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1.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(1): 189-196, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201742

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Data on neonatal COVID-19 are limited to the immediate postnatal period, with a primary focus on vertical transmission in inborn infants. This study was aimed to assess the characteristics and outcome of COVID-19 in outborn neonates. Methods: All neonates admitted to the paediatric emergency from August 1 to December 31, 2020, were included in the study. SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription- (RT)-PCR test was done on oro/nasopharyngeal specimens obtained at admission. The clinical characteristics and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative neonates were compared and the diagnostic accuracy of a selective testing policy was assessed. Results: A total of 1225 neonates were admitted during the study period, of whom SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR was performed in 969. The RT-PCR test was positive in 17 (1.8%). Mean (standard deviation) gestation and birth weight of SARS-CoV-2-infected neonates were 35.5 (3.2) wk and 2274 (695) g, respectively. Most neonates (11/17) with confirmed COVID-19 reported in the first two weeks of life. Respiratory distress (14/17) was the predominant manifestation. Five (5/17, 29.4%) SARS-CoV-2 infected neonates died. Neonates with COVID-19 were at a higher risk for all-cause mortality [odds ratio (OR): 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-8.9, P=0.03]; however, mortality did not differ after adjusting for lethal malformation (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 0.7-8.7). Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative likelihood ratios (95% CI) of selective testing policy for SARS-CoV-2 infection at admission was 52.9 (28.5-76.1), 83.3 (80.7-85.6), 82.8 (80.3-85.1), 3.17 (1.98-5.07), and 0.56 (0.34-0.93) per cent, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate among the outborn neonates reporting to the paediatric emergency and tested for COVID-19 was observed to be low. The selective testing policy had poor diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing COVID-19 from non-COVID illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Perinat Med ; 50(6): 653-659, 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197357

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Data collected worldwide on stillbirth (SB) rates during the Covid-19 pandemic are contradictory. Variations may be due to methodological differences or population characteristics. The aim of the study is to assess the changes in SB rate, risk factors, causes of death and quality of antenatal care during the pandemic compared to the control periods. METHODS: This prospective study is based on the information collected by the Emilia-Romagna Surveillance system database. We conducted a descriptive analysis of SB rate, risk factors, causes of death and quality of cares, comparing data of the pandemic (March 2020-June 2021) with the 16 months before. RESULTS: During the pandemic, the SB rate was 3.45/1,000 births, a value in line with the rates of previous control periods. Neonatal weight >90th centile was the only risk factor for SB that significantly changed during the pandemic (2.2% vs. 8.0%; p-value: 0.024). No significant differences were found in the distribution of the causes of death groups. Concerning quality of antenatal cares, cases evaluated with suboptimal care (5.2%) did not change significantly compared to the control period (12.0%), as well as the cases with less than recommended obstetric (12.6% vs. 14%) and ultrasound evaluations (0% vs. 2.7%). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, no significant differences in SB rates were found in an area that maintained an adequate level of antenatal care. Thus, eventual associations between SB rate and the COVID-19 infection are explained by an indirect impact of the virus, rather than its direct effect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stillbirth , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Prospective Studies , Stillbirth/epidemiology
3.
J Perinat Med ; 50(6): 660-667, 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197356

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The Covid-19 pandemic affected antenatal care in many parts of the world. It brought about many changes as part of control and containment measures. We examined the effect of the first and second waves of the pandemic in India on stillbirth rates, as indicators of quality of maternity care. METHODS: Observational study at a tertiary referral perinatal centre with approximately 10,000 births annually. The Covid-19 first wave period was taken as January to December 2020 with lockdown March to June 2020, which included complete shut down of clinics and ultrasound services. The second wave was from January to September 2021. All women with singleton pregnancy who had hospital based antenatal care were included. We investigated monthly trends in obstetric load (new antenatal registrations, total obstetric clinic numbers and total births) with stillbirth numbers as the pandemic continued (daily Covid case trend). We compared first and second wave stillbirth rates, overall as well as those that were small for gestational age (<10th centile) at delivery. RESULTS: There were 9,251 births with 32 stillbirths in the first wave (rate 3.46/1,000) and 6,228 births with 14 stillbirths in the second wave (2.25/1,000). This represented a 54% higher rate in the first phase and extended lockdown period (p=0.08). The incidence of stillbirths that were SGA was significantly higher in the first wave: 14 vs. 2, (p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Reduced access to planned antenatal care during Covid-19 pandemic lockdown was associated with a significant increase in SGA stillbirths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Maternal Health Services , Stillbirth , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Stillbirth/epidemiology
4.
J Perinat Med ; 50(6): 822-831, 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197354

