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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 768, 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant and postpartum women face unique challenges and concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus far, no studies have explored the factors associated with increased levels of worry in this population globally. The current study sought to assess the frequency and sources of worry during the COVID-19 pandemic in an international sample of pregnant and postpartum women. METHODS: We conducted an anonymous, online, cross-sectional survey in 64 countries between May and June 2020. The survey was available in 12 languages and hosted on the Pregistry platform for COVID-19 studies. Participants were sought mainly on social media platforms and online parenting forums. The survey included questions related to demographics, level of worry, support, stress, COVID-19 exposure, frequency of media usage, and mental health indicators. RESULTS: The study included 7561 participants. Eighty-three percent of all participants indicated that they were either 'somewhat' or 'very' worried. Women 13-28 weeks pregnant were significantly more likely to indicate that they were 'very worried' compared to those who were postpartum or at other stages of pregnancy. When compared with women living in Europe, those in Africa, Asia and Pacific, North America and South/Latin America were more likely to have increased levels of worry, as were those who more frequently interacted with social media. Different forms of support and stress also had an impact upon level of worry, while indicators of stress and anxiety were positively associated with worry level. CONCLUSION: Pregnant and postpartum women are vulnerable to the changes in societal norms brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding the factors associated with levels of worry within this population will enable society to address potential unmet needs and improve the current and future mental health of parents and children.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Pregnancy Complications/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Health Surveys , Humans , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Young Adult
2.
J Perinat Med ; 49(6): 656-663, 2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496585

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the public health measures introduced to control it, on mental health, is largely unknown. Research conducted during past epidemics found that pregnant women are more vulnerable psychologically. The aim of this study was to investigate antenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms during this pandemic in Greece. METHODS: All women receiving routine antenatal care, during a three-month period, starting one week after the total lockdown in Greece, in a University department, were asked to fill in two questionnaires, the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). RESULTS: Overall, 505 women (93.3% of the eligible population) agreed to participate. The prevalence of antenatal depression (EPDS score≥13) in the population of the study was 13.5%. Unplanned pregnancy (OR: 2.447; 95% CI: 1.235-4.846), smoking (OR: 2.268; 95% CI: 1.166-4.411) and antenatal anxiety (OR: 5.074; 95% CI: 2.898-8.883) increased the risk of antenatal depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. State (current)-anxiety affected 34.1% of the participants, whereas Trait (lifetime)-anxiety affected 15.8%. The State-anxiety score (median) was significantly higher than the Trait-anxiety (median) (41 vs. 36; p<0.001), revealing an increase in the levels of anxiety in the pandemic, while there was also a positive linear correlation between the two scales (rho=0.592; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The unprecedented situation of the COVID-19 pandemic has increased anxiety, but not depression levels of pregnant women in Greece. Population level interventions to address adverse effects on anxiety status in the initial phases of similar situations may be helpful in the future.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Depression/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Risk Factors
3.
Fam Pract ; 38(Suppl 1): i23-i29, 2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As a mitigation measure for COVID-19 pandemic, lockdown was implemented in India for a period of 2 months (24 March-31 May 2020). Disruption in antenatal care (ANC) provisions during lockdown is expected due to diversion of public health facilities on pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To assess the proportion of pregnant women who had not completed the ideal number of antenatal visits, availability of iron-folic acid (IFA) supplements and challenges in availing health services during the period of lockdown. METHODS: A concurrent mixed-methods study was conducted among pregnant women in Puducherry, India. Information on obstetric characteristics and details regarding antenatal visits were collected through telephonic interviews. In-depth interviews were conducted to understand the perceived challenges in availing health services during the lockdown period. RESULTS: Out of 150 pregnant women, 62 [41.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 33.6-49.3] did not complete the ideal number of visits and 61 (40.7%, 95% CI 32.7-49.0) developed health problems. Out of 44 women who received medical care for health problems, 11 (25%) used teleconsultation. Of all the women, 13 (8.7%, 95% CI 4.9-14.0) had not taken the IFA supplements as prescribed by the health provider. Economic hardship, restricted mobility, lack of information about the health system changes and psychological stress due to the fear of COVID were the challenges in accessing care. CONCLUSIONS: Two out of five pregnant women did not complete the ideal number of visits and developed health problems during the lockdown period.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous/psychology , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications/etiology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Attitude to Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Facilities and Services Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Interviews as Topic , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Prenatal Care/psychology , Qualitative Research , Socioeconomic Factors , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data
4.
Psychiatry Res ; 301: 113978, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275647

