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1.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 146(6): 660-676, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876076

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: Perinatal death is an increasingly important problem as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues, but the mechanism of death has been unclear. OBJECTIVE.­: To evaluate the role of the placenta in causing stillbirth and neonatal death following maternal infection with COVID-19 and confirmed placental positivity for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). DESIGN.­: Case-based retrospective clinicopathologic analysis by a multinational group of 44 perinatal specialists from 12 countries of placental and autopsy pathology findings from 64 stillborns and 4 neonatal deaths having placentas testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 following delivery to mothers with COVID-19. RESULTS.­: Of the 3 findings constituting SARS-CoV-2 placentitis, all 68 placentas had increased fibrin deposition and villous trophoblast necrosis and 66 had chronic histiocytic intervillositis. Sixty-three placentas had massive perivillous fibrin deposition. Severe destructive placental disease from SARS-CoV-2 placentitis averaged 77.7% tissue involvement. Other findings included multiple intervillous thrombi (37%; 25 of 68) and chronic villitis (32%; 22 of 68). The majority (19; 63%) of the 30 autopsies revealed no significant fetal abnormalities except for intrauterine hypoxia and asphyxia. Among all 68 cases, SARS-CoV-2 was detected from a body specimen in 16 of 28 cases tested, most frequently from nasopharyngeal swabs. Four autopsied stillborns had SARS-CoV-2 identified in internal organs. CONCLUSIONS.­: The pathology abnormalities composing SARS-CoV-2 placentitis cause widespread and severe placental destruction resulting in placental malperfusion and insufficiency. In these cases, intrauterine and perinatal death likely results directly from placental insufficiency and fetal hypoxic-ischemic injury. There was no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 involvement of the fetus had a role in causing these deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Perinatal Death , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Fibrin , Humans , Hypoxia/pathology , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth
2.
Placenta ; 124: 62-66, 2022 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851945

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has been associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes, including perinatal loss. Differential effects of COVID-19 in a twin pregnancy may provide unique insights into virus-placental interactions. We present a case of perinatal loss of a female fetus with survival of the male co-twin in a pregnancy complicated by COVID-19 and premature delivery. METHODS: Viral detection methods recommended by the NICHD task force were used to identify SARS-CoV-2 and its viral receptors in the placentas and fetal tissue (Antoun et al., 2020) [1] RESULTS: Compared with the surviving twin, we found a more severe intervillous necrosis and a relatively low detection of ACE2 membranous expression in the syncytiotrophoblasts of the female twin that succumbed. DISCUSSION: The interactions of SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 at the maternal fetal interface within the placenta may play a significant role in perinatal loss, and the effects of fetal sex and gestational age at time of infection need to be explored further.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Male , Placenta/metabolism , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Placenta ; 123: 12-23, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815047

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The effect of SARS-CoV-2 severity or the trimester of infection in pregnant mothers, placentas, and infants is not fully understood. METHODS: A retrospective, observational cohort study in Chapel Hill, NC of 115 mothers with SARS-CoV-2 and singleton pregnancies from December 1, 2019 to May 31, 2021 via chart review to document the infants' weight, length, head circumference, survival, congenital abnormalities, hearing loss, maternal complications, and placental pathology classified by the Amsterdam criteria. RESULTS: Of the 115 mothers, 85.2% were asymptomatic (n = 37) or had mild (n = 61) symptoms, 13.0% had moderate (n = 9) or severe (n = 6) COVID-19, and 1.74% (n = 2) did not have symptoms recorded. Moderate and severe maternal infections were associated with increased C-section, premature delivery, infant NICU admission, and were more likely to occur in Type 1 (p = 0.0055) and Type 2 (p = 0.0285) diabetic mothers. Only one infant (0.870%) became infected with SARS-CoV-2, which was not via the placenta. Most placentas (n = 63, 54.8%) did not show specific histologic findings; however, a subset showed mild maternal vascular malperfusion (n = 26, 22.6%) and/or mild microscopic ascending intrauterine infection (n = 28, 24.3%). The infants had no identifiable congenital abnormalities, and all infants and mothers survived. DISCUSSION: Most mothers and their infants had a routine clinical course; however, moderate and severe COVID-19 maternal infections were associated with pregnancy complications and premature delivery. Mothers with pre-existing, non-gestational diabetes were at greatest risk of developing moderate or severe COVID-19. The placental injury patterns of maternal vascular malperfusion and/or microscopic ascending intrauterine infection were not associated with maternal COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Infant , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Mothers , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Hum Pathol ; 125: 18-22, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778168