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Perinatal bereavement care is a complex area of practice. The COVID-19 pandemic led to reconfiguration of maternity and perinatal bereavement care services. This study explores Australian health care providers' perspectives of the impact of COVID-19 on the provision of respectful and supportive care following stillbirth or neonatal death. METHODS: Members of a perinatal bereavement care network were consulted at the commencement of the pandemic in Australia using an online feedback form. Respondents provided ratings and free-text comments on the impact of COVID-19 on implementation of 49 recommendations contained in the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand/Stillbirth Centre of Research Clinical Practice Guideline for Respectful and Supportive Perinatal Bereavement Care. RESULTS: Responses were received from 35 health care providers who provided perinatal bereavement care in clinical settings or through support organisations in Australia. Major impacts of COVID-19 were reported for 8 of 49 guideline recommendations. Impacts included reduced: support for mothers due to visitor restrictions; availability of cultural and spiritual support and interpreters; involvement of support people in decision-making; options for memory-making and commemorative rituals; and staff training and supervision. Adaptations to minimise impacts included virtual consultations, online staff training, use of cold cots, and increased staff support for memory-making. CONCLUSIONS: Health care providers encounter substantial challenges as they strive to implement best practice perinatal bereavement care in pandemic conditions. Some practice adaptations developed during the COVID-19 pandemic could benefit parents; however, evaluation of their effectiveness and acceptability is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospice Care , Perinatal Death , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Parents , Perinatal Care , Perinatal Death/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Stillbirth/epidemiology
5.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 333, 2022 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abortion is highly restricted in Indonesia; self-administered misoprostol can safely induce an abortion. Brick and mortar pharmacies, a common place to purchase misoprostol off-label in other parts of the world, are monitored closely by the government authority in Indonesia which controls drugs so that they cannot function outside the law without risking arrest and prosecution. An online marketplace has sprung up in response that sells misoprostol through in-country distributors. Such procurement offers a level of safety and anonymity to the buyer and seller. So as to understand online access to misoprostol, we created a protocol to identify the most visible universe of sellers. METHODS: We carried out a mystery client methodology to replicate the experiences of women procuring misoprostol online. Our study consisted of five stages: (1) identify the universe of online sellers using the most common search terms, drawn from multiple platforms to capture diversity in interactions as well as products sold (2) remove duplicates across sites as determined by their telephone numbers (3) draw a roughly probability proportional to size sample (4) contact sellers as mystery clients through text/chat, depending on the platform, and engage with them and (5) attempt to purchase drugs offered by the seller. Descriptive statistics are presented. RESULTS: The listing generated 727 sites: 441 websites, 153 marketplace sellers, and 133 Instagram profiles. After removing duplicate listings, we identified 281 unique sellers. We selected all sellers with greater than 12 listings, 60% of sellers with 4-12 listings, 50% of sellers with 2-3 listings, and 40% of sellers with only one listing. Mystery clients were able to send initial messages to 110 sellers, of which 16 never responded. The interaction progressed to purchasing misoprostol with 76 sellers, 64 of whom sent drugs. CONCLUSIONS: As women seek to terminate unwanted pregnancies in legally restrictive settings, online sales of misoprostol must be considered. With the Covid pandemic constraining movement, the importance of this way of procuring misoprostol will likely become more appealing. Understanding this unregulated landscape is important if we are to try to improve women's ability to safely conduct an abortion in highly restrictive settings.


Subject(s)
Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal , Abortion, Induced , COVID-19 , Misoprostol , Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal/therapeutic use , Abortion, Induced/methods , Female , Humans , Indonesia , Pregnancy
6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 863, 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196103

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore parents' experiences using digital tools in relation to pregnancy, labor and birth, and the child's first 18 months. BACKGROUND: Parents find relevant information using digital healthcare tools, material obtained from professionals, as well as personal opinions and experiences that vary in quality. METHOD: Fifteen parents were interviewed and data were analyzed beginning with content analysis and followed by thematic analysis. RESULTS: The main theme was insecurity and responsibility for own choices and knowledge. Parents use digital tools to take responsibility for their insecurity and need for knowledge when entering parenthood. CONCLUSION: The parents' experiences highlighted that (1) insecurity can be both eased and enhanced using digital tools, (2) they took responsibility for feelings of insecurity and the search for knowledge, and (3) they needed knowledge to make the right choices and feel secure that these choices are made in the best interest of their new family.


