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2.
J Neonatal Perinatal Med ; 16(2): 235-237, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240921

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has created a serious health problem in pregnant people. We aimed to address whether vaccination can prevent development of placental disease in SARS-CoV-2 infected mothers. METHODS: We reported the pathology findings obtained from routine histopathological examination of placentas of overall 38 cases. RESULTS: We found low prevalence of placental pathology in vaccinated pregnant people with active SARS-CoV-2 infection in comparison to those unvaccinated cases. CONCLUSION: Based on our findings, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination can prevent development of placental pathological lesions and may lower the risk of serious illness in pregnant people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Humans , Female , Placenta , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccination , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control
3.
Med J Aust ; 218(11): 528-541, 2023 06 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239586

ABSTRACT

Vaccination in pregnancy is the best strategy to reduce complications from influenza or pertussis infection in infants who are too young to be protected directly from vaccination. Pregnant women are also at risk of influenza complications preventable through antenatal vaccination. Both vaccines are funded under the National Immunisation Program for pregnant women in Australia, but coverage is not routinely reported nationally. We reviewed all reported Australian maternal influenza and pertussis vaccine coverage data for the period 2016-2021, to identify gaps and information needs. Maternal influenza vaccine coverage was suboptimal at < 58% for 2016-2018, with higher coverage of 62-75% reported in two states (Victoria and Western Australia) for 2019-2021. Maternal pertussis vaccine coverage from 2016 was generally higher than for influenza at > 70%, with the highest jurisdictional coverage of 89% reported in Western Australia in 2020. Vaccination rates were often suboptimal among First Nations pregnant women and up to 20% lower than among non-First Nations Australian women; while data were limited, coverage was low among culturally and linguistically diverse women and among women of lower socio-economic status. Jurisdictional perinatal data collections were the best source of information on antenatal vaccine coverage but were only available for a minority of the population; a nationally consistent systematic approach is lacking. Timely and comprehensive data are needed to provide feedback to improve maternal vaccination coverage, particularly among groups with higher risk and/or low uptake, and as new vaccines are recommended, including COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Whooping Cough , Infant , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Pertussis Vaccine , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pregnant Women , Vaccination , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Victoria
4.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243887

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the occurrence of maternal primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in Japan. We performed a nested case-control study using data from maternal CMV antibody screening under the Cytomegalovirus in Mother and infant-engaged Virus serology (CMieV) program in Mie, Japan. Pregnant women with negative IgG antibodies at ≤20 weeks of gestation who were retested at ≥28 weeks were enrolled. The study period was divided into 2015-2019 as the pre-pandemic and 2020-2022 as the pandemic period, and the study site included 26 institutions conducting the CMieV program. The incidence rate of maternal IgG seroconversion was compared between the pre-pandemic (7008 women enrolled) and pandemic (2020, 1283 women enrolled; 2021, 1100 women; and 2022, 398 women) periods. Sixty-one women in the pre-pandemic period and five, four, and five women during 2020, 2021, and 2022, respectively, showed IgG seroconversion. The incidence rates in 2020 and 2021 were lower (p < 0.05) than that in the pre-pandemic period. Our data suggest a transient decrease in the incidence of maternal primary CMV infection in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic, which could be due to prevention and hygiene measures taken at the population level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Cytomegalovirus , Incidence , Pandemics , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Japan/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/prevention & control , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Antibodies, Viral
5.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 33(6): 618-624, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324293

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate the available literature regarding effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on newborns, ranging from effects related to in utero and perinatal exposure to maternal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, to pandemic-related stress and socioeconomic changes. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large studies and national registries have shown that the risk of vertical transmission from SARS-CoV-2-infected mothers to newborns is rare and does not appear to be related to postnatal care policies such as mother-newborn separation and breastfeeding. Newborns exposed to SARS-CoV-2 in utero are at higher risk for preterm delivery for reasons still under investigation. When newborns do acquire SARS-CoV-2 infection, their disease course is usually mild. Long-term follow-up data are lacking, but preliminary reports indicate that, similarly to prior natural disasters, being born during the pandemic may be associated with developmental risk. SUMMARY: Although risk of vertical or perinatal transmission is low across a range of postnatal care practices, early indicators suggest developmental risk to the generation born during the pandemic. Long-term follow-up data are critically needed to determine the developmental impact of in utero and early life exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(1): 2195331, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314805

