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1.
Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 27(2): 134-140, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234510

ABSTRACT

Metformin is a widely used biguanide drug recommended as a first-line antidiabetic for type 2 diabetes. Currently, metformin is used not only in the treatment of diabetes but also in other diseases. Some studies have shown that metformin causes weight loss in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant overweight and obese patients. Metformin is an effective and safe option for women with gestational diabetes and type 2 diabetes in pregnancy, and it may also increase the ovulation rate in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Longer survival times have been observed in cancer patients using metformin. Metformin has been shown to significantly correlate with lower mortality in obese or type 2 diabetic women hospitalized for COVID-19. It also has a protective effect on the development and progression of many types of cancer. The mechanisms of action of metformin are complex and still not fully understood. Metformin has been shown to act through both AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent mechanisms and AMPK-independent mechanisms. This paper presents the benefits of using metformin in the treatment of various diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Metformin , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 538, 2023 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241383

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Respectful maternity care is an approach that involves respecting women's belief, choices, emotions, and dignity during the childbirth process. As the workload among maternity care workforce affects intrapartum quality care, respectful maternity care might have also been affected, particularly during the pandemic. Thus, this study was conducted to examine the association between workload among healthcare providers and their practice of respectful maternity care, before and during the early phase of pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in South Western Nepal. A total of 267 healthcare providers from 78 birthing centers were included. Data collection was done through telephone interviews. The exposure variable was workload among the healthcare providers, and the outcome variable was respectful maternity care practice before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Multilevel mixed-effect linear regression was used to examine the association. RESULTS: The median client-provider ratio before and during the pandemic was 21.7 and 13.0, respectively. The mean score of respectful maternity care practice was 44.5 (SD 3.8) before the pandemic, which was decreased to 43.6 (SD 4.5) during the pandemic. Client-provider ratio was negatively associated with respectful maternity care practice for both times; before (Coef. -5.16; 95% CI -8.41 to -1.91) and during (Coef. -7.47; 95% CI -12.72 to -2.23) the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: While a higher client-provider was associated with a lower respectful maternity care practice score both before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, the coefficient was larger during the pandemic. Therefore, workload among the healthcare providers should be considered before the implementation of respectful maternity care, and more attention should be given during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Maternal Health Services , Pregnancy , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Workload , Nepal/epidemiology , Pandemics , Respect , Health Personnel
5.
J Adolesc Health ; 73(1S): S21-S32, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241333

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of a comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) intervention on short-term psychosocial outcomes related to healthy sexuality among very young adolescents in urban Indonesia. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study was conducted between 2018 and 2021 with students aged 10-14 years at 18 schools in Indonesia (Lampung, Denpasar, Semarang). Three schools per site were purposefully selected to receive the SEmangaT duniA RemajA intervention, a two-year, rights-based teacher-led CSE intervention delivered in classrooms (or online after the 2020 COVID-19 outbreak); and matched with three control schools. Surveys were completed by 3,825 students at pre- and posttest (82% retention). The final analytical sample included 1852 intervention and 1483 control students (N = 3,335). Difference-in-difference analysis was conducted to examine the intervention effect on healthy sexuality competencies (knowledge, skills, and attitudes) and personal sexual well-being. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics for intervention and control groups were similar in terms of sex (57% female) and age (mean 12 years). Students receiving SEmangaT duniA RemajA demonstrated significantly greater increase in competencies, including greater pregnancy knowledge, more gender equal attitudes, and communication about sexual and reproductive health and rights, compared to controls. There was no intervention effect on personal sexual well-being, except for self-efficacy to prevent pregnancy. Subgroup analysis indicated more significant effects among females and students in Semarang and Denpasar, than males or students in Lampung. DISCUSSION: While findings demonstrate the potential for CSE programs to improve healthy sexuality competencies in early adolescence, the effect appears to be highly contextualized which may be due to varying levels of implementation quality, especially since the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sex Education , Male , Pregnancy , Humans , Adolescent , Female , Indonesia , Sexual Behavior , Sexuality , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
6.
J Ultrasound ; 26(2): 497-503, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241318

