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1.
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol ; 32(5): 322-334, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-629087

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with adverse pregnancy complications. Accurate screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes are critical to treatment, and in a pandemic scenario like coronavirus disease 2019 needing a simple test that minimises prolonged hospital stay. We undertook a meta-analysis on the screening and diagnostic accuracy of the haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test in women with and without risk factors for gestational diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Unlike the oral glucose tolerance test, the HbA1c test is simple, quick and more acceptable. There is a growing body of evidence on the accuracy of HbA1c as a screening and diagnostic test for GDM. We searched Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library and selected relevant studies. Accuracy data for different thresholds within the final 23 included studies (16 921 women) were pooled using a multiple thresholds model. Summary accuracy indices were estimated by selecting an optimal threshold that optimises either sensitivity or specificity according to different scenarios. SUMMARY: HbA1c is more useful as a specific test at a cut-off of 5.7% (39 mmol/mol) with a false positive rate of 10%, but should be supplemented by a more sensitive test to detect women with GDM.


Subject(s)
Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Predictive Value of Tests , Pregnancy , Risk Factors
2.
Breastfeed Med ; 15(8): 488-491, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-628894

ABSTRACT

Background: Limited data are available on the perinatal and postnatal transmission of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) recommended breastfeeding with necessary precautions to mothers with COVID-19. Case Presentation: A 20-year-old pregnant woman with no symptoms of COVID-19 presented to the hospital for delivery at 39 weeks of gestation. She was tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) because her father had been diagnosed with COVID-19. A nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR test was positive for SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, the baby and the mother were cared for separately after delivery. Breast milk obtained after first lactation was tested by real-time RT-PCR and was positive for SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions: In this article, we aimed to report the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in breast milk. Although further studies are needed, this situation may have an impact on breastfeeding recommendations.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Breast Feeding , Coronavirus Infections , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Milk, Human/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , Asymptomatic Diseases/therapy , Breast Feeding/adverse effects , Breast Feeding/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Delivery, Obstetric , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology
3.
Contraception ; 102(2): 142, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-619226
5.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 62: e65, 2020 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-750871

ABSTRACT

This narrative review summarizes the main aspects underlying the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, its epidemiology, pathophysiology, pointing to differences of SARS-CoV-2 main receptors ACE2, in terms of expression and the amount of soluble ACE2 in the circulation of children, men and women, and also in those with risk factors such as the smokers and pregnant women or presenting with comorbidities (diabetes, obesity, hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, renal and CNS pre-existing diseases). Clinical manifestations in adults and children were also described, emphasizing the particularities already seen in children, regarding signs, symptoms, viral excretion time and the involvement of all organs and systems. The COVID-19 in the pediatric population was divided into two sections: one dedicated to previously healthy children and adolescents with COVID-19, and the other to those who live with comorbidities and acquired COVID-19. A few paragraphs were reserved to the recently described severe multisystemic inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19 (MIS-C) that shares certain characteristics with Kawasaki disease. Some studies on the infection in pregnant and postpartum women, as well as neonates were shown. This review has also covered the laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19, passing through the imaging diagnosis made by the chest tomography revealing ground glass patching opacities, and results of non-specific exams such as the total blood with lymphopenia, the coagulation tests with increased prothrombin times, as well as marked increments of the D-dimer, troponin and proinflammatory cytokines. In the section devoted to the specific laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19, the most used RT-PCR protocols were described and some studies on the serological diagnosis with IgA, IgM and IgG detection were detailed, including the use of rapid immunochromatographic assays and discussing the ideal period after the onset of symptoms to perform each type of test. In the end, the management of pediatric patients with COVID-19 based mainly on supportive measures has been briefly commented.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Child , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e19642, 2020 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-750821

