and mechanical ventilation (275 women [1.5%] vs 884 women [0.1%]; OR, 14.33 [95% CI, 12.50-16.42]; P < .001), and in-hospital mortality (24 women [0.1%] vs 71 [<0.01%]; OR, 15.38 [95% CI, 9.68-24.43]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This retrospective cohort study found that women with COVID-19 giving birth had higher rates of mortality, intubation, ICU admission, and preterm birth than women without COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Academic Medical Centers/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Databases, Factual , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325093

ABSTRACT

There is still much we do not know about the impact of COVID-19 on the health of pregnant and postpartum women and pregnancy outcomes. Current evidence suggests that there is biological plausibility for worse outcomes among this population. This case report details the clinical care given to a postpartum Hispanic and obese woman diagnosed with COVID-19 in April 2020. We report the care she and her newborn received and her progression through the virus. We discuss the current knowledge surrounding COVID-19 among pregnant and postpartum women. While research supports COVID-19 outcomes being comparable to the general population, there is limited research in this area. Clinical trials, acting on the side of caution, have tended to exclude pregnant women from participation. Therefore, there is a need for further research that can inform evidence-based policy decisions related to COVID-19 in pregnant and postpartum women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Obstet Gynecol ; 137(2): 220-224, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272975

ABSTRACT

The evidence of racial health disparities is profound. Much attention has been given to the disparity in maternal morbidity and mortality experienced by Black mothers. The disparity in Black lives lost from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has further highlighted the disparity in health outcomes for Black people. Although COVID-19 is a new disease, the reason for the health disparity is the same as in maternal morbidity and mortality: implicit bias and structural racism. Implicit bias among health care professionals leads to disparities in how health care is delivered. Generations of structural racism perpetuated through racial residential segregation, economic suppression, and health care inequality have normalized the poorer health outcomes for Black Americans. It is easy to dismiss these issues as someone else's problem, because health care professionals often fail to acknowledge the effect of implicit bias in their own practices. We all need to be highly critical of our own practices and look introspectively for implicit bias to find the cure. Health care organizations must invest time and resources into investigating the structural racism that exists within our own walls.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/mortality , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Racism/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality/ethnology , Maternal Mortality/ethnology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality
13.
Am J Nurs ; 121(6): 18-20, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234123
14.
Fertil Steril ; 116(3): 731-740, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222903

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the perinatal and maternal outcomes of pregnancies in women infected with SARS-CoV-2, comparing spontaneous and in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancies (with either own or donor oocytes). DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective, observational study. SETTING: 78 centers participating in the Spanish COVID19 Registry. PATIENT(S): 1,347 pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 positive results registered consecutively between February 26 and November 5, 2020. INTERVENTION(S): The patients' information was collected from their medical records, and multivariable regression analyses were performed, controlling for maternal age and the clinical presentation of the infection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Obstetrics and neonatal outcomes, pregnancy comorbidities, intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation need, and medical conditions. RESULT(S): The IVF group included 74 (5.5%) women whereas the spontaneous pregnancy group included 1,275 (94.5%) women. The operative delivery rate was high in all patients, especially in the IVF group, where cesarean section became the most frequent method of delivery (55.4%, compared with 26.1% of the spontaneous pregnancy group). The reason for cesarean section was induction failure in 56.1% of the IVF patients. IVF women had more gestational hypertensive disorders (16.2% vs. 4.5% among spontaneous pregnancy women, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.45-10.93) irrespective of oocyte origin. The higher rate of intensive care unit admittance observed in the IVF group (8.1% vs. 2.4% in the spontaneous pregnancy group) was attributed to preeclampsia (aOR 11.82, 95% CI 5.25-25.87), not to the type of conception. CONCLUSION(S): A high rate of operative delivery was observed in pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2, especially in those with IVF pregnancies; method of conception did not affect fetal or maternal outcomes, except for preeclampsia. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04558996.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Registries , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 154(2): 212-219, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209518

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Besides reducing the quality of obstetric care, the direct impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy and postpartum is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the characteristics of pregnant women who died due to COVID-19. SEARCH STRATEGY: Cochrane Library, Embase, MEDLINE, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched from inception to February 2021. SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies that compared deceased and survived pregnant women with COVID-19. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Relevant data were extracted and tabulated. The primary outcome was maternal co-morbidity. MAIN RESULTS: Thirteen studies with 154 deceased patients were included. Obesity doubled the risk of death (relative risk [RR] 2.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-4.36, I2  = 0%). No differences were found for gestational diabetes (RR 5.71; 95% CI 0.77-42.44, I2  = 94%) or asthma (RR 2.05, 95% CI 0.81-5.15, I2  = 0%). Overall, at least one severe co-morbidity showed a twofold increased risk of death (RR 2.26, 95% CI 1.77-2.89, I2  = 76%). Admission to intensive care was related to a fivefold increased risk of death (RR 5.09, 95% CI 2.00-12.98, I2  = 56%), with no difference in need for respiratory support (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.23-1.48, I2  = 95%) or mechanical ventilation (RR 4.34, 95% CI 0.96-19.60, I2  = 58%). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 with at least one co-morbidity increases risk of intensive care and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Maternal Death , Maternal Mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Asthma/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2349, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189222

