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1.
Obstet Gynecol ; 138(4): 542-551, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621687

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic altered risk of adverse pregnancy-related outcomes and whether there were differences by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection status among pregnant women. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study using Epic's Cosmos research platform, women who delivered during the pandemic (March-December 2020) were compared with those who delivered prepandemic (matched months 2017-2019). Within the pandemic epoch, those who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection were compared with those with negative test results or no SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. Comparisons were performed using standardized differences, with a value greater than 0.1 indicating meaningful differences between groups. RESULTS: Among 838,489 women (225,225 who delivered during the pandemic), baseline characteristics were similar between epochs. There were no significant differences in adverse pregnancy outcomes between epochs (standardized difference<0.10). In the pandemic epoch, 108,067 (48.0%) women had SARS-CoV-2 testing available; of those, 7,432 (6.9%) had positive test results. Compared with women classified as negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection, those who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection were less likely to be non-Hispanic White or Asian or to reside in the Midwest and more likely to be Hispanic, have public insurance, be obese, and reside in the South or in high social vulnerability ZIP codes. There were no significant differences in the frequency of preterm birth (8.5% vs 7.6%, standardized difference=0.032), stillbirth (0.4% vs 0.4%, standardized difference=-0.002), small for gestational age (6.4% vs 6.5%, standardized difference=-0.002), large for gestational age (7.7% vs 7.7%, standardized difference=-0.001), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (16.3% vs 15.8%, standardized difference=0.014), placental abruption (0.5% vs 0.4%, standardized difference=0.007), cesarean birth (31.2% vs 29.4%, standardized difference=0.039), or postpartum hemorrhage (3.4% vs 3.1%, standardized difference=0.019) between those who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and those classified as testing negative. CONCLUSION: In a geographically diverse U.S. cohort, the frequency of adverse pregnancy-related outcomes did not differ between those delivering before compared with during the pandemic, nor between those classified as positive compared with negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
2.
Saudi Med J ; 43(1): 67-74, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622885

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore the trimester wise significance of the primary outcome in pregnant women during coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Retrospective observational study of pregnant women who were infected with COVID-19 from April 2020 until March 2021 at Bahrain Defense Force Hospital, Riffa, Bahrain. The study focused on the effects in relation to gestational age (GA), association with variables, severity, and treatment. A p-value of ≤0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: During the study period, 74 COVID-19 cases were identified from the recorded 2944 pregnant women. The mean GA at diagnosis was 33.5±12.2 weeks, and the mean GA at birth was 38.4±1.8 weeks. Analysis of the obstetric complications revealed fetal growth restriction (FGR) had a p-value of <0.001. According to the trimester wise analysis, between the gestational period at diagnosis and the outcome of pregnancy, significant p-value of <0.01 was found in miscarriage. There were no significant associations found in GA at diagnosis and delivery, complications in relation to maternal age and body mass index, and no maternal morbidities or mortalities. CONCLUSION: In our study, FGR and miscarriage were the identified complications. However, the maternal and neonatal end result of COVID-19 was satisfactory.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 268: 135-142, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Selection, outcome and publication biases are well described in case reports and case series but may be less of a problem early in the appearance of a new disease when all cases might appear to be worth publishing. OBJECTIVE: To use a prospectively collected database of primary sources to compare the reporting of COVID-19 in pregnancy in case reports, case series and in registries over the first 8 months of the pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: MEDLINE, Embase and Maternity and Infant Care databases were searched from 22 March to 5 November 2020, to create a curated list of primary sources. Duplicate reports were excluded. Case reports, case series and registry studies of pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19, where neonatal outcomes were reported, were selected and data extracted on neonatal infection status, neonatal death, neonatal intensive care unit admission, preterm birth, stillbirth, maternal critical care unit admission and maternal death. RESULTS: 149 studies comprising 41,658 mothers and 8,854 neonates were included. All complications were more common in case reports, and in retrospective series compared with presumably prospective registry studies. Extensive overlap is likely in registry studies, with cases from seven countries reported by multiple registries. The UK Obstetric Surveillance System was the only registry to explicitly report identification and removal of duplicate cases, although five other registries reported collection of patient identifiable data which would facilitate identification of duplicates. CONCLUSIONS: Since it is likely that registries provide the least biased estimates, the higher rates seen in the other two study designs are probably due to selection or publication bias. However even some registry studies include self- or doctor-reported cases, so might be biased, and we could not completely exclude overlap of cases in some registries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth/epidemiology
4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 5, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605314