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, an outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly in Wuhan and worldwide. However, previous studies on pregnant patients were limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of pregnant and nonpregnant women with COVID-19. METHODS: This study retrospectively collected epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, imaging, management, and outcome data of 43 childbearing-age women patients (including 17 pregnant and 26 nonpregnant patients) who presented with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China from January 19 to March 2, 2020. Clinical outcomes were followed up to March 28, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 43 childbearing-age women in this study, none developed a severe adverse illness or died. The median ages of pregnant and nonpregnant women were 33.0 and 33.5 years, respectively. Pregnant women had a markedly higher proportion of history exposure to hospitals within 2 weeks before onset compared to nonpregnant women (9/17, 53% vs 5/26, 19%, P=.02) and a lower proportion of other family members affected (4/17, 24% vs 19/26, 73%, P=.004). Fever (8/17, 47% vs 18/26, 69%) and cough (9/17, 53% vs 12/26, 46%) were common onsets of symptoms for the two groups. Abdominal pain (n=4, 24%), vaginal bleeding (n=1, 6%), reduced fetal movement (n=1, 6%), and increased fetal movement (n=2, 13%) were observed at onset in the 17 pregnant patients. Higher neutrophil and lower lymphocyte percent were observed in the pregnant group compared to the nonpregnant group (79% vs 56%, P<.001; 15% vs 33%, P<.001, respectively). In both groups, we observed an elevated concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Concentrations of alkaline phosphatase and D-dimer in the pregnant group were significantly higher than those of the nonpregnant group (119.0 vs 48.0 U/L, P<.001; 2.1 vs 0.3µg/mL, P<.001, respectively). Both pregnant (4/10, 40%) and nonpregnant (8/15, 53%) women tested positive for influenza A virus. A majority of pregnant and nonpregnant groups received antiviral (13/17, 76% vs 25/26, 96%) and antibiotic (13/17, 76% vs 23/26, 88%) therapy. Additionally, both pregnant (2/11, 18%) and nonpregnant (2/19, 11%) recovered women redetected positive for SARS-CoV-2 after discharge. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiology and clinical and laboratory features of pregnant women with COVID-19 were diverse and atypical, which increased the difficulty of diagnosis. Most pregnant women with COVID-19 were mild and moderate, and rarely developed severe pneumonia or severe adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , China , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 511, 2020 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744979

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that pregnant women and their fetuses may be particularly at risk for poor outcomes due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. From the few case series that are available in the literature, women with high risk pregnancies have been associated with higher morbidity. It has been suggested that pregnancy induced immune responses and cardio-vascular changes can exaggerate the course of the COVID-19 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 26-year old Somalian woman (G2P1) presented with a nine-day history of shortness of breath, dry cough, myalgia, nausea, abdominal pain and fever. A nasopharyngeal swab returned positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Her condition rapidly worsened leading to severe liver and coagulation impairment. An emergency Caesarean section was performed at gestational week 32 + 6 after which the patient made a rapid recovery. Severe COVID-19 promptly improved by the termination of the pregnancy or atypical HELLP (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes and Low Platelet Count) exacerbated by concomitant COVID-19 infection could not be ruled out. There was no evidence of vertical transmission. CONCLUSIONS: This case adds to the growing body of evidence which raises concerns about the possible negative maternal outcomes of COVID-19 infection during pregnancy and advocates for pregnant women to be recognized as a vulnerable group during the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Cesarean Section , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Liver Diseases/blood , Obesity, Maternal , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Adult , Antithrombin III/metabolism , Apgar Score , Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , HELLP Syndrome/diagnosis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Liver Diseases/etiology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Pandemics , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Platelet Count , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Sweden , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(9)2020 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744832

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has spread across the globe at an alarming rate. As the pandemic escalates, experience of COVID-19 in pregnant women is accumulating. We present a case of COVID-19 pneumonia in a 28-week pregnant woman with a known low lying placenta. The patient had deranged liver function tests at presentation, along with elevated bile acids. We discuss the differential diagnosis of these findings, and the possible mechanisms of hepatic injury in COVID-19. The low lying placenta in this patient meant that we had to carefully consider the application of recommendations for thromboprophylaxis in pregnant COVID-19 patients. With supportive management, this patient improved enough to be discharged, and has gone on to deliver a healthy neonate at term.


Subject(s)
Cholestasis/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Adult , Cholestasis/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome
9.
J Law Med ; 27(4): 812-828, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743509

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has exposed an underlying pandemic of neglect affecting women's reproductive rights, particularly in the provision of abortion services and maternity care. The systemic neglect in the Australian context has resulted in a rise in demand for the services provided by privately practising midwives (PPMs) that is not matched by systemic support for, nor recognition of, women choosing to birth at home. As a result, PPMs are unable to meet the rise in demand, which in itself reflects decades of limited State support for the choice to birth at home and opposition by incumbent stakeholders in the provision of maternity care to healthy women with low-risk pregnancies. We discuss the historical backdrop to these currently erupting issues, along with the real reasons for the opposition to PPMs in Australia. Finally, we offer solutions to this ongoing issue.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Home Childbirth , Maternal Health Services , Midwifery , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Australia , Betacoronavirus , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Reproductive Rights , Women's Rights
10.
A A Pract ; 14(10): e01303, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742495

