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3.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 99(7): 823-829, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271750

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has exposed vulnerable populations to an unprecedented global health crisis. The knowledge gained from previous human coronavirus outbreaks suggests that pregnant women and their fetuses are particularly susceptible to poor outcomes. The objective of this study was to summarize the clinical manifestations and maternal and perinatal outcomes of COVID-19 during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched databases for all case reports and series from 12 February to 4 April 2020. Multiple terms and combinations were used including COVID-19, pregnancy, maternal mortality, maternal morbidity, complications, clinical manifestations, neonatal morbidity, intrauterine fetal death, neonatal mortality and SARS-CoV-2. Eligibility criteria included peer-reviewed publications written in English or Chinese and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or dual fluorescence PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Unpublished reports, unspecified date and location of the study or suspicion of duplicate reporting, cases with suspected COVID-19 that were not confirmed by a laboratory test, and unreported maternal or perinatal outcomes were excluded. Data on clinical manifestations, maternal and perinatal outcomes including vertical transmission were extracted and analyzed. RESULTS: Eighteen articles reporting data from 108 pregnancies between 8 December 2019 and 1 April 2020 were included in the current study. Most reports described women presenting in the third trimester with fever (68%) and coughing (34%). Lymphocytopenia (59%) with elevated C-reactive protein (70%) was observed and 91% of the women were delivered by cesarean section. Three maternal intensive care unit admissions were noted but no maternal deaths. One neonatal death and one intrauterine death were also reported. CONCLUSIONS: Although the majority of mothers were discharged without any major complications, severe maternal morbidity as a result of COVID-19 and perinatal deaths were reported. Vertical transmission of the COVID-19 could not be ruled out. Careful monitoring of pregnancies with COVID-19 and measures to prevent neonatal infection are warranted.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Maternal Mortality , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Perinatal Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 102(5): 567-576, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274203

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy may cause viral inflammation of the placenta, resulting in fetal demise even without fetal or newborn infection. The impact of timing of the infection and the mechanisms that cause fetal morbidity and mortality are not well understood. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To describe placental pathology from women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy, a SARS-CoV-2 immunohistochemistry-positive placenta and late miscarriage, stillbirth, neonatal death, or medically indicated birth due to fetal distress. RESULTS: The triad of trophoblastic necrosis, inflammatory intervillous infiltrates, and increased perivillous fibrinoid deposition was present in all 17 placentas; the pregnancies resulted in eight stillbirths, two late miscarriages (19 and 21 weeks' gestation), and seven liveborn children, two of which died shortly after delivery. The severity of maternal COVID-19 was not reflected by the extent of the placental lesions. In only one case, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in lung tissue samples from the fetus. The majority events (miscarriage, stillbirth, fetal distress resulting in indicated birth, or livebirth, but neonatal death) happened shortly after maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection was diagnosed. Seven of eight sequenced cases were infected with the Delta (B.1.617.2) virus strain. CONCLUSION: We consolidate findings from previous case series describing extensive SARS-CoV-2 placentitis and placental insufficiency leading to fetal hypoxia. We found sparse evidence to support the notion that SARS-CoV-2 virus had infected the fetus or newborn.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , COVID-19 , Placenta , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Placenta/pathology , Placenta/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Fetal Distress , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/virology , Denmark/epidemiology , Perinatal Death , Chorioamnionitis , Adult
6.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 22(6): 454-461, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233594

ABSTRACT

Background: Pregnant women with diabetes are identified as being more vulnerable to the severe effects of COVID-19 and advised to stringently follow social distancing measures. Here, we review the management of diabetes in pregnancy before and during the lockdown. Methods: Majority of antenatal diabetes and obstetric visits are provided remotely, with pregnant women attending hospital clinics only for essential ultrasound scans and labor and delivery. Online resources for supporting women planning pregnancy and for self-management of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes (T1D) using intermittent or continuous glucose monitoring are provided. Retinal screening procedures, intrapartum care, and the varying impact of lockdown on maternal glycemic control are considered. Alternative screening procedures for diagnosing hyperglycemia during pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are discussed. Case histories describe the remote initiation of insulin pump therapy and automated insulin delivery in T1D pregnancy. Results: Initial feedback suggests that video consultations are well received and that the patient experiences for women requiring face-to-face visits are greatly improved. As the pandemic eases, formal evaluation of remote models of diabetes education and technology implementation, including women's views, will be important. Conclusions: Research and audit activities will resume and we will find new ways for supporting pregnant women with diabetes to choose their preferred glucose monitoring and insulin delivery.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diabetes, Gestational/drug therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy in Diabetics/drug therapy , Prenatal Care/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Diabetes, Gestational/blood , Diabetes, Gestational/virology , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin Infusion Systems , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy in Diabetics/blood , Pregnancy in Diabetics/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Management/methods
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26798, 2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191047