ABSTRACT

Placental pathology can identify characteristic features of specific infectious pathogens. The histopathology of acute SARS-CoV-2 placental infection and exposure without infection has been well described. However, whether the characteristic placental pathology persists after the acute phase of the infection is less clear. We retrospectively identified 67 COVID-19-recovered pregnant patients who had placental pathology available. After reviewing the gross and histopathology, we categorized the findings and studied the placentas for evidence of chronic infection by immunohistochemistry for the spike protein of the virus. We found these placentas showed significantly increased prevalence of maternal and a trend towards significance of fetal vascular malperfusion when compared to a control group of placentas examined for the sole indication of maternal group B streptococcal colonization. None of the COVID-19-recovered placentas showed expression of the viral spike protein; therefore, we found no evidence of persistent infection of the placenta in women with a history of COVID-19 during their pregnancy. We conclude that recovery from a SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy puts the pregnancy at risk for specific pathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
Placenta ; 121: 79-81, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730029

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy and COVID placentitis are associated with an increased risk of stillbirth. We sought to investigate the presence of maternal viremia in people with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy who had histologic placentitis versus those without placentitis. SARS-CoV-2 qRT-PCR was performed on plasma from 6 patients with COVID placentitis and 12 matched controls without placentitis. SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred between 4/2020-1/2021; the latency between SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis and delivery was 0-76 days. Two placentitis cases demonstrated viremia (1 stillbirth and 1 well infant), while 12/12 controls were negative. Future research may consider viremia as a possible marker of COVID placentitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth , Viremia
9.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(5): 718-722, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670363

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes is associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection; this could be partially explained by an altered placental function. Because histopathology is often unspecific, we aimed to assess placental weight, birthweight/placental weight (b/p) ratio, and the metabolic scaling exponent ß, an indicator of normal fetal-placental growth, to analyze placental function. METHODS: We included 153 singleton pregnancies with SARS-CoV-2-positive PCR result who delivered at three referring hospitals in Switzerland. Placental weight and b/p ratio were compared to published reference charts. Logistic regression analysis investigated the role of time of infection and other confounding factors on placental weight. The scaling exponent ß was compared to the reference value of 0.75. RESULTS: Placental weight was inferior or equal to the tenth centile in 42.5% (65 of 153) and to the third centile in 19% (29 of 153) of the cases. The risk of low placental weight was not influenced by the trimester in which infection occurred. The b/p ratio was >50th centile in 80.4% (123 of 153) of the cases. The incidence of foetal growth restriction, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes was 11.8% (18 of 153), 3.3% (5 of 153), and 19.6% (30 of 153). Linear regression modelling revealed a pathologic metabolic scaling exponent ß of 0.871 ± 0.064 (R2 = 0.56). DISCUSSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy was associated with a higher incidence of low placental weight, an increased b/p ratio, and an abnormal scaling exponent ß in our cohort. This could be particularly relevant for the still controversial issue of an increased stillbirth rate in SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. In this regard, intensified foetal surveillance should be mandatory in these pregnancies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Placenta , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Outcome , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 4(3): 100589, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664617

ABSTRACT

Data on the vertical transmission rate of COVID-19 in pregnancy are limited, although data reporting mother-fetal transmission in the second trimester of pregnancy are controversial. We described a case of second-trimester twin stillbirth in a woman with SARS-CoV-2 infection in which placental and fetal markers of infection were detected, despite the absence of respiratory syndrome. The patient developed clinical chorioamnionitis and spontaneously delivered 2 stillborn infants. Placental histology and immunohistochemistry demonstrated SARS-CoV-2 infection mostly within the syncytiotrophoblast, and fetal autopsy showed the development of interstitial pneumonia. Our findings demonstrated that in utero vertical transmission is possible in asymptomatic pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection and that infection can lead to severe morbidity in the second trimester of pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth
11.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 146(5): 529-537, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622802

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: A severe third wave of COVID-19 disease affected Ireland in the first 3 months of 2021. In this wave, 1 second-trimester miscarriage and 6 stillbirths were observed in the Irish population because of placental insufficiency as a result of SARS-CoV-2 placentitis. This observation was at odds with the country's previous experience with COVID-19 disease in pregnant mothers. OBJECTIVE.­: To describe the clinical and pathologic features of these pregnancy losses. DESIGN.­: Retrospective review of clinical and pathologic data of cases of second-trimester miscarriage, stillbirth, or neonatal death identified by perinatal pathologists as being due to SARS-CoV-2 placentitis during the third wave of COVID-19 in Ireland. RESULTS.­: Clinical and pathologic data were available for review in 6 pregnancies. Sequencing or genotyping of the virus identified SARS-CoV-2 alpha (B.1.1.7) in all cases. Three of the 6 cases had maternal thrombocytopenia, and fetal growth restriction was not prominent, suggesting a rapidly progressive placental disease. CONCLUSIONS.­: The identification of SARS-CoV-2 alpha in all these cases suggests that the emergence of the variant was associated with an increased risk of fetal death due to SARS-CoV-2 placentitis when compared with the original virus. Maternal thrombocytopenia may have potential as a clinical marker of placentitis, but other inflammatory markers need investigation. Three of the 6 women had been assessed for reduced fetal movements in hospital some days before the fetal deaths actually occurred; this could suggest that there may be a window for intervention in some cases.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Thrombocytopenia , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/pathology , Female , Fetal Death/etiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Ireland/epidemiology , Male , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth/epidemiology
12.
Hum Pathol ; 121: 46-55, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592973