ABSTRACT

The aim was to examine the psychological effects caused by the COVID-19 pandemic on pregnant women, as well as the factors influencing these effects. The study design was cross-sectional and the participants were 200 pregnant women. The first group called the Pandemic Group (PG) included 100 women who were evaluated with psychological assessment instruments during the COVID-19 pandemic. The second group titled Pre-Pandemic Group (PPG) consisted of 100 women who were evaluated prior to the pandemic. Perceived stress, prenatal concerns and psychopathological symptoms were evaluated and compared. Pandemic Group scored significantly higher than Pre-Pandemic Group in the depression dimension of the SCL-90, in the phobic anxiety dimension, and in the Perceived Stress Scale. In addition, insomnia, along with having recently suffered the loss of a loved one explained 25% of the score variance in the depression dimension of the SCL-90. Insomnia also explained 13% of the variance of the results found in the Perceived Stress Scale. The fear of contagion by COVID-19 increased the scores obtained in the phobic anxiety dimension, explaining 11% of the variance. Thus, the COVID-19 pandemic could produce an increase in psychopathological symptomatology and stress, which can lead to negatively affecting pregnant women's mental health.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Spain/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
J Perinat Med ; 49(6): 674-677, 2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249586

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate anxiety and depression in pregnant women during this global disease. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study recruiting 120 pregnant women. The study was conducted at the outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital. We recruited women attending for antenatal care. Anxiety was evaluated using an Arabic validated Kuwait University Anxiety Scale (KUAS). Depression was evaluated using a validated Arabic form of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). RESULTS: The study included 48 (40%) nulliparous and 72 (60%) multiparous women. The mean KUAS scores for nulliparous and multiparous women were 45.27±10.78 and 47.28±10.62. Both nulliparous and multiparous women had a fairly high possibility of depression. Fifty-three (44.2%) of them reported scores ≥ of 14. Ninety-three (77.5%) women thought that COVID-19 pandemic would affect their pregnancies. There was a significant association between the number of women reporting fear related to the COVID-19 pandemic and their KUAS and EPDS scores (p-value <0.001 each). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 affected the mental health of pregnant women to a great extent. Care should be directed to measures that would decrease the impact of this pandemic on vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Depression/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Psychosom Med ; 83(4): 345-350, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218025

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: According to recent studies, the COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with an increased risk of mental health problems across many subpopulations including pregnant and postnatal women. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms (depression hereafter) in Chinese pregnant and postpartum women during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This was a multicenter, cross-sectional study comprising 1309 pregnant and postpartum women across 12 provinces in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Depression was assessed using the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: The prevalence of depression in pregnant and postpartum women was 27.43% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 25.01%-29.85%). Women who were worried about themselves or their babies being infected with COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.562, 95% CI = 1.670-3.929), and those who had delayed regular medical checkups (OR = 2.434, 95% CI = 1.580-3.750) were at higher risk of depression. Compared with those living in central and western parts of China, women living in northern (OR = 0.513, 95% CI = 0.326-0.807) and southeastern parts of China (OR = 0.626, 95% CI = 0.463-0.846) were less likely to have depression. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with an increased likelihood of mental health problems among pregnant and postnatal women. Over a quarter of the pregnant and postpartum women in China had depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. Considering the negative health impact of depression, preventive measures, regular mental health screening, and medical checkups are needed with the goal to reduce the risk of depression in this vulnerable population during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Depression, Postpartum/etiology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/etiology , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
J Perinat Med ; 49(6): 664-673, 2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190187

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The outbreak of COVID-19 affects both physical and mental health of pregnant women. This study focuses on their psychological status, and analyzes the main factors affecting their emotions of pregnant women so as to provide guidance for psychological counseling and social intervention during epidemics. METHODS: Multiple researchers distributed a questionnaire online via the Internet. Pregnant women volunteered, and the questionnaire was automatically collected in the background. RESULTS: The 298 valid questionnaires recovered showed that 82 cases of pregnant women were in states of anxiety, accounting for 27.51%, of which 78.05% were mild (82 cases), 19.51% were moderate (16 cases), and 2.44% were severe (2 cases). Moreover, 31.21% of pregnant women were in states of depression (93 cases), of which 52.69% were mild (49 cases), 40.86% were moderate (38 cases), and 6.45% were severe (6 cases). The risk factors for states of anxiety or depression were fear of fetal malformation or genetic disease, history of adverse pregnancy, can't do routine prenatal examination, and insufficient support and care from husbands and families. Besides, 16 cases had sought psychological help during the epidemic, among whom 62.50% (10 cases) experienced anxiety, 68.75% (11 cases) had depression. CONCLUSIONS: During the outbreak of COVID-19, obstetricians may take use of the Internet, based on the advantages in epidemic prevention, controlling health education, and popularizing science. In addition, husbands and family members should provide greater care for pregnant women, to protect their mental health during public health incidents.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Depression/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Adult , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
8.
Can J Psychiatry ; 66(1): 34-42, 2021 01.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189987