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Salud Mesoamérica Initiative (SMI) is a public-private collaboration aimed to improve maternal and child health conditions in the poorest populations of Mesoamerica through a results-based aid mechanism. We assess the impact of SMI on the staffing and availability of equipment and supplies for delivery care, the proportion of institutional deliveries, and the proportion of women who choose a facility other than the one closest to their locality of residence for delivery. METHODS: We used a quasi-experimental design, including baseline and follow-up measurements between 2013 and 2018 in intervention and comparison areas of Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Honduras. We collected information on 8754 births linked to the health facility closest to the mother's locality of residence and the facility where the delivery took place (if attended in a health facility). We fit difference-in-difference models, adjusting for women's characteristics (age, parity, education), household characteristics, exposure to health promotion interventions, health facility level, and country. RESULTS: Equipment, inputs, and staffing of facilities improved after the Initiative in both intervention and comparison areas. After adjustment for covariates, institutional delivery increased between baseline and follow-up by 3.1 percentage points (ß = 0.031, 95% CI -0.03, 0.09) more in intervention areas than in comparison areas. The proportion of women in intervention areas who chose a facility other than their closest one to attend the delivery decreased between baseline and follow-up by 13 percentage points (ß = - 0.130, 95% CI -0.23, - 0.03) more than in the comparison group. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that women in intervention areas of SMI are more likely to go to their closest facility to attend delivery after the Initiative has improved facilities' capacity, suggesting that results-based aid initiatives targeting poor populations, like SMI, can increase the use of facilities closest to the place of residence for delivery care services. This should be considered in the design of interventions after the COVID-19 pandemic may have changed health and social conditions.


Subject(s)
Delivery, Obstetric , Health Promotion , Health Services Accessibility , Maternal Health Services , Prenatal Care , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Guatemala , Health Facilities , Honduras , Humans , Middle Aged , Nicaragua , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Young Adult
5.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(44): e309, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed maternal and neonatal outcomes of critically ill pregnant and puerperal patients in the clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Records of pregnant and puerperal women with polymerase chain reaction positive COVID-19 virus who were admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) from March 2020 to August 2021 were investigated. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data, pharmacotherapy, and neonatal outcomes were analyzed. These outcomes were compared between patients that were discharged from ICU and patients who died in ICU. RESULTS: Nineteen women were included in this study. Additional oxygen was required in all cases (100%). Eight patients (42%) were intubated and mechanically ventilated. All patients that were mechanically ventilated have died. Increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) was seen in all patients (100%). D-dimer values increased in 15 patients (78.9%); interleukin-6 (IL-6) increased in 16 cases (84.2%). Sixteen patients used antiviral drugs. Eleven patients were discharged from the ICU and eight patients have died due to complications of COVID-19 showing an ICU mortality rate of 42.1%. Mean number of hospitalized days in ICU was significantly lower in patients that were discharged (P = 0.037). Seventeen patients underwent cesarean-section (C/S) (89.4%). Mean birth week was significantly lower in patients who died in ICU (P = 0.024). Eleven preterm (57.8%) and eight term deliveries (42.1%) occurred. CONCLUSION: High mortality rate was detected among critically ill pregnant/parturient patients followed in the ICU. Main predictors of mortality were the need of invasive mechanical ventilation and higher number of days hospitalized in ICU. Rate of C/S operations and preterm delivery were high. Pleasingly, the rate of neonatal death was low and no neonatal COVID-19 occurred.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Puerperal Disorders/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Cesarean Section , Combined Modality Therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
6.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(1): 119-121, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591380

