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1.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(1): 102362, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pregnant women have significant morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19 infection. Pregnancy and diabetes are known risk factors for severe COVID 19 infection. Understanding the interactions between COVID-19 and diabetes in pregnancy is crucial in developing appropriate therapeutic approaches. India, like many other countries, has a very high prevalence of diabetes and COVID-19 infected cases. Such studies are minimal worldwide and none from India to the best of our knowledge. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We did a retrospective cross-sectional study. 856 COVID-19 infected pregnant women were included in the study. We estimated the impact of diabetes on the severity of COVID-19 infected pregnant women and compared the outcomes with the non-diabetic group. RESULTS: Prevalence of diabetes in pregnancy in the present study was 15.43%(n = 132/856). Prevalence of diabetes in non-severe infection was 14%(n = 115/818), severe infection was 44.73%(n = 17/38), and in maternal deaths was 75% (n = 6/8). The age-adjusted odds ratio for diabetes for severe infection was 4.492 (95% CI = 2.277-8.865, p < 0.001). COVID-19 infected pregnant women with diabetes were at higher risk for Cesarean section (78.3%) and ICU admission for newborns (14.81%) CONCLUSION: Diabetes in pregnant women is strongly associated with the severity of COVID-19 infection. The prevalence of diabetes in pregnancy increases as the severity of COVID-19 infection increases. Diabetes is associated with more adverse outcomes in mothers and newborns. It is necessary to identify pregnant women with diabetes and prioritize them in public health interventions like vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy in Diabetics/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes, Gestational/pathology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn , Male , Patient Acuity , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnancy in Diabetics/pathology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 574, 2021 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374107

ABSTRACT

SARS-Cov-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus 2) infection confers a non-negligible risk for younger pregnant women with diabetes, which is still less well investigated. This topic was recently addressed by a systematic scoping review in BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, aiming to summarize the complex interaction between SARS-Cov-2 infection, pregnancy and diabetes. This commentary will summarize and discuss the main findings of this article and its implications for future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Maternal Health/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy in Diabetics/epidemiology , Prenatal Care/methods , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Primary Prevention/methods
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 573, 2021 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365334

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently, we suffer from an increasing diabetes pandemic and on the other hand from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Already at the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, it was quickly assumed that certain groups are at increased risk to suffer from a severe course of COVID-19. There are serious concerns regarding potential adverse effects on maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes. Diabetic pregnancies clearly need special care, but clinical implications as well as the complex interplay of diabetes and SARS-CoV-2 are currently unknown. We summarized the evidence on SARS-CoV-2 in diabetic pregnancies, including the identification of novel potential pathophysiological mechanisms and interactions as well as clinical outcomes and features, screening, and management approaches. METHODS: We carried out a systematic scoping review in MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science Core Collection in September 2020. RESULTS: We found that the prognosis of pregnant women with diabetes mellitus and COVID-19 may be associated with potential underlying mechanisms such as a simplified viral uptake by ACE2, a higher basal value of pro-inflammatory cytokines, being hypoxemic as well as platelet activation, embolism, and preeclampsia. In the context of "trans-generational programming" and COVID-19, life-long consequences may be "programmed" during gestation by pro-inflammation, hypoxia, over- or under-expression of transporters and enzymes, and epigenetic modifications based on changes in the intra-uterine milieu. COVID-19 may cause new onset diabetes mellitus, and that vertical transmission from mother to baby might be possible. CONCLUSIONS: Given the challenges in clinical management, the complex interplay between COVID-19 and diabetic pregnancies, evidence-based recommendations are urgently needed. Digital medicine is a future-oriented and effective approach in the context of clinical diabetes management. We anticipate our review to be a starting point to understand and analyze mechanisms and epidemiology to most effectively treat women with SARS-COV-2 and diabetes in pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Maternal Health/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy in Diabetics/epidemiology , Prenatal Care/methods , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Primary Prevention/methods
4.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(7): 2151-2155, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246118