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). There have been few reports of postpartum woman with ARDS secondary to COVID-19 who required respiratory support using veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We present the case of a 31-year-old woman who was admitted to hospital at 35 weeks gestation with ARDS secondary to COVID-19 and required ECMO during the postpartum period. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient had obvious dyspnea, accompanied by chills and fever. Her dyspnea worsened and her arterial oxygen saturation decreased rapidly. DIAGNOSIS: ARDS secondary to COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: Emergency bedside cesarean section. Medications included immunotherapy (thymosin α 1), antivirals (lopinavir/ritonavir and ribavirin), antibiotics (imipenem-cilastatin sodium and vancomycin), and methylprednisolone. Ventilatory support was provided using invasive mechanical ventilation. This was replaced by venous-venous ECMO 5 days postpartum. ECMO management focused on blood volume control, coagulation function adjustment, and airway management. OUTCOMES: The patient was successfully weaned for ECMO and the ventilator and made a good recovery. CONCLUSION: Special care, including blood volume control, coagulation function adjustment, and airway management, should be provided to postpartum patients with ARDS secondary to COVID-19 who require ECMO support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Cesarean Section , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy
8.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; 43(1): 2162867, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2186851

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women are one of the endangered groups who need special attention in the COVID-19 epidemic. We conducted a systematic review and summarised the studies that reported adverse pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with COVID-19 infection. A literature search was performed in PubMed and Scopus up to 1 September 2022, for retrieving original articles published in the English language assessing the association between COVID-19 infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Finally, in this review study, of 1790 articles obtained in the initial search, 141 eligible studies including 1,843,278 pregnant women were reviewed. We also performed a meta-analysis of a total of 74 cohort and case-control studies. In this meta-analysis, both fixed and random effect models were used. Publication bias was also assessed by Egger's test and the trim and fill method was conducted in case of a significant result, to adjust the bias. The result of the meta-analysis showed that the pooled prevalence of preterm delivery, maternal mortality, NICU admission and neonatal death in the group with COVID-19 infection was significantly more than those without COVID-19 infection (p<.01). A meta-regression was conducted using the income level of countries. COVID-19 infection during pregnancy may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes including of preterm delivery, maternal mortality, NICU admission and neonatal death. Pregnancy loss and SARS-CoV2 positive neonates in Lower middle income are higher than in High income. Vertical transmission from mother to foetus may occur, but its immediate and long-term effects on the newborn are unclear.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Outcome , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Perinatal Death/etiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Maternal Mortality , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data
11.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 191, 2021 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079518

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Presently, it is known that, even if less frequently than in adults, children can develop a severe new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Children with the SARS-CoV-2 infection can have neurological signs and symptoms of disease more frequently than previously thought, revealing the involvement of the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, or both. Aim of this manuscript is to highlight the neurologic complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 among pediatric patients with COVID-19, suggesting when to monitor carefully neurologic development. MAIN FINDINGS: Children with a severe chronic underlying disease, infants and toddlers and those who develop the so-called multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) are those with the highest incidence of neurological complications. Fortunately, in most of the cases, neurological manifestations, mainly represented by headache and anosmia, are mild and transient and do not significantly complicate the COVID-19 course. However, in some cases, very severe clinical problems associated with relevant alterations of neuroimaging, electroencephalography, nerve conduction studies and electromyography findings can develop. Generally, almost all the children with COVID-19 and neurological manifestations till now described have made a complete recovery, although in some cases this has occurred after several weeks of treatment. Moreover, COVID-19 infection during pregnancy has been found associated with an increased risk of obstetric complications that can lead to neurological acute and long-term manifestations in neonates. CONCLUSIONS: Based on data showing the neurologic impact of COVID-19 in pediatric age, we suggest monitoring neurological development a few months after healing in pediatric patients who have presented MIS-C, seizures or other neurological manifestations and in children of pregnant women with COVID-19 in order to detect overt and subtle deficits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
12.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066296