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can cause severe placental lesions leading rapidly to intrauterine fetal death (IUFD). From August 2020 to September 2021, in the pathology department of Toulouse Oncopole, we analyzed 50 placentas from COVID-19-positive unvaccinated mothers. The purpose of our study is to describe the clinicopathological characteristics of these placental damages and to understand the pathophysiology. Ten of them (20%) showed placental lesions with positive immunohistochemistry for SARS-CoV-2 in villous trophoblasts. In five cases (10%), we observed massive placental damage associating trophoblastic necrosis, fibrinous deposits, intervillositis, as well as extensive hemorrhagic changes due to SARS-CoV-2 infection probably responsible of IUFD by functional placental insufficiency. In five other cases, we found similar placental lesions but with a focal distribution that did not lead to IUFD but live birth. These lesions are independent of maternal clinical severity of COVID-19 infection because they occur despite mild maternal symptoms and are therefore difficult to predict. In our cases, they occurred 1-3 weeks after positive SARS-CoV-2 maternal real-time polymerase chain reaction testing and were observed in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancies. When these lesions are focal, they do not lead to IUFD and can be involved in intrauterine growth restriction. Our findings, together with recent observations, suggest that future pregnancy guidance should include stricter pandemic precautions such as screening for a wider array of COVID-19 symptoms, enhanced ultrasound monitoring, as well as newborn medical surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/complications , Female , Fetal Death/etiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Surg Pathol ; 30(4): 393-396, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582644

ABSTRACT

Compared to the parental SARS-CoV-2 virus, infections by the now dominant Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 appear to be more common and more severe in pregnant women. The need for a robust, cheap, and quick method for diagnosing placental infection by SARS-CoV-2 has thus become more acute. Here, we describe a highly sensitive and specific immunohistochemical assay for SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein for routine use in placental pathology practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
15.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580422

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women can lead to placental damage and transplacental infection transfer, and intrauterine fetal demise is an unpredictable event. CASE STUDY: A 32-year-old patient in her 38th week of pregnancy reported loss of fetal movements. She overcame mild COVID-19 with positive PCR test 22 days before. A histology of the placenta showed deposition of intervillous fibrinoid, lympho-histiocytic infiltration, scant neutrophils, clumping of villi, and extant infarctions. Immunohistochemistry identified focal SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid and spike protein in the syncytiotrophoblast and isolated in situ hybridization of the virus' RNA. Low ACE2 and TMPRSS2 contrasted with strong basigin/CD147 and PDL-1 positivity in the trophoblast. An autopsy of the fetus showed no morphological abnormalities except for lung interstitial infiltrate, with prevalent CD8-positive T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization proved the presence of countless dispersed SARS-CoV-2-infected epithelial and endothelial cells in the lung tissue. The potential virus-receptor protein ACE2, TMPRSS2, and CD147 expression was too low to be detected. CONCLUSION: Over three weeks' persistence of trophoblast viral infection lead to extensive intervillous fibrinoid depositions and placental infarctions. High CD147 expression might serve as the dominant receptor for the virus, and PDL-1 could limit maternal immunity in placental tissue virus clearance. The presented case indicates that the SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced changes in the placenta lead to ischemia and consecutive demise of the fetus. The infection of the fetus was without significant impact on its death. This rare complication of pregnancy can appear independently to the severity of COVID-19's clinical course in the pregnant mother.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Stillbirth , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , B-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/diagnosis , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Female , Fetus/pathology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta/virology , Placenta Diseases/pathology , Placenta Diseases/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Trophoblasts
16.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(1): 102362, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pregnant women have significant morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19 infection. Pregnancy and diabetes are known risk factors for severe COVID 19 infection. Understanding the interactions between COVID-19 and diabetes in pregnancy is crucial in developing appropriate therapeutic approaches. India, like many other countries, has a very high prevalence of diabetes and COVID-19 infected cases. Such studies are minimal worldwide and none from India to the best of our knowledge. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We did a retrospective cross-sectional study. 856 COVID-19 infected pregnant women were included in the study. We estimated the impact of diabetes on the severity of COVID-19 infected pregnant women and compared the outcomes with the non-diabetic group. RESULTS: Prevalence of diabetes in pregnancy in the present study was 15.43%(n = 132/856). Prevalence of diabetes in non-severe infection was 14%(n = 115/818), severe infection was 44.73%(n = 17/38), and in maternal deaths was 75% (n = 6/8). The age-adjusted odds ratio for diabetes for severe infection was 4.492 (95% CI = 2.277-8.865, p < 0.001). COVID-19 infected pregnant women with diabetes were at higher risk for Cesarean section (78.3%) and ICU admission for newborns (14.81%) CONCLUSION: Diabetes in pregnant women is strongly associated with the severity of COVID-19 infection. The prevalence of diabetes in pregnancy increases as the severity of COVID-19 infection increases. Diabetes is associated with more adverse outcomes in mothers and newborns. It is necessary to identify pregnant women with diabetes and prioritize them in public health interventions like vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy in Diabetics/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes, Gestational/pathology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn , Male , Patient Acuity , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnancy in Diabetics/pathology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
17.
J Perinat Med ; 50(2): 139-143, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561422