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the role of lung ultrasound (LUS) in recognizing lung abnormalities in pregnant women affected by COVID-19 pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational study analyzing LUS patterns in 60 consecutively enrolled pregnant women affected by COVID-19 infection was performed. LUS was performed by using a standardized protocol by Soldati et al. The scoring system of LUS findings ranged from 0 to 3 in increasing alteration severity. The highest score obtained from each landmark was reported and the sum of the 12 zones examined was calculated. RESULTS: Patients were divided into two groups: 26 (43.3%) patients with respiratory symptoms and 32 (53.3%) patients without respiratory symptoms; 2 patients were asymptomatic (3.3%). Among the patients with respiratory symptoms 3 (12.5%) had dyspnea that required a mild Oxygen therapy. A significant correlation was found between respiratory symptoms and LUS score (p < 0.001) and between gestational weeks and respiratory symptoms (p = 0.023). Regression analysis showed that age and respiratory symptoms were risk factors for highest LUS score (p < 0.005). DISCUSSION: LUS can affect the clinical decision course and can help in stratifying patients according to its findings. The lack of ionizing radiation and its repeatability makes it a reliable diagnostic tool in the management of pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnant Women , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Thorax , Ultrasonography/methods , COVID-19 Testing
7.
Curr Opin Neurol ; 36(3): 185-197, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241311

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vaccinations have been pivotal in lowering the global disease burden of vaccine-preventable encephalitides, including Japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, measles encephalitis, and rabies encephalitis, among others. RECENT FINDINGS: Populations vulnerable to vaccine-preventable infections that may lead to encephalitis include those living in endemic and rural areas, military members, migrants, refugees, international travelers, younger and older persons, pregnant women, the immunocompromised, outdoor, healthcare and laboratory workers, and the homeless. There is scope for improving the availability and distribution of vaccinations, vaccine equity, surveillance of vaccine-preventable encephalitides, and public education and information. SUMMARY: Addressing these gaps in vaccination strategies will allow for improved vaccination coverage and lead to better health outcomes for those most at risk for vaccine-preventable encephalitis.


Subject(s)
Encephalitis, Japanese , Encephalitis , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Vulnerable Populations , Encephalitis, Japanese/epidemiology , Encephalitis, Japanese/prevention & control , Vaccination
8.
J Neonatal Perinatal Med ; 16(2): 235-237, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240921

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has created a serious health problem in pregnant people. We aimed to address whether vaccination can prevent development of placental disease in SARS-CoV-2 infected mothers. METHODS: We reported the pathology findings obtained from routine histopathological examination of placentas of overall 38 cases. RESULTS: We found low prevalence of placental pathology in vaccinated pregnant people with active SARS-CoV-2 infection in comparison to those unvaccinated cases. CONCLUSION: Based on our findings, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination can prevent development of placental pathological lesions and may lower the risk of serious illness in pregnant people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Humans , Female , Placenta , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccination , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control
9.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 31(1): 2203001, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240714

ABSTRACT

Pandemic mitigation measures can have a negative impact on access and provision of essential healthcare services including sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. This rapid review looked at the literature on the impact of COVID-19 mitigation measures on SRH and gender-based violence (GBV) on women in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) using WHO rapid review guidance. We looked at relevant literature published in the English language from January 2020 to October 2021 from LMICs using WHO rapid review methods. A total of 114 articles were obtained from PubMed, Google Scholar and grey literature of which 20 met the eligible criteria. Our review found that there was an overall reduction in; (a) uptake of services as shown by lower antenatal, postnatal and family planning clinic attendance, (b) service delivery as shown by reduced health facility deliveries, and post abortion care services and (c) reproductive health outcomes as shown by an increase in incidence of GBV especially intimate partner violence. COVID-19 mitigation measures negatively impact SRH of women in LMICs. Findings from this review could inform policy makers in the health sector to recognise the potential adverse effects of COVID-19 responses on SRH in the country, and therefore implement mitigation measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexual Health , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Reproductive Health , Developing Countries , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sexual Behavior
10.
Med Arch ; 77(2): 155-157, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240704

