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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26798, 2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191047

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). There have been few reports of postpartum woman with ARDS secondary to COVID-19 who required respiratory support using veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We present the case of a 31-year-old woman who was admitted to hospital at 35 weeks gestation with ARDS secondary to COVID-19 and required ECMO during the postpartum period. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient had obvious dyspnea, accompanied by chills and fever. Her dyspnea worsened and her arterial oxygen saturation decreased rapidly. DIAGNOSIS: ARDS secondary to COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: Emergency bedside cesarean section. Medications included immunotherapy (thymosin α 1), antivirals (lopinavir/ritonavir and ribavirin), antibiotics (imipenem-cilastatin sodium and vancomycin), and methylprednisolone. Ventilatory support was provided using invasive mechanical ventilation. This was replaced by venous-venous ECMO 5 days postpartum. ECMO management focused on blood volume control, coagulation function adjustment, and airway management. OUTCOMES: The patient was successfully weaned for ECMO and the ventilator and made a good recovery. CONCLUSION: Special care, including blood volume control, coagulation function adjustment, and airway management, should be provided to postpartum patients with ARDS secondary to COVID-19 who require ECMO support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Cesarean Section , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy
4.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 191, 2021 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079518

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Presently, it is known that, even if less frequently than in adults, children can develop a severe new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Children with the SARS-CoV-2 infection can have neurological signs and symptoms of disease more frequently than previously thought, revealing the involvement of the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, or both. Aim of this manuscript is to highlight the neurologic complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 among pediatric patients with COVID-19, suggesting when to monitor carefully neurologic development. MAIN FINDINGS: Children with a severe chronic underlying disease, infants and toddlers and those who develop the so-called multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) are those with the highest incidence of neurological complications. Fortunately, in most of the cases, neurological manifestations, mainly represented by headache and anosmia, are mild and transient and do not significantly complicate the COVID-19 course. However, in some cases, very severe clinical problems associated with relevant alterations of neuroimaging, electroencephalography, nerve conduction studies and electromyography findings can develop. Generally, almost all the children with COVID-19 and neurological manifestations till now described have made a complete recovery, although in some cases this has occurred after several weeks of treatment. Moreover, COVID-19 infection during pregnancy has been found associated with an increased risk of obstetric complications that can lead to neurological acute and long-term manifestations in neonates. CONCLUSIONS: Based on data showing the neurologic impact of COVID-19 in pediatric age, we suggest monitoring neurological development a few months after healing in pediatric patients who have presented MIS-C, seizures or other neurological manifestations and in children of pregnant women with COVID-19 in order to detect overt and subtle deficits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
5.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066296

ABSTRACT

The link between being pregnant and overweight or obese and the infectivity and virulence of the SARS CoV-2 virus is likely to be caused by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein glycosylation, which may work as a glycan shield. Methylglyoxal (MGO), an important advanced glycation end-product (AGE), and glycated albumin (GA) are the results of poor subclinical glucose metabolism and are indices of oxidative stress. Forty-one consecutive cases of SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnant patients comprising 25% pre-pregnancy overweight women and 25% obese women were recruited. The aim of our study was to compare the blood levels of MGO and GA in pregnant women with asymptomatic and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection with pregnant women without SARS-CoV-2 infection with low risk and uneventful pregnancies and to evaluate the relative perinatal outcomes. The MGO and GA values of the SARS-CoV-2 cases were statistically significantly higher than those of the negative control subjects. In addition, the SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnant patients who suffered of moderate to severe COVID-19 syndrome had higher values of GA than those infected and presenting with mild symptoms or those with asymptomatic infection. Premature delivery and infants of a small size for their gestational age were overrepresented in this cohort, even in mild-asymptomatic patients for whom delivery was not indicated by the COVID-19 syndrome. Moreover, ethnic minorities were overrepresented among the severe cases. The AGE-RAGE oxidative stress axis on the placenta and multiple organs caused by MGO and GA levels, associated with the biological mechanisms of the glycation of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, could help to explain the infectivity and virulence of this virus in pregnant patients affected by being overweight or obese or having gestational diabetes, and the increased risk of premature delivery and/or low newborn weight.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Glucose , Glycosylation , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Inflammation , Obesity , Overweight , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , Pyruvaldehyde , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 730, 2022 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy is intriguing in view of its safety profile in pregnancy and historical precedence of the use of plasma for other viral illnesses. This study aimed to evaluate the use of CCP in pregnant women with early COVID-19 infection. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series study. We have included seven pregnant women admitted with early COVID-19 infection to a tertiary care hospital, Latifa Maternity Hospital in Dubai, United Arab Emirates between 12 February and 04 March 2021 and who consented to receive COVID-19 convalescent plasma as part of their treatment plan. Main outcomes measured were clinical and radiological features, laboratory tests, WHO clinical progression scale pre and post treatment, and maternal, fetal outcomes. COVID-19 clinical severity was classified according to the NIH guidelines for criteria of SARS-CoV-2. For the radiological features, a modified chest X-ray scoring system was used where each lung was divided into 6 zones (3 on each side upper, middle, and lower). Opacities were classified into reticular, ground glass, patchy and dense consolidations patterns. RESULTS: Seven pregnant women with early COVID-19 were enrolled in this study, their mean age was 28 years (SD 3.6). Four had comorbidities: 2 with diabetes, 1 with asthma, and 1 was obese. Five patients were admitted with a WHO clinical progression score of 4 (hospitalized; with no oxygen therapy) and 2 with a score of 5 (hospitalized; oxygen by mask/nasal prongs). Upon follow up on day 10, 6 patients had a WHO score of 1 or 2 (asymptomatic/mild symptoms) indicating clinical recovery. Adverse reactions were reported in 2 patients, one reported a mild skin rash, and another developed transfusion related circulatory overload. All patients were discharged alive. CONCLUSION: CCP seems to be a promising modality of treating COVID-19 infected pregnant women. However, further studies are needed to ascertain the efficacy of CCP in preventing progressive disease in the management of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunization, Passive , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitals, Maternity , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Patient Discharge , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tertiary Care Centers , Treatment Outcome , United Arab Emirates
8.
Mod Pathol ; 35(9): 1175-1180, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016645