Subject(s)
Health Facilities , Parents , Child , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Parturition , Emotions , Delivery of Health Care
8.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 44(2): 132-134, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2180842
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26798, 2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191047

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). There have been few reports of postpartum woman with ARDS secondary to COVID-19 who required respiratory support using veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We present the case of a 31-year-old woman who was admitted to hospital at 35 weeks gestation with ARDS secondary to COVID-19 and required ECMO during the postpartum period. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient had obvious dyspnea, accompanied by chills and fever. Her dyspnea worsened and her arterial oxygen saturation decreased rapidly. DIAGNOSIS: ARDS secondary to COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: Emergency bedside cesarean section. Medications included immunotherapy (thymosin α 1), antivirals (lopinavir/ritonavir and ribavirin), antibiotics (imipenem-cilastatin sodium and vancomycin), and methylprednisolone. Ventilatory support was provided using invasive mechanical ventilation. This was replaced by venous-venous ECMO 5 days postpartum. ECMO management focused on blood volume control, coagulation function adjustment, and airway management. OUTCOMES: The patient was successfully weaned for ECMO and the ventilator and made a good recovery. CONCLUSION: Special care, including blood volume control, coagulation function adjustment, and airway management, should be provided to postpartum patients with ARDS secondary to COVID-19 who require ECMO support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Cesarean Section , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy
11.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3)set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2205389

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A violência contra à mulher é caracterizada especialmente pela desigualdade de gênero, diferença hierárquica, subordinação e pela agressividade do parceiro ou ex-parceiro. Entre os principais subtipos, cita-se; a violência física, psicológica, sexual, patrimonial e moral. Com o surgimento da pandemia de coronavírus em 2020 na tentativa de contenção da doença, medidas protetivas como o isolamento social aumentaram o convívio familiar. Dessa forma, as vítimas de violência passaram a ficar ainda mais tempo expostas aos seus agressores e consequentemente com maiores dificuldades para denunciar os abusos sofridos, pois a prestação dos serviços públicos, instituições de segurança e judiciais também foram restringidas. Objetivo: Caracterizar os casos de violência contra a mulher em tempos de pandemia de coronavírus em um município do Sudoeste do Paraná. Materiais e métodos: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, documental e transversal com abordagem quantitativa realizada em um município do Sudoeste do Paraná a partir da coleta de dados, por meio das fichas de notificação de violência contra a mulher entre 2019 e 2021. Resultados e discussão: O estudo demonstrou prevalência de notificações no ano de 2019 em mulheres com idade de 12 a 18 anos (27,2%), brancas (71,3%), com ensino médio (21,9%), sendo ainda estudantes (23,1%) ou desempregadas (17,2%), sem companheiro (52,4%), residentes da área urbana (74%), heterossexuais (50,6%), sem possuir algum tipo de deficiência (51,8%). Ao verificar a tipologia da agressão com maior incidência, observou-se a lesão autoprovocada (53,6%) por meio da intoxicação /envenenamento (41,4%). Quanto a violência interpessoal, notou-se que a maioria das agressões foram ocasionadas pelo próprio cônjuge da vítima (12,4%), utilizando da força física (29,3%), salienta-se que o álcool não estava presente na maior parte das agressões. Conclusão: Evidencia-se a prevalência de violência autoprovocada (53,6%), em adolescentes com ensino médio, brancas, sem companheiro, residentes da área urbana, agredidas em ambiente domiciliar, motivadas por conflitos geracionais, sendo as violências mais incidentes a física por meio de envenenamento/intoxicação. Diante do exposto é importante abordar o fato de que é necessário realizar capacitações com os profissionais de saúde referente a ficha de notificação e orientá-los da importância de preenchê-la de forma correta, para haja a tomada de providências de acordo com cada necessidade.