ABSTRACT

Background: Stress ulcers in the upper gastrointestinal tract can arise from pathologies related to erosive or inflammatory insults in critically ill patients. The relationship between stressful bodily events and the ischemia and perforation of stress ulcers is poorly understood. Objective: We present a case of perforated stress ulcer following an abortion that was treated by dilatation and curettage (D&C) and complicated by a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Case presentation: A 40-year-old lady presented to the emergency room complaining of diffuse abdominal pain, she was recently diagnosed with an incomplete abortion and managed via a D&C procedure in an external hospital. A computed tomography (CT) scan was done at our center for the abdomen and pelvis, showing extensive pneumoperitoneum, which brought the radiologist's attention to suspect a small bowel perforation presumably accompanying a uterine perforation secondary to the D&C. There were no obvious signs of pelvic small bowel perforation in the initial CT images. The perforated duodenal stress ulcer was diagnosed the next day by a new CT scan following oral contrast ingestion and managed surgically by repair and omental patch, and no other bowel perforations were found upon surgical exploration. After the surgery, the patient was diagnosed with COVID-19, and her clinical status deteriorated gradually during the following week, and she passed away from a cardiac arrest. Conclusion: It is unclear whether septic abortion or COVID-19 has resulted in stress ulcer perforation in our patient. This case report highlights the importance of raising early suspicion in the diagnosis of stress ulcer perforation in critically ill patients to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Duodenal Ulcer , Intestinal Perforation , Peptic Ulcer Perforation , Stomach Ulcer , Humans , Pregnancy , Female , Adult , Ulcer/complications , Ulcer/surgery , Critical Illness , Intestinal Perforation/surgery , COVID-19/complications , Duodenal Ulcer/complications , Duodenal Ulcer/surgery , Peptic Ulcer Perforation/diagnosis , Peptic Ulcer Perforation/etiology , Peptic Ulcer Perforation/surgery , Duodenum , Dilatation and Curettage/adverse effects , COVID-19 Testing
11.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 45(4): 179-185, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240628

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We describe the development and structure of a novel mobile application in a mixed model of prenatal care, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, we assess the acceptability of this mobile app in a cohort of patients. METHODS: First, we introduced a mixed model of prenatal care; second, we developed a comprehensive, computer-based clinical record to support our system. Lastly, we built a novel mobile app as a tool for prenatal care. We used Flutter Software version 2.2 to build the app for Android and iOS smartphones. A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the acceptability of the app. RESULTS: A mobile app was also built with the main attribute of being connected in real-time with the computer-based clinical records. The app screens detail information about activities programmed and developed in the prenatal care according to gestational age. A downloadable maternity book is available and some screens show warning signs and symptoms of pregnancy. The acceptability assessment was mostly rated positively regarding the characteristics of the mobile app, by 50 patients. CONCLUSION: This novel mobile app was developed as a tool among pregnant patients to increase the information available about their pregnancies in the provision of a mixed model of prenatal care in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. It was fully customized to the needs of our users following the local protocols. The introduction of this novel mobile app was highly accepted by the patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Telemedicine , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Prenatal Care
12.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 117(5): 317-325, 2023 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240429

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Assessing the maternal mental health status during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is necessary to prevent the occurrence of severe mental disorders. Prenatal depression, anxiety and stress disorders are prominent in pregnant women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and highly associated with poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. Therefore this study aimed to assess the level of depression, anxiety, and stress among HIV-positive pregnant women in Ethiopia during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Amhara region referral hospitals from 17 October 2020 to 1 March 2021. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select 423 eligible women. A structured, pretested and interviewer-administered questionnaire was employed to collect the data. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was implemented to identify factors associated with women's depression, anxiety and stress. Statistical association was certain based on the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) and p-values ≤0.05. RESULTS: Prenatal depression, anxiety and stress among HIV-positive pregnant women were 37.6% (95% CI 33 to 42.3), 42.1 (95% CI 37.7 to 46.7) and 34.8% (95% CI 30.3 to 39.2), respectively. Having an HIV-negative sexual partner (AOR 1.91 [95% CI 1.16 to 3.15]) and being on antiretroviral therapy >1 year (AOR 2.18 [95% CI 1.41 to 3.36]) were found to be statistically significant with women's antenatal depression, while unplanned pregnancy (AOR 1.09 [95% CI 1.02 to 2.33]) and did not discuss with the sexual partner about HIV (AOR 3.21 [95% CI 2.12 to 7.07]) were the factors associated with prenatal anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, more than one in three HIV-positive pregnant women had depression and anxiety. Thus, implementing strategies to prevent unplanned pregnancy and advocating open discussion with sexual partners about HIV will play a large role in reducing pregnancy-related depression and anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Pregnant Women/psychology , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Depression/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Seropositivity/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology
13.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 162(1): 18-23, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240351