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Examine the association between news media use frequency during the COVID-19 pandemic and the scale of psychological distress in pregnant women, considering this distress known harmful effects on the fetus development. METHOD: Pregnant women living in Quebec province (N = 1014) have been recruited in April 2020 through social media, while a state of health emergency was declared. Participants were divided in 4 groups, according to self-reported frequency of news media consulting (little or none; one time a day; several times a day; constant). They filled measures of depressive symptoms, negative affects, post-traumatic stress symptoms and anxiety specific to COVID-19. Instrument scores were grouped under a unique factor of psychological distress. RESULTS: An ANCOVA controlling for age, gestational age, education level, household annual revenue and a diagnosed mental disorder present at the time of participation in study shows that news media exposure frequency is significantly associated with psychological distress severity in pregnant women, during COVID-19 pandemic, F(3,998) = 27.02, p < 0.001, η2 partial = 0.08. Given the mean comparisons a posteriori, higher psychological distress rates are found as soon as news media exposure exceeds once a day (effect sizes between 0.38 and 0.81). CONCLUSIONS: The more pregnant women report consulting the news media during the COVID-19 pandemic, the more likely they are to exhibit psychological distress. Results provide one of the first empirical supports to recommendations of World Health Organization, Canada government and psychiatric associations that encourage population to limit their news media consulting during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Communications Media/statistics & numerical data , Depression/epidemiology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Psychological Distress , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Quebec/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Young Adult
9.
Midwifery ; 99: 103013, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1185181

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the mental health of pregnant women during the early and peak stages of the Covid-19 outbreak DESIGN: Online survey PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant women over the age of 18 years with no mental disorder during the pre-pregnancy period (N = 729). MEASUREMENTS AND FINDINGS: Mental disorders were assessed using the "Depression Anxiety Stress Scale" and social support was determined using the "Multidimensional Perceived Social Support Scale." Pregnant women had moderate levels of anxiety and depression and mild levels of stress. Anxiety, depression, and stress of moderate or high severity was reported in 62.2%, 44.6%, and 32.2% of the women, respectively. Pregnant women who lost their jobs during the pandemic period showed a 3-fold increase in the risk of anxiety, a 6-fold increase in the risk of depression, and a 4.8-fold increase in the risk of stress. An increase in the perception of social support has protective effects against all three mental disorders during pregnancy. In pregnant women with at least one obstetric risk, the risk of antenatal anxiety is 2 times higher than that in women with no risk. Similarly, women with a chronic physical illness before pregnancy have a higher risk of anxiety during pregnancy than healthy women. Financial strain has predictive value for anxiety and depression, and advanced age is a predictor for depression. KEY CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of mental disorders in pregnant women during the pandemic period was much higher than that during the pre-pandemic period. The high frequency of antenatal mental disorders can lead to an increase in the frequency of obstetric and maternal complications in the short and long term. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Early detection of inadequate social support and economic difficulties of pregnant women during the pandemic period is recommended for protecting their mental health. Pregnant women should have easy access to psychosocial support, and they should be provided obstetric counseling during the pandemic conditions.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Depression , Pregnancy Complications , Stress, Psychological , Unemployment/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/prevention & control , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Maternal Health , Mental Health/trends , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Prenatal Care/methods , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , Turkey/epidemiology
10.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 57(1): 67-71, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167960

ABSTRACT

Quarantine, loss of routine and social support can negatively impact mothers who have just given birth and their babies, generating concerns and reactions of intense fear. Following the COVID-19 emergency, we described a structured program for screening and treatment of perinatal depression and anxiety as a medium for constant monitoring of perinatal risk factors and early screening, which can also be implemented in emergencies with remote intervention methods, to offer women an appropriate, timely and effective treatment. In this scenario, it is desirable that the monitoring of the psychological well-being of women in postpartum is maintained over time, with the participation of all the professional figures with whom the woman comes into contact, to intercept any forms of psychological distress related to the epidemic and that could occur even after some time.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum/prevention & control , Depression/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications/prevention & control , Emergencies , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/psychology
11.
J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol ; 42(2): 115-122, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152948