Introduction: Introduction: Violence against women is characterized especially by gender inequality, hierarchical difference, subordination and aggressiveness of the partner or ex partner. Among the main subtypes are physical, psychological, sexual, patrimonial and moral violence. With the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 in an attempt to contain the disease, protective measures such as social isolation increased family coexistence. As a result, the victims of violence have been exposed to their aggressors for even longer and consequently find it more difficult to report the abuse they have suffered, since the provision of public services, security and judicial institutions have also been restricted. Objective: To characterize the cases of violence against women during the COVID-19 pandemic in a municipality in the southwest of Paraná. Materals and methods: This is a descriptive, documentary, and cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach carried out in a municipality in the Southwest of Paraná from data collection performed through the notification forms of violence against women notified between 2019 and 2021. Results and discussion: The study showed a prevalence of notifications in the year 2019 in women aged 12 to 18 years (27.2%), white (71.3%), with high school education (21.9%), being still students (23.1%) or unemployed (17.2%), without a partner (52.4%), residents of the urban area (74%), more specifically the Padre Ulrico neighborhood (12.4%), heterosexual (50.6%), without having any type of disability (51.8%). When checking the type of aggression with the highest incidence, we observed self-harm (53.6%) through intoxication/ poisoning (41.4%). As for interpersonal violence, it was noted that most aggressions were caused by the victim's own spouse (12.4%), using physical force (29.3%), and alcohol was not present in most aggressions. Conclusion: The prevalence of self- inflicted violence (53.6%) is evident in adolescents with high school education, white, without a partner, urban residents, assaulted in the home environment, motivated by generational conflicts, with the most incident violence being physical violence through poisoning/intoxication. Given the above, it is important to address the fact that it is necessary to conduct training with health professionals regarding the notification form and guide them on the importance of filling it out correctly, so that there is taking action according to each need.


Introducción: La violencia contra las mujeres se caracteriza especialmente por la desigualdad de género, la diferencia jerárquica, la subordinación y la agresividad de la pareja o ex pareja. Entre los principales subtipos, se menciona; la violencia física, psicológica, sexual, patrimonial y moral. Con la aparición de la pandemia de coronavirus en 2020 en un intento de contener la enfermedad, las medidas de protección como el aislamiento social han aumentado la convivencia familiar. Así, las víctimas de la violencia han quedado aún más expuestas a sus agresores y, en consecuencia, tienen mayores dificultades para denunciar los abusos sufridos, ya que también se ha restringido la prestación de servicios públicos, de seguridad y de instituciones judiciales. Objetivo: Caracterizar los casos de violencia contra la mujer en tiempos de pandemia de coronavirus en un municipio del sudoeste de Paraná. Materiales y métodos: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, documental y transversal con enfoque cuantitativo realizado en un municipio del suroeste de Paraná a partir de la recolección de datos a través de las formas de notificación de la violencia contra las mujeres entre 2019 y 2021. Resultados y discusión: El estudio mostró una prevalencia de notificaciones en 2019 en mujeres de 12 a 18 años (27,2%), de raza blanca (71,3%), con estudios secundarios (21,9%), siendo aún estudiantes (23,1%) o desempleadas (17,2%), sin pareja (52,4%), residentes en el área urbana (74%), heterosexuales (50,6%), sin tener algún tipo de discapacidad (51,8%). Al verificar el tipo de agresión con mayor incidencia, se observó la lesión autoinfligida (53,6%) a través de la intoxicación / envenenamiento (41,4%). En cuanto a la violencia interpersonal, se observó que la mayoría de las agresiones fueron causadas por el propio cónyuge de la víctima (12,4%), utilizando la fuerza física (29,3%), se destaca que el alcohol no estuvo presente en la mayoría de las agresiones. Conclusión: Se evidencia la prevalencia de la violencia autoprovocada (53,6%), en adolescentes con educación médica, brancas, sin compañía, residentes del área urbana, agredidos en ambiente domiciliario, motivados por conflictos geracionales, siendo las violencias más incidentes a la física por medio de envenenamiento/intoxicación. Dado lo anterior es importante abordar el hecho de que es necesario realizar una capacitación con los profesionales de la salud respecto a la ficha de notificación y orientarlos sobre la importancia de llenarla correctamente, para que exista la toma de acciones de acuerdo a cada necesidad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Health Profile , Violence Against Women , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Poisoning , Social Isolation , Women , Wounds and Injuries , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Health Personnel , Health Personnel/education , Crime Victims/statistics & numerical data , Notification/statistics & numerical data , Aggression/psychology , Professional Training , Physical Abuse/statistics & numerical data
12.
Nature ; 585(7826): 490-491, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185675
13.
Obstet Gynecol ; 140(6): 1052-1055, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with a serologic weak D phenotype may demonstrate variable RhD expression. We present a case in which clinical management would have been simplified if RHD genotyping had been performed previously. CASE: A 33-year-old patient, G11P4155, presented with an incomplete miscarriage and was transfused RhD-positive packed red blood cells after typing RhD-positive. The patient had been historically typed RhD-negative by a different testing methodology. Indirect antiglobulin testing was performed, which revealed a serologic weak D phenotype. The patient was given 9,600 micrograms of Rh immune globulin. Molecular testing revealed a partial D antigen, which was originally thought to be at risk for alloimmunization; however, this has since been disproven. CONCLUSION: Although not yet universal practice, prenatal RHD genotyping for partial D antigen could have prevented the characterization of this patient as RhD-positive at the time of transfusion.