ABSTRACT

The safety of epidural blood patch in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is unknown. Here, we report a single case of epidural blood patch to treat a postdural puncture headache in a woman after spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. The patient's headache was relieved, and she did not develop any other neurological symptoms.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Blood Patch, Epidural/methods , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Post-Dural Puncture Headache/complications , Post-Dural Puncture Headache/therapy , Adult , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Treatment Outcome
11.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 250: 246-249, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741189

ABSTRACT

The risk of vertical transmission during vaginal delivery in COVID-19 pregnant patients is currently a topic of debate. Obstetric norms on vaginal birth assistance to reduce the potential risk of perinatal infection should be promoted by ensuring that the risk of contamination from maternal anus and faecal material is reduced during vaginal delivery.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Vagina/virology
13.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 62: e62, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740470

ABSTRACT

The consequences of COVID-19 infecting pregnant women and the potential risks of vertical transmission have become a major issue. Since little is currently known about COVID-19 in pregnancy, the understanding of COVID-19 in this particular group will be updated in time, and a comprehensive review will be useful to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 in pregnancy. Based on recently published literature and official documents, this review provides an introduction to the pathogenesis, pathology, and clinical features of COVID-19 and has focused on the current researches on clinical features, pregnancy outcomes and placental histopathological analysis from pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 in comparison with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. These viruses trigger a cytokine storm in the body, produce a series of immune responses, and cause changes in peripheral leukocytes and immune system cells leading to pregnancy complications that may be associated with viral infections. The expression of ACE2 receptors in the vascular endothelium may explain the histological changes of placentas from pregnant women infected by SARS-CoV-2. Pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia show similar clinical characteristics compared with non-pregnant counterparts. Although there is no unequivocal evidence to support the fetal infection by intrauterine vertical transmission of SARS, MERS and SARS-CoV-2 so far, more and more articles began to report maternal deaths due to COVID-19. In particular, from February 26, 2020 (date of the first COVID-19 case reported in Brazil) until June 18, 2020, Brazil reported 124 maternal deaths. Therefore, pregnant women and neonates require special attention regarding the prevention, diagnosis and management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Brazil , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pregnancy
14.
16.
BMJ ; 370: m3320, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737537

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical manifestations, risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes in pregnant and recently pregnant women with suspected or confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). DESIGN: Living systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, Cochrane database, WHO COVID-19 database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang databases from 1 December 2019 to 26 June 2020, along with preprint servers, social media, and reference lists. STUDY SELECTION: Cohort studies reporting the rates, clinical manifestations (symptoms, laboratory and radiological findings), risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes in pregnant and recently pregnant women with suspected or confirmed covid-19. DATA EXTRACTION: At least two researchers independently extracted the data and assessed study quality. Random effects meta-analysis was performed, with estimates pooled as odds ratios and proportions with 95% confidence intervals. All analyses will be updated regularly. RESULTS: 77 studies were included. Overall, 10% (95% confidence interval 7% to14%; 28 studies, 11 432 women) of pregnant and recently pregnant women attending or admitted to hospital for any reason were diagnosed as having suspected or confirmed covid-19. The most common clinical manifestations of covid-19 in pregnancy were fever (40%) and cough (39%). Compared with non-pregnant women of reproductive age, pregnant and recently pregnant women with covid-19 were less likely to report symptoms of fever (odds ratio 0.43, 95% confidence interval 0.22 to 0.85; I2=74%; 5 studies; 80 521 women) and myalgia (0.48, 0.45 to 0.51; I2=0%; 3 studies; 80 409 women) and were more likely to need admission to an intensive care unit (1.62, 1.33 to 1.96; I2=0%) and invasive ventilation (1.88, 1.36 to 2.60; I2=0%; 4 studies, 91 606 women). 73 pregnant women (0.1%, 26 studies, 11 580 women) with confirmed covid-19 died from any cause. Increased maternal age (1.78, 1.25 to 2.55; I2=9%; 4 studies; 1058 women), high body mass index (2.38, 1.67 to 3.39; I2=0%; 3 studies; 877 women), chronic hypertension (2.0, 1.14 to 3.48; I2=0%; 2 studies; 858 women), and pre-existing diabetes (2.51, 1.31 to 4.80; I2=12%; 2 studies; 858 women) were associated with severe covid-19 in pregnancy. Pre-existing maternal comorbidity was a risk factor for admission to an intensive care unit (4.21, 1.06 to 16.72; I2=0%; 2 studies; 320 women) and invasive ventilation (4.48, 1.40 to 14.37; I2=0%; 2 studies; 313 women). Spontaneous preterm birth rate was 6% (95% confidence interval 3% to 9%; I2=55%; 10 studies; 870 women) in women with covid-19. The odds of any preterm birth (3.01, 95% confidence interval 1.16 to 7.85; I2=1%; 2 studies; 339 women) was high in pregnant women with covid-19 compared with those without the disease. A quarter of all neonates born to mothers with covid-19 were admitted to the neonatal unit (25%) and were at increased risk of admission (odds ratio 3.13, 95% confidence interval 2.05 to 4.78, I2=not estimable; 1 study, 1121 neonates) than those born to mothers without covid-19. CONCLUSION: Pregnant and recently pregnant women are less likely to manifest covid-19 related symptoms of fever and myalgia than non-pregnant women of reproductive age and are potentially more likely to need intensive care treatment for covid-19. Pre-existing comorbidities, high maternal age, and high body mass index seem to be risk factors for severe covid-19. Preterm birth rates are high in pregnant women with covid-19 than in pregnant women without the disease. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020178076. READERS' NOTE: This article is a living systematic review that will be updated to reflect emerging evidence. Updates may occur for up to two years from the date of original publication.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/etiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/virology , Prognosis , Risk Factors
17.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 228, 2020 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-736401