ABSTRACT

The goal of this study was to investigate the maternal death rate among admitted pregnant patients with SARS-COV-2 during its 4th wave in Pakistan. It was a cross-sectional analytical study, carried on pregnant patients admitted due to COVID-19, in Sadiq Abbasi Hospital from 15th August to 15th September, 2021. Thirty-three PCR confirmed and HRCT suggestive patients were included with mean age of 28 ± 4.5 years and mean gestational age of 28.5 ± 6 weeks. Twenty-seven (81%) were non-vaccinated, 22 (66%) were admitted with severe disease, 13 (39.4%) and 11 (33.3%) were on non-invasive and invasive ventilator support, respectively. Only nine (27%) patients could continue their pregnancy. Fifteen (45%) patients had severe oligohydramnios. Twenty-two (66.7%) patients were died, all were unvaccinated. Regression analysis for maternal mortality predicted by severity and vaccination status was significant with R2=.68, F (1, 31) =66.6, p <.001 CI (-.69, -.42) and R2=.44, F (1, 31) = 24.8, p <.001 CI (-1.14, -.48), respectively. There was substantial mortality in the admitted and non-vaccinated pregnant patients with COVID-19. Key Words: Pregnancy, Vaccination, Severe COVID, Maternal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Vaccines , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Maternal Mortality , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
7.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 43(12): 949-960, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585700

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical and obstetric aspects of pregnant women with COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic literature review in the MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SCIELO, and CNKI databases was performed from March to May 2020, with the descriptors: Pregnancy; 2019-nCov; Coronavirus; SARS-Cov-2, Covid-19. Of those chosen were original titles, without language and period restriction and that addressed pregnant women with a clinical and/or laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19. Revisions, editorials, and duplicate titles were excluded. The Newcastle-Ottawa (NOS) and Murad et al. scales were used to assess the quality of the studies. RESULTS: We included 34 articles with 412 pregnant women infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-Cov-2), with an average age of 27.5 years of age and 36.0 gestational weeks. The most common symptom was fever (205 [49.7%]), and 89 (21.6%) pregnant women progressed to severe viral pneumonia. Laboratory tests showed an increase in C-reactive protein (154 [37.8%]), and radiological tests showed pneumonia with peripheral ground-glass pattern (172 [51.4%]). Emergency cesarean delivery was indicated for most pregnant women, and the most common gestational complication was premature rupture of ovarian membranes (14 [3.4%;]). We detected 2 (0.5%) neonatal deaths, 2 (0.5%) stillbirths, and 1 (0.2%) maternal death. CONCLUSION: Pregnant women with COVID-19 presented a clinical picture similar to that of non-infected pregnant women, with few obstetric or neonatal repercussions. There was a greater indication of cesarean deliveries before the disease aggravated, and there was no evidence of vertical transmission of the infection.


OBJETIVO: Analisar os aspectos clínicos e obstétricos de gestantes com COVID-19. MéTODOS: Revisão sistemática da literatura nas bases: MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SCIELO e CNKI, realizada de março a maio de 2020, com os descritores Pregnancy; 2019-nCov; Coronavirus; SARS-Cov-2, Covid-19. Elegeram-se títulos originais, sem restrição de idioma e período e que abordassem gestantes com diagnóstico clínico e/ou laboratorial de COVID-19. Excluíram-se revisões, editoriais, títulos duplicados. As escalas de Newcastle-Ottawa (NOS, na sigla em inglês) e a de Murad et al. foram utilizadas para avaliar a qualidade dos estudos. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 34 artigos com 412 gestantes infectadas pela síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS-Cov, na sigla em inglês) com idade média de 27,5 anos e média de 36,0 semanas gestacionais. O sintoma mais incidente foi a febre (49,7%;205). e 89 (21,6%) gestantes evoluíram para pneumonia viral grave. Os exames laboratoriais demonstraram aumento da proteína C reativa (37,8%; 154) e os radiológicos mostraram pneumonia com padrão em vidro fosco periférico (51,4%; 172). O parto cesáreo de emergência foi indicado para a maior parte das gestantes, e a complicação gestacional mais comum foi a ruptura prematura de membranas ovulares (3,4%; 14). Foram detectados 2 (0,5%) mortes neonatais, 2 (0,5%) natimortos, e 1 (0,2%) morte materna. CONCLUSãO: Gestantes com doença coronavírus (COVID-19, na sigla em inglês apresentaram quadro clínico semelhante a gestantes não infectadas, com poucas repercussões obstétricas ou neonatais. Houve uma maior indicação de partos cesáreos antes do agravamento da doença e não se observaram evidências de transmissão vertical da infecção.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-16, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574630