Subject(s)
Rh-Hr Blood-Group System , Rho(D) Immune Globulin , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Rho(D) Immune Globulin/therapeutic use , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System/genetics , Blood Transfusion , Phenotype , Genotype
14.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 44(11): 1125-1127, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2159326
15.
Can J Anaesth ; 69(3): 283-288, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2158186
16.
Aten Primaria ; 54 Suppl 1: 102462, 2022 Oct.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2149326

ABSTRACT

The update of the preventive activities for this year 2022 in the field of infectious diseases is of special relevance due to the importance that prevention has gained and more specifically, vaccination as a tool to control the pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus declared on March 11, 2020. The pandemic has focused much of the prevention efforts on its containment, but the importance of maintaining high vaccination coverage of the rest of the recommended vaccines to maintain good control of vaccine-preventable diseases and avoid complications in particularly vulnerable patients should not be forgotten. In this year's review we present a practical document with the aim of providing tools to primary care professionals who work with adults, to make the indication of each vaccine whether it is systematically recommended or if it is because the patient belongs to some risk group due to their condition or underlying pathology. In this way, throughout the document, we will comment on the most innovative aspects of systematic vaccination (flu, pneumococcus, meningococcal vaccines and vaccines against the human papillomavirus [HPV]), the new vaccines (pandemic vaccines against COVID-19, vaccines against herpes zoster of subunits, vaccines against monkeypox) and the recommended vaccines according to risk condition (pregnancy and lactation, travelers, patients with immunosuppression or underlying pathology).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
19.
N Z Med J ; 135(1562): 63-77, 2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2147674

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Diabetes in pregnancy (DiP) rates are increasing worldwide. Pasifika, Indian and Maori peoples have high rates of DiP any improvements in clinical care may be beneficial for these populations. During COVID-19 lockdowns, the DiP service in Counties Manukau Health (CMH) South Auckland switched from face-to-face appointments to teleclinics. This study aims to: determine satisfaction of pregnant people with teleclinics for DiP; compare clinical outcomes and attendance for those receiving care through teleclinics versus standard care; and compare rates of clinic attendance between face-to-face and teleclinic appointments. METHODS: A standardised questionnaire was completed by those who had attended a teleclinic. The primary outcome was a high score (4-5/5) for satisfaction and future use. A separate, retrospective study of clinical outcomes, and the number of appointments scheduled/attended were compared between all DiP patients who were scheduled an appointment during lockdown, and all of those who were scheduled appointments the year prior. RESULTS: Of the thirty-five participants who completed the survey (response rate 37%), 89% scored the clinic highly for satisfaction and future use. There were 179 patients scheduled to clinic during the period where teleclinics were the default model of care, and 187 patients scheduled to clinic the year prior. No differences in clinical outcomes were observed. Those receiving care during lockdown were offered more appointments, although attendance rates did not differ. CONCLUSION: Teleclinics for DiP are acceptable to the people we surveyed, but should be developed further so they better support the needs of those using them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Appointments and Schedules , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , New Zealand/epidemiology , Personal Satisfaction , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Retrospective Studies
20.
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