ABSTRACT

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) vaccines, designed to be given to pregnant women, are in clinical trials. There is an opportunity to conduct preparatory research now to understand the drivers of and barriers to GBS vaccine acceptance. This will enable targeted interventions so that delays in vaccine uptake might be avoided. A multicenter, mixed-methodology, cross-sectional study evaluated the acceptability of a hypothetical GBS vaccine among pregnant women in two countries with differing health systems. Pregnant women in Philadelphia, US, and Dublin, Ireland, completed an electronic survey and a Discrete Choice Experiment. Five hundred and two women were included in the final analysis. Fifty-three percent of US and 30% of Irish participants reported both awareness and understanding of GBS. The median likelihood score for vaccine receipt (measured on a 10-point scale) was 9 (US: 9 (IQR 7-10), IRL: 9 (IQR 6-10)). Among the US participants, identifying as Black or African American was associated with a lower likelihood of vaccine receipt. Possession of a college degree was associated with increased likelihood of vaccine receipt. Perceived infant benefit was the most important driver of GBS vaccine acceptance. Safety concerns about a novel vaccine was the most prominent barrier identified. Good GBS vaccine uptake is achievable through strong messaging that highlights vaccine safety and the potential infant benefits. Preparation for vaccine implementation should include efforts to increase awareness among pregnant women about GBS infection and a continued focus on improving acceptability of currently recommended maternal vaccines, particularly in population subgroups with low uptake of maternal immunizations.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Streptococcal Infections , Streptococcal Vaccines , Infant , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Pregnant Women , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Vaccination , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Streptococcus agalactiae , Streptococcal Infections/prevention & control
7.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am ; 50(2): 279-297, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295103

ABSTRACT

Evidence has consistently demonstrated that COVID-19 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines are safe when given during pregnancy. COVID-19 mRNA vaccines protect pregnant people and their infants who are too young to receive COVID-19 vaccines. Although generally protective, monovalent vaccine effectiveness was lower during SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant predominance, in part due to changes in the Omicron spike protein. Bivalent vaccines, that combine ancestral strain and Omicron variant, may improve protection against Omicron variants. Everyone, including pregnant people, should stay up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccines and bivalent booster, when eligible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Pregnancy , Infant , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Family , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 261, 2023 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In countries with intermediate or high hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemicity, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) represents the main route of chronic HBV infection. There is a paucity of information on HBV MTCT in Cambodia. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of HBV infection among pregnant women and its MTCT rate in Siem Reap, Cambodia. METHODS: This longitudinal study included two parts, study-1 to screen HBsAg among pregnant women and study-2 to follow up babies of all HBsAg-positive and one-fourth of HBsAg-negative mothers at their delivery and six-month post-partum. Serum or dried blood spot (DBS) samples were collected to examine HBV sero-markers by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA), and molecular analyses were performed on HBsAg-positive samples. Structured questionnaires and medical records were used to examine the risk factors for HBV infection. MTCT rate was calculated by HBsAg positivity of 6-month-old babies born to HBsAg-positive mothers and ascertained by the homology of HBV genomes in mother-child pair at 6-month-old. RESULTS: A total of 1,565 pregnant women were screened, and HBsAg prevalence was 4.28% (67/1565). HBeAg positivity was 41.8% and was significantly associated with high viral load (p < 0.0001). Excluding subjects who dropped out due to restrictions during COVID-19, one out of 35 babies born to HBsAg-positive mothers tested positive for HBsAg at 6 months of age, despite receiving timely HepB birth dose and HBIG, followed by 3 doses of HepB vaccine. Hence the MTCT rate was 2.86%. The mother of the infected baby was positive for HBeAg and had a high HBV viral load (1.2 × 109 copies/mL). HBV genome analysis showed 100% homology between the mother and the child. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings illustrate the intermediate endemicity of HBV infection among pregnant women in Siem Reap, Cambodia. Despite full HepB vaccination, a residual risk of HBV MTCT was observed. This finding supports the recently updated guidelines for the prevention of HBV MTCT in 2021, which integrated screening and antiviral prophylaxis for pregnant women at risk of HBV MTCT. Furthermore, we strongly recommend the urgent implementation of these guidelines nationwide to effectively combat HBV in Cambodia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis B , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Infant , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Longitudinal Studies , Cambodia/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Vaccination
9.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e3, 2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263620

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic that has created a global health crisis and upended conventional methodologies, both in the governance and clinical structures of Health Care Systems. The spread of COVID-19 has necessitated a coordinated public health response in an effective, extensive and expedited vaccination rollout strategy with the ultimate aim of limiting all nidi of infection for the pathogen. For this goal to be realised, pregnant women, as a cohort, cannot reasonably be excluded from this initiative, despite the initial reluctance to include them in clinical trials for various ethical and legal reasons. Weighing the detrimental complications of COVID-19 on maternal and perinatal outcomes against the hypothetical risk of vaccination in the context of promising, albeit indirect, safety and efficacy data, this report argues that all pregnant women should be offered the choice of whether or not to receive the COVID-19 vaccine based on the available evidence and their individualised risk-benefit ratio.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnant Women , Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa , Vaccination
10.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 33(2): 181-187, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263512