ABSTRACT

In a large-scale study, 128176 non-pregnant patients (228 studies) and 10000 pregnant patients (121 studies) confirmed COVID-19 cases included in this Meta-Analysis. The mean (confidence interval [CI]) of age and gestational age of admission (GA) in pregnant women was 33 (28-37) years old and 36 (34-37) weeks, respectively. Pregnant women show the same manifestations of COVID-19 as non-pregnant adult patients. Fever (pregnant: 75.5%; non-pregnant: 74%) and cough (pregnant: 48.5%; non-pregnant: 53.5%) are the most common symptoms in both groups followed by myalgia (26.5%) and chill (25%) in pregnant and dysgeusia (27%) and fatigue (26.5%) in non-pregnant patients. Pregnant women are less probable to show cough (odds ratio [OR] 0.7; 95% CI 0.67-0.75), fatigue (OR: 0.58; CI: 0.54-0.61), sore throat (OR: 0.66; CI: 0.61-0.7), headache (OR: 0.55; CI: 0.55-0.58) and diarrhea (OR: 0.46; CI: 0.4-0.51) than non-pregnant adult patients. The most common imaging found in pregnant women is ground-glass opacity (57%) and in non-pregnant patients is consolidation (76%). Pregnant women have higher proportion of leukocytosis (27% vs. 14%), thrombocytopenia (18% vs. 12.5%) and have lower proportion of raised C-reactive protein (52% vs. 81%) compared with non-pregnant patients. Leucopenia and lymphopenia are almost the same in both groups. The most common comorbidity in pregnant patients is diabetes (18%) and in non-pregnant patients is hypertension (21%). Case fatality rate (CFR) of non-pregnant hospitalized patients is 6.4% (4.4-8.5), and mortality due to all-cause for pregnant patients is 11.3% (9.6-13.3). Regarding the complications of pregnancy, postpartum hemorrhage (54.5% [7-94]), caesarean delivery (48% [42-54]), preterm labor (25% [4-74]) and preterm birth (21% [12-34]) are in turn the most prevalent complications. Comparing the pregnancy outcomes show that caesarean delivery (OR: 3; CI: 2-5), low birth weight (LBW) (OR: 9; CI: 2.4-30) and preterm birth (OR: 2.5; CI: 1.5-3.5) are more probable in pregnant woman with COVID-19 than pregnant women without COVID-19. The most prevalent neonatal complications are neonatal intensive care unit admission (43% [2-96]), fetal distress (30% [12-58]) and LBW (25% [16-37]). The rate of vertical transmission is 5.3% (1.3-16), and the rate of positive SARS-CoV-2 test for neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 is 8% (4-16). Overall, pregnant patients present with the similar clinical characteristics of COVID-19 when compared with the general population, but they may be more asymptomatic. Higher odds of caesarean delivery, LBW and preterm birth among pregnant patients with COVID-19 suggest a possible association between COVID-19 infection and pregnancy complications. Low risk of vertical transmission is present, and SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in all conception products, particularly placenta and breast milk. Interpretations of these results should be done cautiously due to the heterogeneity between studies; however, we believe our findings can guide the prenatal and postnatal considerations for COVID-19 pregnant patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnant Women , Premature Birth , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
9.
Infect Dis Now ; 51(5): 435-439, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574384

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly across the world. Given the sharply increased infection rate, the number of pregnant women and children with COVID-19 is correspondingly on the rise. SARS-CoV-2 infection is transmitted through droplets; though hypothesized, other transmission routes have not been confirmed. As of now, it remains unclear whether and how SARS-CoV-2 can possibly be transmitted from the mother to the fetus. Method: This study examines the medical records of 30 neonates born to women with COVID-19, the objective being to provide documented information on maternal-child transmission and infant outcomes. Results: Out of the 30 newborns, 28 had negative PCR test results for SARS-CoV-2; among their mothers, fifteen had fever, nine had cough and twenty had delivered by cesarean section. The median birth term was 37wk2dy, and twenty of the neonates were male. Most of them were asymptomatic, except for the three who presented with shortness of breath. Two of them were intubated and both died, the first because of severe sepsis and the second due to severe hyaline membrane disease. As regards the two infected neonates, the first represents a probable case of congenital SARS-CoV-2 infection, which appears unlikely in the second case. The outcome for both of them was good, without any complications. Conclusion: Maternal-fetal transmission of the SARS- CoV-2 virus was not detected in the majority of the reported cases, although two of 30 neonates had positive qRT-PCR test results. Our study supports the hypothesis that though it seldom actually occurs, in utero SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission is possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mothers , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
10.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 588, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571928