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and the corresponding risk factors among pregnant women during the confinement due to the COVID-19 outbreak in Spain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 15 April and 14 May 2020, a multicentre cross-sectional survey was performed to study depression, anxiety and resilience in a sample of Spanish pregnant women during the lockdown set up by the Government in response to COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. We designed an anonymous online self-administered questionnaire (https://bit.ly/34RRpq1) that included the Spanish validated versions of the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Connor-Davidson Resilience 10-items Scale (CD-RISC-10). RESULTS: A total of 514 pregnant women completed the survey. 72.8% had been confined < 40 days and 27.2% between 41 and 60 days. 182 (35.4%) participants scored over 10, with 21.3% scoring over 13 (75th Percentile) in depressive symptoms rates. We found high trait and anxiety scores, with 223 (43.4%) and 227 (44.2%) pregnant women scoring over the trait and state mean scores. Neither depression, anxiety or resilience levels showed any significant correlation with the length of confinement. We found low CD-RISC-10 scores. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms during the quarantine, although we did not find an increased prevalence of psychological distress according to length of home confinement. Resilience correlated negatively with depression and anxiety.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Depression/psychology , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Psychological Distress , Quarantine/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Spain/epidemiology
12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 208, 2021 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a risk factor for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Pregnant women suffer from varying levels of pregnancy-related anxiety (PRA) which can negatively affect pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess PRA and its associated factors during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This web-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2020 on 318 pregnant women purposively recruited from primary healthcare centers in Sari and Amol, Iran. Data were collected using questionnaires (PRAQ, Edinburg, KAP of COVID-19, CDA-Q and Demographic questionnaire), which were provided to participants through the social media or were completed for them over telephone. Data were analyzed with the linear regression and the logistic regression analysis, at the significance level of 0.05 using the SPSS software (v. 21). RESULTS: Around 21% of participants had PRA, 42.1% had depression, and 4.4% had COVID-19 anxiety. The significant predictors of PRA were number of pregnancies (P = 0.008), practice regarding COVID-19 (P < 0.001), COVID-19 anxiety (P < 0.001), depression (P < 0.001), and social support (P = 0.025) which explained 19% of the total variance. Depression and COVID-19 anxiety increased the odds of PRA by respectively four times and 13%, while good practice regarding COVID-19 decreased the odds by 62%. CONCLUSION: Around 21% of pregnant women suffer from PRA during the COVID-19 pandemic and the significant predictors of PRA during the pandemic include number of pregnancies, practice regarding COVID-19, COVID-19 anxiety, depression, and social support. These findings can be used to develop appropriate strategies for the management of mental health problems during pregnancy in the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications , Primary Health Care , Social Support , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Needs Assessment , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Primary Health Care/methods , Primary Health Care/standards , Primary Health Care/trends , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
13.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 193, 2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123649

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the onset of the COVID-19 epidemic, pregnancy and childbirth for women are taking place in unusual circumstances. We explored the lived experiences of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic to better understand their experience of pregnancy so that better support could be provided. METHODS: We used a descriptive phenomenological approach to understand the lived experience of pregnant women in COVID-19 pandemic. We collected data using a purposive sampling method through in-depth interviews in cyberspace with a semi-structured questionnaire. We used Colaizzi's seven-step content analysis method to analyze the research data with the help of MAXQDA software version 2020. RESULTS: We conducted this descriptive phenomenology study on 19 pregnant women in a period between the 10th to the 20th of May, 2020. The participating women were already pregnant when the first signs of the epidemic appeared in the country and at the time of the interview. We acquired four themes including disruption of the tranquility and regular routines of daily life, new challenges caused by the epidemic, resilience and strength in facing the crisis, and adaptation with new conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The pregnant women were under intense stress during the COVID-19 outbreak. The general mobilization the health system is necessary for alleviating pregnant women's difficulties in situations like the COVID-19 epidemic. Virtual training classes and virtual counseling may enhance the peace and tranquility of pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Midwifery ; 96: 102940, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071784