ABSTRACT

The evidence indicates that pregnancy is associated with increased severity of some infectious diseases. Given the high maternal morbidity associated with influenza in pregnancy and the high neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with pertussis, the traditionally two recommended vaccines during pregnancy were those against influenza and Tdap (tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis) vaccines. The recent COVID-19 pandemic introduced a third vaccine that after much debate is now recommended for all pregnant women. Other vaccines can be offered based for high-risk pregnant women, and only when the benefits of receiving them outweigh the risks. The soon expected vaccines against group B streptococcus infection and respiratory syncytial virus infection will be a breakthrough in reducing perinatal mortality. In this paper, the recommendations for administration of each vaccine during pregnancy are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Tetanus , Whooping Cough , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Tetanus/prevention & control
14.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 56: e0044, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240216

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Safety and efficacy concerns regarding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are common among the public and have a negative impact on their uptake. We aimed to report the adverse effects currently associated with the vaccine in Pakistan to build confidence among the population for its adoption. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts of the Punjab province of Pakistan between January and March 2022. The participants were recruited using convenience sampling. All data were analyzed using SPSS 22. RESULTS: We recruited 1622 people with the majority aged between 25-45 years. Of these, 51% were female, including 27 pregnant women and 42 lactating mothers. Most participants had received the Sinopharm (62.6%) or Sinovac (17.8%) vaccines. The incidences of at least one side effect after the first (N = 1622), second (N = 1484), and booster doses (N = 219) of the COVID-19 vaccine were 16.5%, 20.1%, and 32%, respectively. Inflammation/erythema at the injection site, pain at the injection site, fever, and bone/muscle pain were common side effects of vaccination. No significant differences were observed in the adverse effect scores between all demographic variables except for pregnancy (P = 0.012) after the initial dose. No significant association was observed between any variable and the side effect scores of the second and booster doses of the vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed a 16-32% prevalence of self-reported side effects after the first, second, and booster COVID-19 vaccinations. Most adverse effects were mild and transient, indicating the safety of different COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pakistan/epidemiology , Lactation , COVID-19/prevention & control
15.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8813, 2023 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240029

ABSTRACT

Mother-to-child transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been reported since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a study to summarize evidence on the risk of mother-to-child transmission in the first 30 days after birth in high-income countries and to evaluate the association between preventive measures and the risk of infection for the neonate. A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken following PRISMA guidelines. The National Library of Medicine, Web of Science, and Excerpta Medica databases were screened on February 26, 2022. All prospective observational studies addressing the frequency of infection in infants born to mothers SARS-CoV-2 positive were included. Twenty-six studies were included, reporting data of 2653 mothers with SARS-CoV-2 and 2677 neonates. The proportion meta-analysis pointed out an overall estimate of SARS-CoV-2 infection among infants of 2.3% (95% CI: 1.4-3.2%). Data from studies with (1.4%, 95% CI: 0.8-2) and without (1.3%, 95% CI: 0.0-2.7%) rooming-in provided similar risk of infection. Adopting at least two prevention measures during rooming-in resulted in a rate of mother-to-child infection of 1.0% (95%CI: 0.3-1.7%). The results of this study show a low rate of perinatal infection, support the rooming-in and confirm the effectiveness of preventive measures in reducing the risk of mother-to-child viral transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pandemics , Developed Countries , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Observational Studies as Topic
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239980

ABSTRACT

Pregnancy is characterized by a delicate immune balance; therefore, infectious diseases might increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). Here, we hypothesize that pyroptosis, a unique cell death pathway mediated by the NLRP3 inflammasome, could link SARS-CoV-2 infection, inflammation, and APOs. Two blood samples were collected from 231 pregnant women at 11-13 weeks of gestation and in the perinatal period. At each time point, SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and neutralizing antibody titers were measured by ELISA and microneutralization (MN) assays, respectively. Plasmatic NLRP3 was determined by ELISA. Fourteen miRNAs selected for their role in inflammation and/or pregnancy were quantified by qPCR and further investigated by miRNA-gene target analysis. NLRP3 levels were positively associated with nine circulating miRNAs, of which miR-195-5p was increased only in MN+ women (p-value = 0.017). Pre-eclampsia was associated with a decrease in miR-106a-5p (p-value = 0.050). miR-106a-5p (p-value = 0.026) and miR-210-3p (p-value = 0.035) were increased in women with gestational diabetes. Women giving birth to small for gestational age babies had lower miR-106a-5p and miR-21-5p (p-values = 0.001 and 0.036, respectively), and higher miR-155-5p levels (p-value = 0.008). We also observed that neutralizing antibodies and NLRP3 concentrations could affect the association between APOs and miRNAs. Our findings suggest for the first time a possible link between COVID-19, NLRP3-mediated pyroptosis, inflammation, and APOs. Circulating miRNAs might be suitable candidates to gain a comprehensive view of this complex interplay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Circulating MicroRNA , MicroRNAs , Humans , Pregnancy , Female , Pregnancy Outcome , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Pyroptosis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Inflammation
17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 429, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239634