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is the third member of the coronavirus family to cause global concern in the twenty-first century. Pregnant women are particularly at higher risk of developing severe viral pneumonia, possibly because of a partial immune suppression during their pregnancy. Under such critical and rapidly evolving circumstances, these poor findings might be helpful for the treatment of infected pregnant women with the 2019 novel coronavirus. CASE PRESENTATION: In this study, we report the case of a 33-year-old Asian pregnant woman at 25 gestational weeks with coronavirus disease 2019 who developed severe complications, including hypoxemia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary infiltration, and bilateral pleural effusion. She died 1 month after admission to the hospital. CONCLUSION: Pregnant populations are especially at higher risk of viral pneumonia development caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Further research on the prevention and treatment of the new coronavirus is necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Adult , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 268: 110-115, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568666

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 is a rapidly spreading disease and many people have been infected in a short time. Favipiravir is under investigation for the treatment of COVID-19 and given to patients in many countries following emergency use approval. Based on data from animal studies, favipiravir use is contraindicated during pregnancy. Currently, there is no human data except for a single case report on use of favipiravir in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: This article includes the outcomes of 29 pregnancies reported to the Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology Unit regarding favipiravir use in pregnancy. For drug risk assessment, maternal characteristics were obtained at first contact. After the expected day of delivery, follow-up is conducted by phone call and all relevant data regarding pregnancy and newborn outcome were documented. RESULTS: Of the 29 pregnancies exposed to favipiravir, 5 were electively terminated and 24 resulted in live birth. There were no miscarriages or no stillbirths. There were 25 live births including one pair of twins. Three children were born premature, and one infant had patent foramen ovale. Birth weights, lengths and head circumferences of all infants were within normal range. CONCLUSION: The results of the study indicate that favipiravir is unlikely to be a major human teratogen, but experience is still limited for a well-grounded risk assessment. Although these findings may be useful for the physicians and patients, larger studies are needed due to small number of cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Outcome , Amides/toxicity , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pyrazines/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2
12.
S Afr Med J ; 111(12): 1174-1180, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women living with HIV (PLHIV) has not been described previously. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical presentation and outcomes of a cohort of women with high-risk pregnancies with confirmed COVID-19 to determine whether risk factors for disease severity and adverse outcomes of COVID-19 differed in pregnant women without HIV compared with PLHIV. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled pregnant women with COVID-19 attending the high-risk obstetric service at Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, from 1 May to 31 July 2020, with follow-up until 31 October 2020. Women were considered high risk if they required specialist care for maternal, neonatal and/or anaesthetic conditions. Common maternal or obstetric conditions included hypertensive disorders, morbid obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥40 kg/m2) and diabetes. Information on demographics, clinical features, and maternal and neonatal outcomes was collected and compared for PLHIV v. pregnant women without HIV. RESULTS: One hundred women (72 without HIV and 28 PLHIV) with high-risk pregnancies had laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Among the 28 PLHIV, the median (interquartile range) CD4 count was 441 (317 - 603) cells/µL, and 19/26 (73%) were virologically suppressed. COVID-19 was diagnosed predominantly in the third trimester (81%). Obesity (BMI ≥30 in n=61/81; 75%) and hypertensive disorders were frequent comorbidities. Of the 100 women, 40% developed severe or critical COVID-19, 15% required intensive care unit admission and 6% needed invasive ventilation. Eight women died, 1 from advanced HIV disease complicated by bacteraemia and urosepsis. The crude maternal mortality rate was substantially higher in women with COVID-19 compared with all other deliveries at our institution during this period (8/91 (9%) v. 7/4 058 (0.2%); p<0.001). Neonatal outcomes were favourable. No significant differences in COVID-19 risk factors, disease severity, and maternal/neonatal outcome were noted for PLHIV v. those without HIV. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of high-risk pregnant women, the impact of COVID-19 was severe, significantly increasing maternal mortality risk compared with baseline rates. Virally suppressed HIV infection was not associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes in pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Adult , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Maternal Mortality , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Prospective Studies , South Africa
13.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 263: 171-175, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544980

