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Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(7): 2151-2155, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246118


AIM: To discuss available information on the opportunity for pregnant women affected by diabetes/obesity to receive COVID-19 vaccine. DATA SYNTHESIS: Pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection are at high risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome and adverse outcomes. Pregnant women with severe COVID-19 present increased rates of preterm delivery (<37 gestational weeks), cesarean delivery and neonatal admissions to the intensive care unit. Comorbidity such as diabetes (pregestational or gestational) or obesity further increased maternal and fetal complications. It is known that diabetic or obese patients with COVID-19 present an unfavorable course and a worse prognosis, with a direct association between worse outcome and suboptimal glycol-metabolic control or body mass index (BMI) levels. Critical COVID-19 infection prevention is important for both mother and fetus. Vaccination during pregnancy is a common practice. Vaccines against COVID-19 are distributed across the world with some population considered to have a priority. Since pregnant women are excluded from clinical trials very little information are available on safety and efficacy of COVD-19 vaccines during pregnancy. However, it is well known the concept of passive immunization of the newborn obtained with transplacental passage of protective antibodies into the fetal/neonatal circulation after maternal infection or vaccination. Moreover, it has been reported that COVID-19 vaccine-induced IgG pass to the neonates through breastmilk. Therefore, maternal vaccination can protect mother, fetus and baby. CONCLUSIONS: After an individual risk/benefit evaluation pregnant and lactating women should be counselled to receive COVID-19 vaccines.

Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes, Gestational/blood , Lactation , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy in Diabetics/blood , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Clinical Decision-Making , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Diabetes, Gestational/therapy , Female , Glycemic Control , Humans , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Milk, Human/immunology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy in Diabetics/diagnosis , Pregnancy in Diabetics/therapy , Prenatal Care , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 22(6): 454-461, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245149


Background: Pregnant women with diabetes are identified as being more vulnerable to the severe effects of COVID-19 and advised to stringently follow social distancing measures. Here, we review the management of diabetes in pregnancy before and during the lockdown. Methods: Majority of antenatal diabetes and obstetric visits are provided remotely, with pregnant women attending hospital clinics only for essential ultrasound scans and labor and delivery. Online resources for supporting women planning pregnancy and for self-management of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes (T1D) using intermittent or continuous glucose monitoring are provided. Retinal screening procedures, intrapartum care, and the varying impact of lockdown on maternal glycemic control are considered. Alternative screening procedures for diagnosing hyperglycemia during pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are discussed. Case histories describe the remote initiation of insulin pump therapy and automated insulin delivery in T1D pregnancy. Results: Initial feedback suggests that video consultations are well received and that the patient experiences for women requiring face-to-face visits are greatly improved. As the pandemic eases, formal evaluation of remote models of diabetes education and technology implementation, including women's views, will be important. Conclusions: Research and audit activities will resume and we will find new ways for supporting pregnant women with diabetes to choose their preferred glucose monitoring and insulin delivery.

Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diabetes, Gestational/drug therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy in Diabetics/drug therapy , Prenatal Care/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Diabetes, Gestational/blood , Diabetes, Gestational/virology , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin Infusion Systems , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy in Diabetics/blood , Pregnancy in Diabetics/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Management/methods