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on the consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 infection on the health and perinatal outcomes of pregnant women and their infants. RECENT FINDINGS: The severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection is greater in pregnant compared to nonpregnant women as measured by rates of admission to intensive care units, mechanical ventilation, mortality, and morbidities including myocardial infarction, venous thromboembolic and other thrombotic events, preeclampsia, preterm labor, and preterm birth. The risk of transmission from mother-to-infant is relatively low (1.5-5%) as quantitated by neonatal SARS-CoV-2 testing. Infants appear to be at higher risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 if the mother has tested positive within 1 week of delivery or is herself symptomatic at the time of maternity admission. The rate of positivity is not higher in infants who room in with the mother compared to infants who are initially separated and cared for in a SARS-CoV-2-free environment. Infants who test positive in the hospital have no or mild signs of disease, most of which may be attributable to prematurity, and rarely require readmission for clinical signs consistent with COVID-19. SUMMARY: Pregnant women should take precautions to avoid infection with SARS-CoV-2. Infants born to mothers who test positive for SARS-CoV-2 can receive normal neonatal care in-hospital with their mothers if mother and staff adhere to recommended infection control practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Rev Med Virol ; 33(3): e2434, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277488

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, but no systematic synthesis of evidence on COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy against these outcomes has been undertaken. Thus, we aimed to assess the collective evidence on the effects of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes. PubMed/MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and EMBASE were systematically searched for articles published up to 1 November 2022. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to calculate pooled effects size and 95% confidence interval (CI). We evaluated 30 studies involving 862,272 individuals (308,428 vaccinated and 553,844 unvaccinated). Overall pooled analyses in pregnant women during pregnancy showed reduced risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection by 60% (41%-73%), COVID-19 hospitalisation during pregnancy by 53% (31%-69%), and COVID-19 intensive care unit (ICU) admission by 82% (12%-99%). Neonates of vaccinated women were 1.78 folds more likely to acquire SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first 2, 4 and 6 months of life during the Omicron period. The risk of stillbirth was reduced by 45% (17%-63%) in association with vaccination (vs. no vaccination) in pregnancy. A decrease of 15% (3%-25%), 33% (14%-48%), and 33% (17%-46%) in the odds of preterm births before 37, 32 and 28 weeks' gestation were associated with vaccination (vs. no vaccination) in pregnancy, respectively. The risk of neonatal ICU admission was significantly lower by 20% following COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy (16%-24%). There was no evidence of a higher risk of adverse outcomes including miscarriage, gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, cardiac problems, oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios, unassisted vaginal delivery, cesarean delivery, postpartum haemorrhage, gestational age at delivery, placental abruption, Apgar score at 5 min below 7, low birthweight (<2500 g), very low birthweight (<1500 g), small for gestational age, and neonatal foetal abnormalities. COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy is safe and highly effective in preventing maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy, without increasing the risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, and is associated with a reduction in stillbirth, preterm births, and neonatal ICU admission. Importantly, maternal vaccination did not reduce the risk of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first 6 months of life during the Omicron period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Placenta , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome
12.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 17(1): 23-36, 2023 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277131

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a global pandemic in March 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO). By February 2022, the disease had infected more than 500 million people globally. COVID-19 frequently manifests as pneumonia and mortality is mainly caused by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Previous studies have reported that pregnant women are at a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and complications can happen due to alterations in the immune response, respiratory physiology, hypercoagulable state, and placental pathology. Clinicians face the challenge of selecting the proper treatment for pregnant patients with different physiological characteristics compared with the non-pregnant population. Furthermore, drug safety for both the patient and the fetus should also be considered. Efforts to prevent COVID-19, including prioritizing vaccination for pregnant women, are essential to break the chain of COVID-19 transmission in the pregnant population. This review aims to summarize the current literature regarding the effect of COVID-19 in pregnant women, its clinical manifestations, treatment, complications, and prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Placenta
16.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 894, 2023 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288432