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections, like most other viruses that affect the respiratory tract can cause severe maternal illness and adverse pregnancy outcomes. They are not only highly transmissible (acquired through droplets), but Host reservoirs such as dromedary camels for MERS-CoV and masked palm civet for SARS-CoV-1 are critical links in the onset of outbreaks. Clinically they present with flu-like symptoms and therefore a high index of suspicion is required to ensure timely diagnosis and tailored management. Although there are not many reported series on these infections in pregnancy they seem to be associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery and maternal mortality. Diagnosis is made by PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs. There are currently no effective anti-viral agents for these viruses but following infections various agents have been administered to patients. The most important aspect of management should be early identification of deterioration and intensive support and prevention of transmission. Our understanding of the evidence of the impact of both infections on pregnancies suggests the potential for future repeat outbreaks, hence the importance of maintaining vigilance across healthcare systems.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , SARS Virus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome
14.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 263: 106-116, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544979

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus-2 which causes COVID-19 disease results in severe morbidity and mortality especially in vulnerable groups. Pregnancy by virtue of its physiological and anatomical adaptations increases the risk of severe infections especially those of the respiratory tract. This single stranded RNA virus is transmitted by droplets as well as soiled fomites. There are various degrees of disease severity- asymptomatic, mild, moderate severe and critical. Most infections in pregnancy are asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic. For these women, the consequences on the mother or pregnancy are minimal unless they have additional risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiorespiratory disease, obesity or are of ethnic minority background. Most women with symptoms will present with fever, unproductive cough, sore throat, myalgia, nasal congestion, loss of smell and taste with associated leukocytosis and lymphopenia. Diagnosis is by RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal flocked swabs or saliva and pathognomonic features of ground-glass appearance and pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray or CT scans. Management in pregnancy is same as that for non-pregnant women with COVID-19. It is not an indication for elective delivery but assisted delivery in the second stage for those with moderate, severe or critical disease may be required to shorten this stage. COVID-19 is not an indication for interrupting pregnancy or caesarean section but the latter may be performed to facilitate ventilation support or resuscitation in those with severe disease. Pain relief in labour should not be different but regional analgesia is preferred for operative deliveries. Postpartum thromboprophylaxis should be considered and breast feeding encouraged with appropriate precautions to minimize vertical transmission. Pregnant and lactating women should be encouraged to receive the mRNA based vaccines as there is no evidence of adverse outcomes with these.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Labor, Obstetric , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants , Cesarean Section , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Lactation , Minority Groups , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 384, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547779

ABSTRACT

The first cases of infection caused by new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus were reported in China in December 2019. This disease is called COVID-19 and has been declared as a pandemic by the WHO three months after its outbreak (in March 2020). In most cases it results in non-severe infectious syndrome associated with different degrees of benign symptoms (fever, cough, myalgia, headache and potential digestive disorders). SARS-CoV-2 can cause severe lung diseased and, sometimes, it results in death. Data on its consequences during pregnancy are limited. Currently, data on SARS-CoV-2 infection are reassuring and don´t indicate a higher risk of infection or a superimposed risk of complications in pregnant women compared to the general population. A few exceptional cases of maternal mortality have been reported, but they occur, most often, in patients with other diseases, in particular pre-eclampsia. This retrospective study highlights the clinical, biological and evolutionary materno-fetal data collected in the COVID-19 Military Field Hospital of Benslimane, Morocco, over a period of 3 months, from 21st July to 21 October 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Adult , Female , Hospitals, Military , Humans , Morocco , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
16.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 60(6): 1043-1046, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525965