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 outbreak, the European Reference Network on Rare Bone Diseases (ERN BOND) coordination team and Italian rare bone diseases healthcare professionals created the "COVID-19 Helpline for Rare Bone Diseases" in an attempt to provide high-quality information and expertise on rare bone diseases remotely to patients and healthcare professionals. The present position statement describes the key characteristics of the Helpline initiative, along with the main aspects and topics that recurrently emerged as central for rare bone diseases patients and professionals. The main topics highlighted are general recommendations, pulmonary complications, drug treatment, trauma, pregnancy, children and elderly people, and patient associations role. The successful experience of the "COVID-19 Helpline for Rare Bone Diseases" launched in Italy could serve as a primer of gold-standard remote care for rare bone diseases for the other European countries and globally. Furthermore, similar COVID-19 helplines could be considered and applied for other rare diseases in order to implement remote patients' care.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Bone Diseases/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Rare Diseases/complications , Remote Consultation/standards , Aged , Algorithms , Bone Diseases/therapy , Child , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pregnancy , Rare Diseases/therapy , Wounds and Injuries
18.
AORN J ; 112(3): 217-224, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-734213

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 first appeared in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and led to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which quickly spread globally. Protocols for surgical patients with COVID-19 were lacking, particularly for pregnant women undergoing cesarean deliveries. Perioperative nurses at Tongji Hospital in Wuhan retrospectively analyzed the perioperative nursing process, including OR preparation, intraoperative care, and OR cleanup, for women with COVID-19 undergoing cesarean deliveries. Preparation involved altering the layout of the surgical suite, educating staff members, providing personal protective equipment, and creating new in-house guidelines to help protect personnel and patients. This article describes how perioperative personnel strategized to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 in the OR and presents a multiple-case summary of six pregnant patients with COVID-19 who underwent cesarean deliveries at Tongji Hospital in January and February 2020.


Subject(s)
Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Perioperative Care/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , China , Coronavirus Infections/surgery , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/surgery , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy
19.
Am J Nurs ; 120(9): 19-20, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733349
20.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(5): 394-399, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732956

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, a new form of pneumonia disease known as the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rapidly spread throughout most provinces of China, and the total global number of COVID-19 cases has surpassed 500 000 by Mar. 27, 2020 (WHO, 2020). On Jan. 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a global health emergency (WHO, 2020). COVID-19 causes most damage to the respiratory system, leading to pneumonia or breathing difficulties. The confirmed case fatality risk (cCFR) was estimated to be 5% to 8% (Jung et al., 2020). Besides physical pain, COVID-19 also induces psychological distress, with depression, anxiety, and stress affecting the general population, quarantined population, medical staff, and patients at different levels (Kang et al., 2020; Xiang et al., 2020). Previous research on patients in isolation wards highlighted the risk of depressed mood, fear, loneliness, frustration, excessive worries, and insomnia (Abad et al., 2010).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Dialectical Behavior Therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Anxiety/therapy , Betacoronavirus , China , Depression/therapy , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology
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