ABSTRACT

Substantial COVID-19 research investment has been allocated to randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, which currently face recruitment challenges or early discontinuation. We aim to estimate the effects of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine on survival in COVID-19 from all currently available RCT evidence, published and unpublished. We present a rapid meta-analysis of ongoing, completed, or discontinued RCTs on hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine treatment for any COVID-19 patients (protocol: https://osf.io/QESV4/ ). We systematically identified unpublished RCTs (ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Cochrane COVID-registry up to June 11, 2020), and published RCTs (PubMed, medRxiv and bioRxiv up to October 16, 2020). All-cause mortality has been extracted (publications/preprints) or requested from investigators and combined in random-effects meta-analyses, calculating odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), separately for hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine. Prespecified subgroup analyses include patient setting, diagnostic confirmation, control type, and publication status. Sixty-three trials were potentially eligible. We included 14 unpublished trials (1308 patients) and 14 publications/preprints (9011 patients). Results for hydroxychloroquine are dominated by RECOVERY and WHO SOLIDARITY, two highly pragmatic trials, which employed relatively high doses and included 4716 and 1853 patients, respectively (67% of the total sample size). The combined OR on all-cause mortality for hydroxychloroquine is 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.20; I² = 0%; 26 trials; 10,012 patients) and for chloroquine 1.77 (95%CI: 0.15, 21.13, I² = 0%; 4 trials; 307 patients). We identified no subgroup effects. We found that treatment with hydroxychloroquine is associated with increased mortality in COVID-19 patients, and there is no benefit of chloroquine. Findings have unclear generalizability to outpatients, children, pregnant women, and people with comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Child , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Combined Modality Therapy/adverse effects , Combined Modality Therapy/methods , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , International Cooperation , Odds Ratio , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 153(3): 462-468, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172339

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and paraclinical features and outcomes of pregnant and nonpregnant women with COVID-19. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective cohort study of pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age hospitalized between March and October 2020 in Tehran, Iran. Medical records were reviewed and women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR were included. Extracted data were compared and logistic regression performed. RESULTS: A total of 110 pregnant and 234 nonpregnant COVID-19-positive women were included. Frequency of severe disease was higher in nonpregnant women than pregnant women (29% vs 11.8%; P < 0.001). Symptoms including cough, dyspnea, chill, fatigue, and headache were more frequent in nonpregnant women (P < 0.05). Pregnant women had higher oxygen saturation levels and lower lymphocyte count (P = 0.001). Six (5.5%) pregnant and 12 (5.1%) nonpregnant women died (P = 0.80). No significant differences between the groups were found for ICU admission and end organ failure. Significantly more nonpregnant women had acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, 9.4% vs 0%; P = 0.001). Univariate regression indicated association between hypertension and death; oxygen saturation and ARDS; and body mass index and ICU admission. No association was found between pregnancy and death, ICU admission, or ARDS. CONCLUSION: Pregnant women with COVID-19 are not at higher risk of adverse outcomes compared with nonpregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Hospitalization , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Women , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
20.
J Pregnancy ; 2021: 8870129, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138466

ABSTRACT

Background: Based on what is known at this time, pregnant women are at an increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19 compared to nonpregnant women. Additionally, pregnant women with COVID-19 might have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. To investigate the effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on mortality of pregnant and postpartum women, we performed a systematic review of available published literature on pregnancies affected by COVID-19. Methods: Web of Science, SCOPUS, and MEDLINE- databases were searched for original studies concerning the effect of COVID-19 on mortality of pregnant and postpartum women published by July 10, 2020. Meta-analyses of proportions were used to combine data and report pooled proportions. Results: 117 studies with a total of 11758 pregnant women were included. The age ranged between 15 and 48 years. Most subjects were infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the third trimester. Disease severity was not reported in 1125 subjects. Maternal mortality was 1.3%. In 100% of fatal cases with adequate data, fever alone or with cough was one of the presenting symptoms. Also, dyspnea (58.3%) and myalgia (50%) were the most common symptoms. Sore throat (8.3%) and gastrointestinal symptoms (anorexia, nausea) (8.3%) were rare. The rate of comorbidities was 20% among COVID-19 deaths. The majority of COVID-19-infected women who died had cesarean section (58.3%), 25% had a vaginal delivery, and 16.7% of patients were not full term. Conclusion: COVID-19 infection in pregnant women was associated with higher rates (and pooled proportions) of cesarean section and mortality. Because new data are continuously being generated and published, the findings of this study can be complete and updated with new researches. The results of this study can guide and improve prenatal counseling of COVID-19-infected pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Female , Global Health , Humans , Maternal Mortality , Models, Statistical , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy
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