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Aim of this study is to evaluate the prognosis of pregnant women having SARS-CoV-2 infection and investigate whether there was a difference in perinatal outcomes between pregnant women who had SARS-CoV-2 infection and those who did not. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted with 116 singleton pregnancies. Cases enrolling in the study were divided into two groups. While those in the first group had a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 46) the second group consisted of healthy pregnant women (n = 70). RESULTS: Emergency Cesarean section was performed on three SARS-CoV-2 infected pregnancies (30, 33 and 34 gestational weeks). Intensive care unit admission was required for all three cases after delivery and two of them died. Among the pregnancies that had an infection in the third trimester, 71.4% (n = 20) of them had delivery in 14 days after diagnosis and 17.4% (n = 8) of their newborns were followed up at newborn intensive care unit. Overall, only one newborn had a positive swab test result for SARS-CoV-2. There was no statistically significant difference between groups regarding their delivery week (37.02 ± 5.85 vs 38.5 ± 2.33). Similarly, there was no significant difference between groups, concerning mean age, parity, and birth weight (P = 0.707, P = 0.092, P = 0.334; P < 0.05). Furthermore, the difference between SARS-CoV-2 infected pregnancies that were followed up as inpatient or outpatient with respect to the delivery week and birth weight was not significant (p > 0.05). Also, APGAR 5 scores of hospitalized women (9.3 ± 1.1) were found to be lower than the outpatient group (9.8 ± 0.8) (P = 0.043; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: No significant difference was detected between groups in terms of the delivery week, birth weight, and APGAR scores. The inpatient group was found to have lower APGAR 5 scores.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Delivery, Obstetric , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Pregnant Women/psychology , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Birth Weight , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 3(6): 100468, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525659

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to report the spectrum of placental pathology findings in pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2 infection. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar, and the Web of Science databases were searched up to August 11, 2021. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Histopathologic anomalies included maternal vascular malperfusion, fetal vascular malperfusion, acute inflammatory pathology, chronic inflammatory pathology, increased perivillous fibrin, and intervillous thrombosis. Moreover, subanalyses of symptomatic women only and high-risk pregnancies were performed. METHODS: Histopathologic analysis of the placenta included gross examination, histopathology on hematoxylin and eosin, immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on placental tissue, and transmission electron microscope. Random-effect meta-analyses were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: A total of 56 studies (1008 pregnancies) were included. Maternal vascular malperfusion was reported in 30.7% of placentas (95% confidence interval, 20.3-42.1), whereas fetal vascular malperfusion was observed in 27.08 % of cases (95% confidence interval, 19.2-35.6). Acute and chronic inflammatory pathologies were reported in 22.68% (95% confidence interval, 16.9-29.0) and 25.65% (95% confidence interval, 18.4-33.6) of cases, respectively. Increased perivillous fibrin was observed in 32.7% (95% confidence interval, 24.1-42.0) of placentas undergoing histopathologic analysis, whereas intervillous thrombosis was observed in 14.6% of cases (95% confidence interval, 9.7-20.2). Other placental findings, including a basal plate with attached myometrial fibers, microscopic accretism, villous edema, increased circulating nucleated red blood cells, or membranes with hemorrhage, were reported in 37.5% of cases (95% confidence interval, 28.0-47.5), whereas only 17.5% of cases (95% confidence interval, 10.9-25.2) did not present any abnormal histologic findings. The subanalyses according to maternal symptoms owing to SARS-CoV-2 infection or the presence of a high-risk pregnancy showed a similar distribution of the different histopathologic anomalies to that reported in the main analysis. Moreover, the risk of placental histopathologic anomalies was higher when considering only case-control studies comparing women with SARS-CoV-2 infection with healthy controls. CONCLUSION: In pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, a significant proportion of placentas showed histopathologic findings, suggesting placental hypoperfusion and inflammation. Future multicenter prospective blinded studies are needed to correlate these placental lesions with pregnancy outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Placenta , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(3): 763-767, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524479