ABSTRACT

The link between being pregnant and overweight or obese and the infectivity and virulence of the SARS CoV-2 virus is likely to be caused by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein glycosylation, which may work as a glycan shield. Methylglyoxal (MGO), an important advanced glycation end-product (AGE), and glycated albumin (GA) are the results of poor subclinical glucose metabolism and are indices of oxidative stress. Forty-one consecutive cases of SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnant patients comprising 25% pre-pregnancy overweight women and 25% obese women were recruited. The aim of our study was to compare the blood levels of MGO and GA in pregnant women with asymptomatic and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection with pregnant women without SARS-CoV-2 infection with low risk and uneventful pregnancies and to evaluate the relative perinatal outcomes. The MGO and GA values of the SARS-CoV-2 cases were statistically significantly higher than those of the negative control subjects. In addition, the SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnant patients who suffered of moderate to severe COVID-19 syndrome had higher values of GA than those infected and presenting with mild symptoms or those with asymptomatic infection. Premature delivery and infants of a small size for their gestational age were overrepresented in this cohort, even in mild-asymptomatic patients for whom delivery was not indicated by the COVID-19 syndrome. Moreover, ethnic minorities were overrepresented among the severe cases. The AGE-RAGE oxidative stress axis on the placenta and multiple organs caused by MGO and GA levels, associated with the biological mechanisms of the glycation of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, could help to explain the infectivity and virulence of this virus in pregnant patients affected by being overweight or obese or having gestational diabetes, and the increased risk of premature delivery and/or low newborn weight.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Glucose , Glycosylation , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Inflammation , Obesity , Overweight , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , Pyruvaldehyde , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
13.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 730, 2022 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy is intriguing in view of its safety profile in pregnancy and historical precedence of the use of plasma for other viral illnesses. This study aimed to evaluate the use of CCP in pregnant women with early COVID-19 infection. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series study. We have included seven pregnant women admitted with early COVID-19 infection to a tertiary care hospital, Latifa Maternity Hospital in Dubai, United Arab Emirates between 12 February and 04 March 2021 and who consented to receive COVID-19 convalescent plasma as part of their treatment plan. Main outcomes measured were clinical and radiological features, laboratory tests, WHO clinical progression scale pre and post treatment, and maternal, fetal outcomes. COVID-19 clinical severity was classified according to the NIH guidelines for criteria of SARS-CoV-2. For the radiological features, a modified chest X-ray scoring system was used where each lung was divided into 6 zones (3 on each side upper, middle, and lower). Opacities were classified into reticular, ground glass, patchy and dense consolidations patterns. RESULTS: Seven pregnant women with early COVID-19 were enrolled in this study, their mean age was 28 years (SD 3.6). Four had comorbidities: 2 with diabetes, 1 with asthma, and 1 was obese. Five patients were admitted with a WHO clinical progression score of 4 (hospitalized; with no oxygen therapy) and 2 with a score of 5 (hospitalized; oxygen by mask/nasal prongs). Upon follow up on day 10, 6 patients had a WHO score of 1 or 2 (asymptomatic/mild symptoms) indicating clinical recovery. Adverse reactions were reported in 2 patients, one reported a mild skin rash, and another developed transfusion related circulatory overload. All patients were discharged alive. CONCLUSION: CCP seems to be a promising modality of treating COVID-19 infected pregnant women. However, further studies are needed to ascertain the efficacy of CCP in preventing progressive disease in the management of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunization, Passive , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitals, Maternity , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Patient Discharge , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tertiary Care Centers , Treatment Outcome , United Arab Emirates , COVID-19 Serotherapy
15.
Mod Pathol ; 35(9): 1175-1180, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016645

ABSTRACT

Current public health initiatives to contain the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) global pandemic focus on expanding vaccination efforts to include vulnerable populations such as pregnant people. Vaccines using messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) technology rely on translation by immune cells, primarily at the injection site. Hesitancy remains among the general population regarding the safety of mRNA vaccines during gestation, and it remains unknown whether the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein (the product of mRNA vaccines available) accumulates in the placenta after vaccination. Objective: To determine whether Spike protein translation and accumulation occurs in placental tissue in the context of recent mRNA SARC-CoV-2 vaccination during pregnancy. We identified 48 patients receiving one or two doses of mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine during gestation and used immunohistochemistry against SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded placental tissue. One placenta, positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by in situ hybridization (ISH) was used as positive control. Seven term placentas collected prior to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 served as negative controls. Eighty one percent of patients in the study group underwent third-trimester delivery; remaining had a first-trimester spontaneous abortion or elective second-trimester termination. Patients received two (52%) or one (48%) vaccine doses during pregnancy, with a median interval between latest dose and delivery of 13 days (range 2-79 days). Most (63%) cases had their latest dose within 15 days prior to delivery. All the placentas in the study and negative control groups were negative for SARS-CoV-2 immunohistochemistry. Six study cases with short vaccine-delivery intervals (2-7 days) were subjected to SARS-CoV-2 ISH and were negative. Our findings suggest that mRNA vaccines do not reach significant concentrations in the placenta given the absence of definitive SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein accumulation in placental tissue. This observation provides evidence supporting the safety of mRNA vaccines to the placental-fetal unit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Placenta , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Vaccination
18.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 146(6): 660-676, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876076