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the long-term effects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection on the fetal immune system by fetal thymus size measurements with ultrasound (USG). METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in the Turkish Ministry of Health Ankara City Hospital between November 1, 2020 and April 1, 2021, with recovered, pregnant women, four weeks after they had been confirmed for the SARS-CoV-2 infection by real-time polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR). COVID-19 recovered (CR) pregnant women compared with age-matched pregnant controls in terms of demographic features, fetal thymic-thoracic ratio (TTR), and laboratory parameters. RESULTS: There was no difference in demographic features between the two groups. TTR found significantly lower in the CR group than the control group (p=0.001). The fetal TTR showed a significant and moderate correlation with maternal monocyte counts, monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR), and red cell distribution width (RDW); while it did not correlate with lymphocyte counts, c-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin levels. CONCLUSIONS: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) reduces fetal thymus size in pregnant women with mild or moderate symptoms after recovery from the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Fetus/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Thymus Gland/pathology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Fetus/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Organ Size , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Thymus Gland/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Young Adult
18.
J Infect Dis ; 224(Supplement_6): S642-S646, 2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559852

ABSTRACT

We previously demonstrated that the late gestation placental expression pattern of ACE2 (the primary severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2] receptor) is localized to the villous syncytiotrophoblast (ST), usually in a polarized membranous pattern at the ST base sparing the apical surface (that directly exposed to maternal blood). We found that the late gestation placental expression pattern of TMPRSS2 (the spike proteinase required for SARS-CoV-2 cellular infection), is usually absent in the trophoblast but is rarely, weakly expressed in the placental endothelium. We now show the developmental protein expression patterns of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 by immunohistochemistry throughout gestation, from the first through third trimester. We found that TMPRSS2 expression was rarely detectable in villous endothelium and very rarely detectable in the ST across gestation. We found that ACE2 expression varied during gestation with circumferential ST expression more common in early gestations and polarized expression more common in later gestation. Although this study is small, these preliminary results suggest that earlier gestation pregnancies may be more vulnerable to infection than later gestation pregnancies.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 , Placenta/metabolism , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/metabolism , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Trophoblasts
19.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 172(1): 85-89, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520386

ABSTRACT

We performed a comparative morphological analysis of placental villi in parturient women with mild and moderate COVID-19 infection. The area and perimeter of terminal villi, their capillaries, and syncytiotrophoblast were assessed on immunohistochemical preparations with antibodies to CD31 using an image analysis system; the parameters of fetal vascular component in the placental villi were also assessed. Changes in the studied parameters differed in parturient women with mild and moderate COVID-19 infection. The observed increase in the total perimeter with a simultaneous decrease in the total capillary area and the degree of vascularization of the placental villi in parturient women with COVID-19 indicates impairment of circulation in the fetal compartment and the development of placental hypoxia, which can be the cause of unfavorable neonatal outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Chorionic Villi/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Trophoblasts/pathology , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Chorionic Villi/blood supply , Chorionic Villi/virology , Female , Fetus , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Parturition/physiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Severity of Illness Index , Trophoblasts/virology
20.
Placenta ; 117: 72-77, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525920

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia rarely occurs in pregnant women. Case reports indicate that fibrin and lymphohistiocytic lesions in placentas may be typical. However, a meta-analysis to clarify whether there is a COVID-19-associated pattern of placental lesions has not yet been conducted. Systematic literature search with meta-analysis of publications on 10 or more cases of pregnancy with SARS-CoV-2 infection and placenta examination (30 publications from 2019 to 2021; 1452 placenta cases) was performed. The meta-analysis did not reveal any COVID-19-specific placenta changes. The incidence of both vascular and inflammatory lesions was mainly comparable to that of non-COVID-19 pregnancies. Transplacental viral transmission is very rare and there are no typical placental changes. The most important prognostic factor seems to be maternal-fetal hypoxia in the context of pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Fetal Hypoxia/virology , Humans , Hypoxia/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology
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