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to create and to validate the Polish version of the original English version of the Pandemic-Related Pregnancy Stress Scale (PREPS) developed by Preis and colleagues (2020a; 2020b) We additionally investigated the association of maternal obstetrical and pandemic related factors with the PREPS in order to test its sensitivity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design with nonrandom sampling was used. The sample consisted of a total of 1148 pregnant women in various trimesters. They were recruited via social media and completed an online study questionnaire in April-May 2020. RESULTS: The results of the present research indicate satisfactory psychometric properties of the Polish version of the PREPS. Our findings confirm the factor structure found by the authors of the original English version of the PREPS. The scale consists of two stress subscales: perinatal infection stress and preparedness stress and one additional positive appraisal scale. Pandemic-related pregnancy stress is significantly associated with fear of childbirth and with non-pandemic pregnancy-specific stress, which bolsters its convergent validity. Higher levels of pandemic-related pregnancy stress are experienced by primiparas, those in their second or third trimester, women who received infertility treatment, and those with a high-risk pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: The Polish version of the PREPS has sound psychometric properties and replicates the structure of the original English PREPS. This stress scale can be used to investigate additional impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and to identify women at risk of high stress and those who need intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Parturition , Phobic Disorders/psychology , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Psychometrics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Poland , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimesters , Prenatal Care , Surveys and Questionnaires , Translations , Young Adult
15.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 369-373, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068159

ABSTRACT

During a pandemic, pregnancy and the postnatal period are complicated by multiple factors. On the one hand, worries about one's own health and the health of loved ones, in particular of the newborn child, can increase the risk of some mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety in the pregnant woman. On the other hand, as happened for the COVID-19 epidemic in Italy, given the need for physical distancing, the maintenance of the social and family network, so important for new parents in the perinatal period, is lacking. In addition, health services are forced to reorganize their offerings to ensure maximum safety for their operators and patients. This work proposes a model of screening and treatment aimed at identifying women at risk and providing them with effective and safe treatment.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Pandemics , Perinatal Care/organization & administration , Pregnancy Complications/diagnosis , Pregnant Women/psychology , Puerperal Disorders/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Depression/therapy , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Depression, Postpartum/therapy , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Empowerment , Evidence-Based Medicine , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Perinatal Care/methods , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Pregnancy Complications/therapy , Program Evaluation , Puerperal Disorders/epidemiology , Puerperal Disorders/psychology , Puerperal Disorders/therapy , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Telemedicine
16.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 2(4): 100229, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064757

ABSTRACT

Both acute and chronic stress can cause allostatic overload, or long-term imbalance in mediators of homeostasis, that results in disruptions in the maternal-placental-fetal endocrine and immune system responses. During pregnancy, disruptions in homeostasis may increase the likelihood of preterm birth and preeclampsia. Expectant mothers traditionally have high rates of anxiety and depressive disorders, and many are susceptible to a variety of stressors during pregnancy. These common life stressors include financial concerns and relationship challenges and may be exacerbated by the biological, social, and psychological changes occurring during pregnancy. In addition, external stressors such as major weather events (eg, hurricanes, tornados, floods) and other global phenomena (eg, the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic) may contribute to stress during pregnancy. This review investigates recent literature published about the use of nonpharmacologic modalities for stress relief in pregnancy and examines the interplay between psychiatric diagnoses and stressors, with the purpose of evaluating the feasibility of implementing nonpharmacologic interventions as sole therapies or in conjunction with psychotherapy or psychiatric medication therapy. Further, the effectiveness of each nonpharmacologic therapy in reducing symptoms of maternal stress is reviewed. Mindfulness meditation and biofeedback have shown effectiveness in improving one's mental health, such as depressive symptoms and anxiety. Exercise, including yoga, may improve both depressive symptoms and birth outcomes. Expressive writing has successfully been applied postpartum and in response to pregnancy challenges. Although some of these nonpharmacologic interventions can be convenient and low cost, there is a trend toward inconsistent implementation of these modalities. Future investigations should focus on methods to increase ease of uptake, ensure each option is available at home, and provide a standardized way to evaluate whether combinations of different interventions may provide added benefit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Complementary Therapies/methods , Pregnancy Complications , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Psychotherapy/methods , Stress, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Mental Health , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Pregnancy Complications/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/therapy
17.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 56: 102533, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064771

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study aimed to investigate and monitor the mental health status of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The meta-analysis was used to study the literatures on the psychology of pregnant women in four databases until Sep 27, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 19 articles were included in the final meta-analysis. The overall prevalence of anxiety was 42 % (95 %CI 26 %-57 %) with substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 99.6 %). The overall prevalence of depression was 25 % (95 %CI 20 %-31 %) with substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 97.9 %). Age, family economic status, social support, and physical activity seem to correlate with the mental health status of pregnant women. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anxiety and depression among pregnant women increased significantly during the COVID-19 epidemic. Pregnant women are more concerned about others than themselves during COVID-19, and younger pregnant women seem to be more prone to anxiety, while social support and physical activity can reduce the likelihood of anxiety and depression. It is necessary to take some psychological intervention measures for pregnant women to help them go through this special period safely and smoothly.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Depression/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Age Factors , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/psychology , Economic Status , Exercise/psychology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
18.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12196, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064309