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: Perinatal death is an increasingly important problem as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues, but the mechanism of death has been unclear. OBJECTIVE.­: To evaluate the role of the placenta in causing stillbirth and neonatal death following maternal infection with COVID-19 and confirmed placental positivity for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). DESIGN.­: Case-based retrospective clinicopathologic analysis by a multinational group of 44 perinatal specialists from 12 countries of placental and autopsy pathology findings from 64 stillborns and 4 neonatal deaths having placentas testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 following delivery to mothers with COVID-19. RESULTS.­: Of the 3 findings constituting SARS-CoV-2 placentitis, all 68 placentas had increased fibrin deposition and villous trophoblast necrosis and 66 had chronic histiocytic intervillositis. Sixty-three placentas had massive perivillous fibrin deposition. Severe destructive placental disease from SARS-CoV-2 placentitis averaged 77.7% tissue involvement. Other findings included multiple intervillous thrombi (37%; 25 of 68) and chronic villitis (32%; 22 of 68). The majority (19; 63%) of the 30 autopsies revealed no significant fetal abnormalities except for intrauterine hypoxia and asphyxia. Among all 68 cases, SARS-CoV-2 was detected from a body specimen in 16 of 28 cases tested, most frequently from nasopharyngeal swabs. Four autopsied stillborns had SARS-CoV-2 identified in internal organs. CONCLUSIONS.­: The pathology abnormalities composing SARS-CoV-2 placentitis cause widespread and severe placental destruction resulting in placental malperfusion and insufficiency. In these cases, intrauterine and perinatal death likely results directly from placental insufficiency and fetal hypoxic-ischemic injury. There was no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 involvement of the fetus had a role in causing these deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Perinatal Death , Placenta , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/complications , Female , Fibrin , Humans , Hypoxia/pathology , Hypoxia/virology , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Perinatal Death/etiology , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth
19.
Am J Perinatol ; 39(15): 1643-1653, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873578

ABSTRACT

We aimed to perform a meta-analysis of the literature concerning histopathologic findings in the placentas of women with SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection during pregnancy. Searches for articles in English included PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and reference lists (up to April 2021). Studies presenting data on placental histopathology according to the Amsterdam Consensus Group criteria in SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative pregnancies were identified. Lesions were categorized into: maternal and fetal vascular malperfusion (MVM and FVM, respectively), acute placental inflammation with maternal and fetal inflammatory response (MIR and FIR, respectively), chronic inflammatory lesions (CILs), and increased perivillous fibrin deposition (PVFD). A total of 15 studies reporting on 19,025 placentas, n = 699 of which were derived from women who were identified as being infected with SARS-CoV-2 and 18,326 as SARS-CoV-2-negative controls, were eligible for analysis. No significant difference in incidence of MVM (odds ratio [OR]: 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73-1.90), FVM (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 0.63-2.42), MIR (OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.29-1.52) or FIR (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.44-1.63), and CILs (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.55-1.72) was found between placentae from gravida identified as being SARS-CoV-2 infected. However, placenta from gravida identified as being infected with SARS-CoV-2 were associated with significantly increased occurrence of PVFD (OR: 2.77, 95% CI: 1.06-7.27). After subgroup analyses based on clinical severity of COVID-19 infection, no significant difference was observed in terms of reported placental pathology between symptomatic or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 gravidae placenta. Current evidence based on the available literature suggests that the only pathologic finding in the placentae of women who are pregnant identified as having been infected with SARS-CoV-2 was an increased prevalence of PVFD. KEY POINTS: · No association between SARS-CoV-2 and maternal or fetal placental malperfusion.. · No association between SARS-CoV-2 and maternal or fetal inflammatory response.. · SARS-CoV-2 is associated with increased perivillous fibrin deposition in placenta..


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fibrin , Inflammation/pathology , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs ; 46(2): 103-109, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816330

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic led to several states mandating social distancing and sheltering in place along with a shift in health care delivery, unprecedented unemployment rates, financial stress, and emotional concerns. For pregnant and postpartum women, limited social support and social isolation with social distancing and fear of COVID-19 exposure or infection for themselves, their fetus, or their newborn infants, have implications for maternal mental health. An overview of the potential impact of COVID-19 on mental health risk for pregnant and postpartum women is presented with implications for nursing practice to promote maternal-infant wellbeing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Women's Health , Adult , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
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