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is an emerging disease. There has been a rapid increase in cases and deaths since it was identified in Wuhan, China, in early December 2019, with over 4,000,000 cases of COVID-19 including at least 250,000 deaths worldwide as of May 2020. However, limited data about the clinical characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19 have been reported. Given the maternal physiologic and immune function changes during pregnancy, pregnant women may be at a higher risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 and developing more complicated clinical events. Information on severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) may provide insights into the effects of COVID-19's during pregnancy. Even though SARS and MERS have been associated with miscarriage, intrauterine death, fetal growth restriction and high case fatality rates, the clinical course of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant women has been reported to be similar to that in non-pregnant women. In addition, pregnant women do not appear to be at a higher risk of catching COVID-19 or suffering from more severe disease than other adults of similar age. Moreover, there is currently no evidence that the virus can be transmitted to the fetus during pregnancy or during childbirth. Babies and young children are also known to only experience mild forms of COVID-19. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize the possible symptoms, treatments, and pregnancy outcomes of women infected with COVID-19 during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Maternal Exposure , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Severity of Illness Index
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(10): 1768-1775, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We performed a population-based study to describe the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: This prospective, population-based study included pregnant women who consecutively presented at first/second trimester visits or at delivery at 3 hospitals in Barcelona, Spain. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (immunoglobulin [Ig] G and IgM/IgA) were measured in all participants, and nasopharyngeal real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed at delivery. The primary outcome was a composite of pregnancy complications in SARS-CoV-2-positive vs negative women that included miscarriage, preeclampsia, preterm delivery, perinatal death, small-for-gestational-age newborn, or neonatal admission. Secondary outcomes were components of the primary outcome plus abnormal fetal growth, malformation, or intrapartum fetal distress. Outcomes were also compared between positive symptomatic and positive asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 women. RESULTS: Of 2225 pregnant women, 317 (14.2%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (n = 314, 99.1%) and/or RT-PCR (n = 36, 11.4%). Among positive women, 217 (68.5%) were asymptomatic, 93 (29.3%) had mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and 7 (2.2%) had pneumonia, of whom 3 required intensive care unit admission. In women with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection, the primary outcome occurred in 43 (13.6%) and 268 (14%), respectively (risk difference, -0.4%; 95% confidence interval, -4.1% to 4.1). Compared with noninfected women, those with symptomatic COVID-19 had increased rates of preterm delivery (7.2% vs 16.9%, P = .003) and intrapartum fetal distress (9.1% vs 19.2%, P = .004), while asymptomatic women had rates that were similar to those of noninfected cases. Among 143 fetuses from infected mothers, none had anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgA in cord blood. CONCLUSIONS: The overall rate of pregnancy complications in women with SARS-CoV-2 infection was similar to that of noninfected women. However, symptomatic COVID-19 was associated with modest increases in preterm delivery and intrapartum fetal distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(44): e309, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518464

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed maternal and neonatal outcomes of critically ill pregnant and puerperal patients in the clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Records of pregnant and puerperal women with polymerase chain reaction positive COVID-19 virus who were admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) from March 2020 to August 2021 were investigated. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data, pharmacotherapy, and neonatal outcomes were analyzed. These outcomes were compared between patients that were discharged from ICU and patients who died in ICU. RESULTS: Nineteen women were included in this study. Additional oxygen was required in all cases (100%). Eight patients (42%) were intubated and mechanically ventilated. All patients that were mechanically ventilated have died. Increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) was seen in all patients (100%). D-dimer values increased in 15 patients (78.9%); interleukin-6 (IL-6) increased in 16 cases (84.2%). Sixteen patients used antiviral drugs. Eleven patients were discharged from the ICU and eight patients have died due to complications of COVID-19 showing an ICU mortality rate of 42.1%. Mean number of hospitalized days in ICU was significantly lower in patients that were discharged (P = 0.037). Seventeen patients underwent cesarean-section (C/S) (89.4%). Mean birth week was significantly lower in patients who died in ICU (P = 0.024). Eleven preterm (57.8%) and eight term deliveries (42.1%) occurred. CONCLUSION: High mortality rate was detected among critically ill pregnant/parturient patients followed in the ICU. Main predictors of mortality were the need of invasive mechanical ventilation and higher number of days hospitalized in ICU. Rate of C/S operations and preterm delivery were high. Pleasingly, the rate of neonatal death was low and no neonatal COVID-19 occurred.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Puerperal Disorders/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Cesarean Section , Combined Modality Therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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