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Maternity harassment, known in English as pregnancy discrimination, remains prevalent in developed countries. However, research examining the mental health effects of maternity harassment is lacking. We aimed to examine the association between maternity harassment and depression during pregnancy in Japan. METHODS: A cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted on 359 pregnant employees (including women who were working at the time their pregnancy was confirmed) from May 22 to May 31, 2020, during which time a COVID-19 state of emergency was declared. Maternity harassment was defined as being subjected to any of the 16 adverse treatments prohibited by national guidelines. Depression was defined as a score of ≥9 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (Japanese version). Logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: Overall, 24.8% of the pregnant employees had experienced maternity harassment by supervisors and/or colleagues. After adjusting for demographics, pregnancy status, work status, and fear of COVID-19, pregnant employees who experienced maternity harassment were more likely to have depression than those who did not (odds ratio 2.48, 95% confidential interval 1.34-4.60). This association was not influenced by whether they were teleworking or not as a COVID-19 measure. CONCLUSIONS: One quarter of pregnant employees experienced maternity harassment and had a higher prevalence of depression than those who did not. Being physically away from the office through teleworking may not reduce the effect of maternal harassment on depression. To protect the mental health and employment of pregnant women, employers should comply with the laws and take measures to prevent maternity harassment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Depression/complications , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Pregnancy/psychology , Prejudice/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Employment/psychology , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Prejudice/statistics & numerical data , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 88, 2021 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, pregnant women bear considerable physical and psychological stress because of their special conditions, which combined with other stress factors such as violence, makes their situation even more critical. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of domestic violence and its relationship with quality of life in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed with the participation of 250 pregnant women in the obstetrics clinic of 29-Bahman Hospital, Tabriz city. Using a three-part questionnaire consisting of the socio-demographic and obstetrics information, the domestic violence questionnaire developed by WHO, and the SF-12 quality of life questionnaire, the required information was collected. A general linear model was then used to determine the relationship between domestic violence and quality of life, while adjusting the socio-demographic and obstetrics information. RESULTS: According to the data, more than one-third of pregnant women (35.2 %) had experienced domestic violence. The most common type of violence experienced was emotional violence (32.8 %), followed by sexual violence (12.4 %), and physical violence (4.8 %). The mean score of the physical health department of quality of life in the group of women exposed to violence (50.21) was lower compared to the unexposed group (53.45), though there was no significant difference between them (P = 0.25). However, the mean score of the mental health department of quality of life in women exposed to violence (46.27) was significantly lower compared to unexposed women (61.17) (P < 0.001). Based on the general linear model, the mean score for quality of life in the mental health dimension was significantly higher among unexposed women compared to those exposed to violence (ß = 9.3, 95 %CI: 3.5 to 15.0, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study indicate a high prevalence of domestic violence and its relationship with a low quality of life during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the findings signify the importance of screening pregnant women in terms of domestic violence in respective centers as well as the necessity of conducting proper interventions to address domestic violence to improve the quality of life in women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Domestic Violence/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Quality of Life , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Iran , Mental Health , Physical Abuse/psychology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Prevalence , Sex Offenses/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
Semin Perinatol ; 44(7): 151279, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044689

ABSTRACT

The pandemic, and the associated changes to pregnancy and postpartum experiences, can lead to profound psychological reactions including panic, hyperarousal, sleep disturbance, anxiety, depression, and traumatic stress disorders. Providers face compassion fatigue and shared trauma. In this article, we describe the mental health outcomes known to date in regard to the novel coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic for obstetric patients and their providers as well as therapeutic approaches, including our novel embedded mental health service, to address these mental health needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Compassion Fatigue/psychology , Obstetrics , Physicians/psychology , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Psychological Trauma/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/therapy , Compassion Fatigue/therapy , Depression/psychology , Depression/therapy , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Mental Health Services , Organizational Policy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/therapy , Psychological Trauma/therapy , Psychotherapy , Psychotherapy, Group , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Wake Disorders , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/psychology , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/therapy , Telemedicine , Visitors to Patients
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