ABSTRACT

AIM: To discuss available information on the opportunity for pregnant women affected by diabetes/obesity to receive COVID-19 vaccine. DATA SYNTHESIS: Pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection are at high risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome and adverse outcomes. Pregnant women with severe COVID-19 present increased rates of preterm delivery (<37 gestational weeks), cesarean delivery and neonatal admissions to the intensive care unit. Comorbidity such as diabetes (pregestational or gestational) or obesity further increased maternal and fetal complications. It is known that diabetic or obese patients with COVID-19 present an unfavorable course and a worse prognosis, with a direct association between worse outcome and suboptimal glycol-metabolic control or body mass index (BMI) levels. Critical COVID-19 infection prevention is important for both mother and fetus. Vaccination during pregnancy is a common practice. Vaccines against COVID-19 are distributed across the world with some population considered to have a priority. Since pregnant women are excluded from clinical trials very little information are available on safety and efficacy of COVD-19 vaccines during pregnancy. However, it is well known the concept of passive immunization of the newborn obtained with transplacental passage of protective antibodies into the fetal/neonatal circulation after maternal infection or vaccination. Moreover, it has been reported that COVID-19 vaccine-induced IgG pass to the neonates through breastmilk. Therefore, maternal vaccination can protect mother, fetus and baby. CONCLUSIONS: After an individual risk/benefit evaluation pregnant and lactating women should be counselled to receive COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes, Gestational/blood , Lactation , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy in Diabetics/blood , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Clinical Decision-Making , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Diabetes, Gestational/therapy , Female , Glycemic Control , Humans , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Milk, Human/immunology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy in Diabetics/diagnosis , Pregnancy in Diabetics/therapy , Prenatal Care , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects
5.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 2(2): 100111, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064727

ABSTRACT

The worldwide incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is rapidly increasing, but there exists limited information on coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy. Here, we present our experience with 7 confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy presenting to a single large New York City tertiary care hospital. Of the 7 patients, 5 presented with symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019, including cough, myalgias, fevers, chest pain, and headache. Of the 7 patients, 4 were admitted to the hospital, including 2 who required supportive care with intravenous hydration. Of note, the other 2 admitted patients who were asymptomatic on admission to the hospital, presenting instead for obstetrically indicated labor inductions, became symptomatic after delivery, each requiring intensive care unit admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Carrier State , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Adult , Anesthesia, General , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Bronchial Spasm/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Cesarean Section , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Fever/physiopathology , Health Personnel , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal , Labor, Induced , New York City , Nicardipine/therapeutic use , Occupational Exposure , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Postpartum Hemorrhage/therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy in Diabetics , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Uterine Inertia/therapy
7.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 165: 108239, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-437516

ABSTRACT

SARS-Cov2 infection has recently spread to Italy with important consequences on pregnancy management, mother and child health and mother-child contact. Breastfeeding improves the health of mother and child and reduces risk of neonatal infection with other pathogens that are likely to cause serious illness. To date no evidence confirmed COVID-19 vertical transmission from infected pregnant mother to their fetus. However it is well known that an infected mother can transmit the COVID-19 virus through respiratory droplets during breastfeeding or intimate contact. Thus, the mothers with known or suspected COVID-19 should adhere to standard and contact precautions during breastfeeding. Woman Study Group of AMD, after reviewing current knowledge about COVID-19 vertical transmission and the compatibility of breastfeeding in COVID-19 mother, the available recommendations from Health Care Organizations and main experts opinions, issued the following suggestions on breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic, addressed both to mothers with and without diabetes. It should be considered that following suggestions may change in the future when more evidence is acquired regarding SARS-Cov2 infection.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Complications , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy in Diabetics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 22(6): 454-461, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245149

ABSTRACT

Background: Pregnant women with diabetes are identified as being more vulnerable to the severe effects of COVID-19 and advised to stringently follow social distancing measures. Here, we review the management of diabetes in pregnancy before and during the lockdown. Methods: Majority of antenatal diabetes and obstetric visits are provided remotely, with pregnant women attending hospital clinics only for essential ultrasound scans and labor and delivery. Online resources for supporting women planning pregnancy and for self-management of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes (T1D) using intermittent or continuous glucose monitoring are provided. Retinal screening procedures, intrapartum care, and the varying impact of lockdown on maternal glycemic control are considered. Alternative screening procedures for diagnosing hyperglycemia during pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are discussed. Case histories describe the remote initiation of insulin pump therapy and automated insulin delivery in T1D pregnancy. Results: Initial feedback suggests that video consultations are well received and that the patient experiences for women requiring face-to-face visits are greatly improved. As the pandemic eases, formal evaluation of remote models of diabetes education and technology implementation, including women's views, will be important. Conclusions: Research and audit activities will resume and we will find new ways for supporting pregnant women with diabetes to choose their preferred glucose monitoring and insulin delivery.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diabetes, Gestational/drug therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy in Diabetics/drug therapy , Prenatal Care/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Diabetes, Gestational/blood , Diabetes, Gestational/virology , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin Infusion Systems , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy in Diabetics/blood , Pregnancy in Diabetics/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Management/methods
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