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As a COVID-19 risk mitigation measure, Australia closed its international borders for two years with significant socioeconomic disruption including impacting approximately 30% of the Australian population who are migrants. Migrant populations during the peripartum often rely on overseas relatives visiting for social support. High quality social support is known to lead to improved health outcomes with disruption to support a recognised health risk. AIM: To explore women's experience of peripartum social support during the COVID-19 pandemic in a high migrant population. To quantify type and frequency of support to identify characteristics of vulnerable perinatal populations for future pandemic preparedness. METHODS: A mixed methods study with semi-structured interviews and a quantitative survey was conducted from October 2020 to April 2021. A thematic approach was used for analysis. RESULTS: There were 24 participants interviewed both antenatally and postnatally (22 antenatal; 18 postnatal). Fourteen women were migrants and 10 Australian born. Main themes included; 'Significant disruption and loss of peripartum support during the COVID-19 pandemic and ongoing impact for migrant women'; 'Husbands/partners filling the support gap' and 'Holding on by a virtual thread'. Half of the participants felt unsupported antenatally. For Australian born women, this dissipated postnatally, but migrants continued to feel unsupported. Migrant women discussed partners stepped into traditional roles and duties of absent mothers and mothers-in-law who were only available virtually. CONCLUSION: This study identified disrupted social support for migrant women during the pandemic, providing further evidence that the pandemic has disproportionately impacted migrant populations. However, the benefits identified in this study included high use of virtual support, which could be leveraged for improving clinical care in the present and in future pandemics. The COVID-19 pandemic impacted most women's peripartum social support with migrant families having ongoing disruption. Gains in the pandemic included greater gender equity for domestic work as husbands/partners increased their contribution to domestic work and childcare.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Pandemics , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mothers
18.
Med J Aust ; 218(11): 528-541, 2023 06 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239586

ABSTRACT

Vaccination in pregnancy is the best strategy to reduce complications from influenza or pertussis infection in infants who are too young to be protected directly from vaccination. Pregnant women are also at risk of influenza complications preventable through antenatal vaccination. Both vaccines are funded under the National Immunisation Program for pregnant women in Australia, but coverage is not routinely reported nationally. We reviewed all reported Australian maternal influenza and pertussis vaccine coverage data for the period 2016-2021, to identify gaps and information needs. Maternal influenza vaccine coverage was suboptimal at < 58% for 2016-2018, with higher coverage of 62-75% reported in two states (Victoria and Western Australia) for 2019-2021. Maternal pertussis vaccine coverage from 2016 was generally higher than for influenza at > 70%, with the highest jurisdictional coverage of 89% reported in Western Australia in 2020. Vaccination rates were often suboptimal among First Nations pregnant women and up to 20% lower than among non-First Nations Australian women; while data were limited, coverage was low among culturally and linguistically diverse women and among women of lower socio-economic status. Jurisdictional perinatal data collections were the best source of information on antenatal vaccine coverage but were only available for a minority of the population; a nationally consistent systematic approach is lacking. Timely and comprehensive data are needed to provide feedback to improve maternal vaccination coverage, particularly among groups with higher risk and/or low uptake, and as new vaccines are recommended, including COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Whooping Cough , Infant , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Pertussis Vaccine , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pregnant Women , Vaccination , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Victoria
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(6): e2318045, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239516