ABSTRACT

Current public health initiatives to contain the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) global pandemic focus on expanding vaccination efforts to include vulnerable populations such as pregnant people. Vaccines using messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) technology rely on translation by immune cells, primarily at the injection site. Hesitancy remains among the general population regarding the safety of mRNA vaccines during gestation, and it remains unknown whether the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein (the product of mRNA vaccines available) accumulates in the placenta after vaccination. Objective: To determine whether Spike protein translation and accumulation occurs in placental tissue in the context of recent mRNA SARC-CoV-2 vaccination during pregnancy. We identified 48 patients receiving one or two doses of mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine during gestation and used immunohistochemistry against SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded placental tissue. One placenta, positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by in situ hybridization (ISH) was used as positive control. Seven term placentas collected prior to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 served as negative controls. Eighty one percent of patients in the study group underwent third-trimester delivery; remaining had a first-trimester spontaneous abortion or elective second-trimester termination. Patients received two (52%) or one (48%) vaccine doses during pregnancy, with a median interval between latest dose and delivery of 13 days (range 2-79 days). Most (63%) cases had their latest dose within 15 days prior to delivery. All the placentas in the study and negative control groups were negative for SARS-CoV-2 immunohistochemistry. Six study cases with short vaccine-delivery intervals (2-7 days) were subjected to SARS-CoV-2 ISH and were negative. Our findings suggest that mRNA vaccines do not reach significant concentrations in the placenta given the absence of definitive SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein accumulation in placental tissue. This observation provides evidence supporting the safety of mRNA vaccines to the placental-fetal unit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Placenta , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Vaccination
11.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 146(6): 660-676, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876076

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: Perinatal death is an increasingly important problem as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues, but the mechanism of death has been unclear. OBJECTIVE.­: To evaluate the role of the placenta in causing stillbirth and neonatal death following maternal infection with COVID-19 and confirmed placental positivity for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). DESIGN.­: Case-based retrospective clinicopathologic analysis by a multinational group of 44 perinatal specialists from 12 countries of placental and autopsy pathology findings from 64 stillborns and 4 neonatal deaths having placentas testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 following delivery to mothers with COVID-19. RESULTS.­: Of the 3 findings constituting SARS-CoV-2 placentitis, all 68 placentas had increased fibrin deposition and villous trophoblast necrosis and 66 had chronic histiocytic intervillositis. Sixty-three placentas had massive perivillous fibrin deposition. Severe destructive placental disease from SARS-CoV-2 placentitis averaged 77.7% tissue involvement. Other findings included multiple intervillous thrombi (37%; 25 of 68) and chronic villitis (32%; 22 of 68). The majority (19; 63%) of the 30 autopsies revealed no significant fetal abnormalities except for intrauterine hypoxia and asphyxia. Among all 68 cases, SARS-CoV-2 was detected from a body specimen in 16 of 28 cases tested, most frequently from nasopharyngeal swabs. Four autopsied stillborns had SARS-CoV-2 identified in internal organs. CONCLUSIONS.­: The pathology abnormalities composing SARS-CoV-2 placentitis cause widespread and severe placental destruction resulting in placental malperfusion and insufficiency. In these cases, intrauterine and perinatal death likely results directly from placental insufficiency and fetal hypoxic-ischemic injury. There was no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 involvement of the fetus had a role in causing these deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Perinatal Death , Placenta , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/complications , Female , Fibrin , Humans , Hypoxia/pathology , Hypoxia/virology , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Perinatal Death/etiology , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth
12.
Am J Perinatol ; 39(15): 1643-1653, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873578