ABSTRACT

We examined the effectiveness of maternal vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 infection in 30,311 infants born at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from December 15, 2020, to May 31, 2022. Using Cox regression, the effectiveness of ≥2 doses of COVID-19 vaccine received during pregnancy was 84% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 66, 93), 62% (CI: 39, 77) and 56% (CI: 34,71) during months 0-2, 0-4 and 0- 6 of a child's life, respectively, in the Delta variant period. In the Omicron variant period, the effectiveness of maternal vaccination in these three age intervals was 21% (CI: -21,48), 14% (CI: -9,32) and 13% (CI: -3,26), respectively. Over the entire study period, the incidence of hospitalization for COVID-19 was lower during the first 6 months of life among infants of vaccinated mothers compared with infants of unvaccinated mothers (21/100,000 person-years vs. 100/100,000 person-years). Maternal vaccination was protective, but protection was lower during Omicron than during Delta. Protection during both periods decreased as infants aged.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Child , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Infant , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mothers , Vaccination , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 219, 2023 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess the uptake of maternal pertussis and COVID-19 vaccination and the intention towards accepting the maternal influenza vaccination. Insights into different socio-demographic factors related to maternal vaccination coverage might help to address vaccine acceptance and improve maternal vaccine uptake in the future. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among pregnant women and recent mothers, up to 6 months post-partum. The primary outcome measures of this study were behaviour for maternal pertussis and COVID-19 vaccination, and maternal influenza vaccination intention. Associations between socio-demographic factors and maternal pertussis vaccination and maternal COVID-19 vaccination behaviour; and socio-demographic factors and maternal influenza vaccination intention were assessed using binary logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: In total 1361 respondents filled out the questionnaire. Almost all women (95%) were vaccinated against pertussis during pregnancy, while almost two-third were vaccinated against COVID-19 during pregnancy (58%) and almost one-third (28%) had a positive intention towards receiving the maternal influenza vaccination. Results show that young maternal age and low education level were associated with lower maternal vaccination acceptance. CONCLUSION: Vaccination campaigns focusing on the severity of diseases that are prevented, are needed to increase maternal vaccine acceptance in younger and low-educated pregnant women. We expect that differences in vaccination coverage between the three maternal vaccinations might partly be explained by existing recommendations, campaigns and whether the vaccination is part of the national immunisation program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Whooping Cough , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pertussis Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Pregnant Women , Vaccination , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
18.
Semin Pediatr Neurol ; 42: 100977, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284745

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic has markedly, and likely permanently, changed health care. This includes changing the obstetric and perinatal care of mothers and infants, and by extension, the care of their families. Infection during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 illness and related complications that can significantly impact maternal health and the health of the neonate. Viral transmission from mother to fetus is possible, but rare during pregnancy, and current health care policies focusing on maternal masking, and hand washing allows infected mothers to safely care for neonates (including nursing or feeding with expressed breast milk). The newly developed vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective for pregnant and breast-feeding mothers, with measurable antibody levels in cord blood and breast milk potentially providing a level of passive immunity to neonates. While studies looking at short-term outcomes for neonates have been reassuring, it is critical that we continue to work to understand and improve the care of pregnant woman and newborns with coronavirus disease 2019 to optimize long term outcomes. Although the knowledge base continues to evolve, the available evidence influencing the care of pregnant women and their infants is summarized in this focused review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Mothers , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
19.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 227(2): 136-147, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265232

ABSTRACT

Despite a recent endorsement from official and professional bodies unequivocally recommending COVID-19 vaccination, vaccine hesitancy among pregnant people remains high. The accumulated evidence demonstrates that pregnant people are a special risk group for COVID-19, with an increased risk of intensive care unit admission, extracorporeal membranous oxygenation requirement, preterm birth, and perinatal death. These risks are further increased with some variants of concern, and vaccination of pregnant people reduces the COVID-19-related increase in maternal or fetal morbidity. Data from more than 180,000 vaccinated persons show that immunization against COVID-19 with an mRNA vaccine is safe for pregnant people. Many observational studies comparing perinatal outcomes between vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant people have had reassuring findings and did not demonstrate harmful effects on pregnancy or the newborn. Immunization with mRNA vaccines does not increase the risk of miscarriage, preterm delivery, low birthweight, maternal or neonatal intensive care unit admission, fetal death, fetal abnormality, or pulmonary embolism. Moreover, observational data corroborate the findings of randomized trials that mRNA vaccination is highly effective at preventing severe SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant people, emphasizing that the potential maternal and fetal benefits of vaccination greatly outweigh the potential risks of vaccination. Ensuring pregnant people have unrestricted access to COVID-19 vaccination should be a priority in every country worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
20.
Nurs Womens Health ; 27(1): 31-41, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241495

ABSTRACT

The normal physiologic changes of pregnancy are known to increase susceptibility to respiratory illness. Individuals who are pregnant are more likely to acquire a SARS-CoV-2 infection and develop COVID-19 than the general population; they are at increased risk for hospitalization; ventilator-assisted breathing; and other subsequent maternal, fetal, and neonatal health issues. Although the incidence of infection and subsequent morbidity is increased in pregnancy, mortality does not seem to be increased. Individuals who are vaccinated against COVID-19 before childbirth can pass antibodies to their fetuses via the placenta during pregnancy and to their infants during breastfeeding. It is important for health care providers to be cognizant of the potential impacts of COVID-19 on pregnant individuals and their offspring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Parturition , Delivery, Obstetric , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology
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