ABSTRACT

Importance: Although telehealth services expanded rapidly during the COVID-19 pandemic, the association between state policies and telehealth availability has been insufficiently characterized. Objective: To investigate the associations between 4 state policies and telehealth availability at outpatient mental health treatment facilities throughout the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study measured whether mental health treatment facilities offered telehealth services each quarter from April 2019 through September 2022. The sample comprised facilities with outpatient services that were not part of the US Department of Veterans Affairs system. Four state policies were identified from 4 different sources. Data were analyzed in January 2023. Exposures: For each quarter, implementation of the following policies was indexed by state: (1) payment parity for telehealth services among private insurers; (2) authorization of audio-only telehealth services for Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) beneficiaries; (3) participation in the Interstate Medical Licensure Compact (IMLC), permitting psychiatrists to provide telehealth services across state lines; and (4) participation in the Psychology Interjurisdictional Compact (PSYPACT), permitting clinical psychologists to provide telehealth services across state lines. Main Outcome and Measures: The primary outcome was the probability of a mental health treatment facility offering telehealth services in each quarter for each study year (2019-2022). Information on the facilities was obtained from the Mental Health and Addiction Treatment Tracking Repository based on the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Behavioral Health Treatment Service Locator. Separate multivariable fixed-effects regression models were used to estimate the difference in the probability of offering telehealth services after vs before policy implementation, adjusting for characteristics of the facility and county in which the facility was located. Results: A total of 12 828 mental health treatment facilities were included. Overall, 88.1% of facilities offered telehealth services in September 2022 compared with 39.4% of facilities in April 2019. All 4 policies were associated with increased odds of telehealth availability: payment parity for telehealth services (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.11; 95% CI, 1.03-1.19), reimbursement for audio-only telehealth services (AOR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.64-1.81), IMLC participation (AOR, 1.40, 95% CI, 1.24-1.59), and PSYPACT participation (AOR, 1.21, 95% CI, 1.12-1.31). Facilities that accepted Medicaid as a form of payment had lower odds of offering telehealth services (AOR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.65-0.86) over the study period, as did facilities in counties with a higher proportion (>20%) of Black residents (AOR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.50-0.68). Facilities in rural counties had higher odds of offering telehealth services (AOR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.48-1.88). Conclusion and Relevance: Results of this study suggest that 4 state policies that were introduced during the COVID-19 pandemic were associated with marked expansion of telehealth availability for mental health care at mental health treatment facilities throughout the US. Despite these policies, telehealth services were less likely to be offered in counties with a greater proportion of Black residents and in facilities that accepted Medicaid and CHIP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , United States/epidemiology , Child , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Mental Health , Pandemics , Ambulatory Care Facilities
20.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286289, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Women planning to become pregnant, who are pregnant, and who are breastfeeding are more hesitant to take COVID-19 vaccines compared to other women globally. AIM: This study investigates COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among women, who are planning for pregnancy, currently pregnant, and breastfeeding women in Jordan. METHODS: An online cross-sectional study was conducted in the biggest three cities in Jordan, including 874 women. RESULTS: Women who were planning for pregnancy, pregnant, or breastfeeding reported statistically significant lower levels of perception of the seriousness of COVID-19 (7.12 ± 0.72, 7.53 ± 1.80, 7.2439 ± 7296, respectively), significant lower levels of perceived benefits of the vaccine (8.92 ± 2.15, 8.73 ± 1.93, 9.09 ± 2.10, respectively), significant lower levels of motivation and causes of action (7.15 ± 1.71, 6.7524 ± 1.40, 7.27 ± 1.68, respectively), and significantly higher levels of COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy (31.32 ± 6.40, 30.11 ± 4.49, 30.27 ± 6.29, respectively) than other women. Married women, those whoe were previously infected with COVID-19, and those who had chronic diseases reported statistically significant lower levels of perception of COVID-19 seriousness, perceived benefits of COVID-19 vaccine, motivation to take COVID-19 vaccine, and causes of action, and significantly higher levels of hesitancy to take COVID-19 vaccine than unmarried women, those who have not been infected with COVID-19, and those who were medically healthy (p<0.001). There were statistically significant positive correlations between perception, perceived benefits, motivation, and cause of action with years of education; and statistically significant negative correlations between perception, perceived benefits, motivation, and cause of action with age (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Women who were planning for pregnancy, pregnant, or breastfeeding in Jordan showed miderate scores in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy despite the current international recommendations for its safety for women and their foetuses or neonates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Jordan/epidemiology , Breast Feeding , Vaccination , Pregnant Women
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