ABSTRACT

We aimed to perform a meta-analysis of the literature concerning histopathologic findings in the placentas of women with SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection during pregnancy. Searches for articles in English included PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and reference lists (up to April 2021). Studies presenting data on placental histopathology according to the Amsterdam Consensus Group criteria in SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative pregnancies were identified. Lesions were categorized into: maternal and fetal vascular malperfusion (MVM and FVM, respectively), acute placental inflammation with maternal and fetal inflammatory response (MIR and FIR, respectively), chronic inflammatory lesions (CILs), and increased perivillous fibrin deposition (PVFD). A total of 15 studies reporting on 19,025 placentas, n = 699 of which were derived from women who were identified as being infected with SARS-CoV-2 and 18,326 as SARS-CoV-2-negative controls, were eligible for analysis. No significant difference in incidence of MVM (odds ratio [OR]: 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73-1.90), FVM (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 0.63-2.42), MIR (OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.29-1.52) or FIR (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.44-1.63), and CILs (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.55-1.72) was found between placentae from gravida identified as being SARS-CoV-2 infected. However, placenta from gravida identified as being infected with SARS-CoV-2 were associated with significantly increased occurrence of PVFD (OR: 2.77, 95% CI: 1.06-7.27). After subgroup analyses based on clinical severity of COVID-19 infection, no significant difference was observed in terms of reported placental pathology between symptomatic or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 gravidae placenta. Current evidence based on the available literature suggests that the only pathologic finding in the placentae of women who are pregnant identified as having been infected with SARS-CoV-2 was an increased prevalence of PVFD. KEY POINTS: · No association between SARS-CoV-2 and maternal or fetal placental malperfusion.. · No association between SARS-CoV-2 and maternal or fetal inflammatory response.. · SARS-CoV-2 is associated with increased perivillous fibrin deposition in placenta..


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fibrin , Inflammation/pathology , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs ; 46(2): 103-109, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816330

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic led to several states mandating social distancing and sheltering in place along with a shift in health care delivery, unprecedented unemployment rates, financial stress, and emotional concerns. For pregnant and postpartum women, limited social support and social isolation with social distancing and fear of COVID-19 exposure or infection for themselves, their fetus, or their newborn infants, have implications for maternal mental health. An overview of the potential impact of COVID-19 on mental health risk for pregnant and postpartum women is presented with implications for nursing practice to promote maternal-infant wellbeing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Women's Health , Adult , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
15.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 658, 2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whilst the impact of Covid-19 infection in pregnant women has been examined, there is a scarcity of data on pregnant women in the Middle East. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the impact of Covid-19 infection on pregnant women in the United Arab Emirates population. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out to compare the clinical course and outcome of pregnancy in 79 pregnant women with Covid-19 and 85 non-pregnant women with Covid-19 admitted to Latifa Hospital in Dubai between March and June 2020. RESULTS: Although Pregnant women presented with fewer symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and shortness of breath compared to non-pregnant women; yet they ran a much more severe course of illness. On admission, 12/79 (15.2%) Vs 2/85 (2.4%) had a chest radiograph score [on a scale 1-6] of ≥3 (p-value = 0.0039). On discharge, 6/79 (7.6%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) had a score ≥3 (p-value = 0.0438). They also had much higher levels of laboratory indicators of severity with values above reference ranges for C-Reactive Protein [(28 (38.3%) Vs 13 (17.6%)] with p < 0.004; and for D-dimer [32 (50.8%) Vs 3(6%)]; with p < 0.001. They required more ICU admissions: 10/79 (12.6%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) with p=0.0036; and suffered more complications: 9/79 (11.4%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) with p=0.0066; of Covid-19 infection, particularly in late pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women presented with fewer Covid-19 symptoms but ran a much more severe course of illness compared to non-pregnant women with the disease. They had worse chest radiograph scores and much higher levels of laboratory indicators of disease severity. They had more ICU admissions and suffered more complications of Covid-19 infection, such as risk for miscarriage and preterm deliveries. Pregnancy with Covid-19 infection, could, therefore, be categorised as high-risk pregnancy and requires management by an obstetric and medical multidisciplinary team.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Radiography, Thoracic , Symptom Assessment , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/etiology , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Radiography, Thoracic/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 827889, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731779

ABSTRACT

It is well established that pregnancy induces deep changes in the immune system. This is part of the physiological adaptation of the female organism to the pregnancy and the immunological tolerance toward the fetus. Indeed, over the three trimesters, the suppressive T regulatory lymphocytes are progressively more represented, while the expression of co-stimulatory molecules decreases overtime. Such adaptations relate to an increased risk of infections and progression to severe disease in pregnant women, potentially resulting in an altered generation of long-lived specific immunological memory of infection contracted during pregnancy. How potent is the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 in infected pregnant women and how long the specific SARS-CoV-2 immunity might last need to be urgently addressed, especially considering the current vaccinal campaign. To address these questions, we analyzed the long-term immunological response upon SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women from delivery to a six-months follow-up. In particular, we investigated the specific antibody production, T cell memory subsets, and inflammation profile. Results show that 80% developed an anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG response, comparable with the general population. While IgG were present only in 50% of the asymptomatic subjects, the antibody production was elicited by infection in all the mild-to-critical patients. The specific T-cell memory subsets rebalanced over-time, and the pro-inflammatory profile triggered by specific SARS-CoV-2 stimulation faded away. These results shed light on SARS-CoV-2-specific immunity in pregnant women; understanding the immunological dynamics of the immune system in response to SARS-CoV-2 is essential for defining proper obstetric management of pregnant women and fine tune gender-specific vaccinal plans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells , Young Adult
19.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(634): eabn7842, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723505

ABSTRACT

Multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants that have mutations associated with increased transmission and antibody escape have arisen over the course of the current pandemic. Although the current vaccines have largely been effective against past variants, the number of mutations found on the Omicron (B.1.1.529) spike protein appear to diminish the protection conferred by preexisting immunity. Using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudoparticles expressing the spike protein of several SARS-CoV-2 variants, we evaluated the magnitude and breadth of the neutralizing antibody response over time in individuals after infection and in mRNA-vaccinated individuals. We observed that boosting increases the magnitude of the antibody response to wild-type (D614), Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants; however, the Omicron variant was the most resistant to neutralization. We further observed that vaccinated healthy adults had robust and broad antibody responses, whereas responses may have been reduced in vaccinated pregnant women, underscoring the importance of learning how to maximize mRNA vaccine responses in pregnant populations. Findings from this study show substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude and breadth of responses after infection and mRNA vaccination and may support the addition of more conserved viral antigens to existing SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/immunology
20.
CMAJ Open ; 10(1): E146-E154, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708774

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the extent of the COVID-19 pandemic and uncertainty around the timing of its containment, understanding the experiences and responses of the perinatal population is essential for planning responsive maternity care both during and after the pandemic. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of pregnant people and their responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, and to identify how health care providers can support this population. METHODS: This was a mixed-methods, descriptive study with cross-sectional and qualitative descriptive components. We conducted the study between Mar. 20 and May 31, 2020, in British Columbia, Canada. Any pregnant person at any gestational age living in BC was eligible to participate. We collected quantitative data using online survey tools, including the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder questionnaire (GAD-7). We collected qualitative data using open-ended questions to explore people's thoughts, feelings and experiences during the pandemic. Participants were recruited using study posters distributed via prenatal care clinics and classes, LifeLabs and social media across the province. We used thematic and descriptive analyses to analyze the data, and we integrated the qualitative and quantitative findings at the interpretation level. RESULTS: The study sample included 96 participants with mean (± standard deviation) maternal and gestational ages of 32 ± 3.92 years and 22.73 ± 8.93 weeks, respectively. Most (93%; n = 89) identified as female. Of the participants, 54% (n = 50) and 35% (n = 34) reported anxiety and depressive symptoms, as measured by the GAD-7 and EPDS, respectively. Overarching themes that emerged from the qualitative data included uncertainty about birth plans and setting, added burden to existing health and social disparities, perceived or projected lack of support or limited support, concerns about early development, and struggle over managing multiple demands. Perceived maternity care needs included mental health support, maintaining prenatal care, frequent and proactive check-ins to build rapport, and recommendations specific to the pandemic. INTERPRETATION: We found that the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the pregnant population has been substantial. The findings of this mixed-methods study can be used to help plan informed and evidence-based health care interventions to mitigate adverse effects and support mothers and families.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Anxiety , COVID-19/psychology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Maternal Health Services , Mental Health , Pregnancy , Public Health Surveillance , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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