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1.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 268: 135-142, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Selection, outcome and publication biases are well described in case reports and case series but may be less of a problem early in the appearance of a new disease when all cases might appear to be worth publishing. OBJECTIVE: To use a prospectively collected database of primary sources to compare the reporting of COVID-19 in pregnancy in case reports, case series and in registries over the first 8 months of the pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: MEDLINE, Embase and Maternity and Infant Care databases were searched from 22 March to 5 November 2020, to create a curated list of primary sources. Duplicate reports were excluded. Case reports, case series and registry studies of pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19, where neonatal outcomes were reported, were selected and data extracted on neonatal infection status, neonatal death, neonatal intensive care unit admission, preterm birth, stillbirth, maternal critical care unit admission and maternal death. RESULTS: 149 studies comprising 41,658 mothers and 8,854 neonates were included. All complications were more common in case reports, and in retrospective series compared with presumably prospective registry studies. Extensive overlap is likely in registry studies, with cases from seven countries reported by multiple registries. The UK Obstetric Surveillance System was the only registry to explicitly report identification and removal of duplicate cases, although five other registries reported collection of patient identifiable data which would facilitate identification of duplicates. CONCLUSIONS: Since it is likely that registries provide the least biased estimates, the higher rates seen in the other two study designs are probably due to selection or publication bias. However even some registry studies include self- or doctor-reported cases, so might be biased, and we could not completely exclude overlap of cases in some registries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth/epidemiology
4.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0249214, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605662

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus. Despite strong efforts that have been taking place to control the pandemic globally, the virus is on the rise in many countries. Hence, this study assessed the maternal health care services utilization amidst the COVID-19 pandemic in West Shoa zone, Central Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 844 pregnant women or those who gave birth in the last 6 months before the study. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. The data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. Logistic regressions were performed to identify the presence of significant associations, and an adjusted odds ratio with 95%CI was employed for the strength and directions of association between the independent and outcome variables. A P-value of <0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. The prevalence of maternal health service utilization during the COVID-19 pandemic was 64.8%. The odds of maternal health service utilization was higher among mothers who had primary (AOR = 2.16, 95%CI: 1.29-3.60), secondary (AOR = 1.97, 95%CI: 1.13-3.44), and college and above education (AOR = 2.89, 95%CI: 1.34-6.22) than those who could not read and write. Besides, mothers who did travel 30-60 minutes (AOR = 0.37, 95%CI: 0.23-0.59) and 60-90minutes (AOR = 0.10, 95%CI: 0.05-0.19) to reach the health facility had a lower odds of maternal health service utilization than those who did travel <30 minutes. Moreover, mothers who earn 1000-2000 (AOR = 3.10, 95%CI: 1.73-5.55) and > 2000 birrs (AOR = 2.66 95%CI: 1.52-4.64) had higher odds of maternal health service utilization than those who earn <500 birrs. Similarly, the odds of utilizing maternal health service were higher among mothers who did not fear COVID-19 infection (AOR = 2.79, 95%CI: 1.85-4.20), who had not had to request permission from husband to visit the health facility (AOR = 7.24, 95%CI: 2.65-19.75), who had practicedCOVID-19 prevention measure (AOR = 5.82, 95%CI: 3.87-8.75), and used face mask (AOR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.28-3.31) than their counterpart. Empowering mothers and creating awareness on COVID-19 preventionis recommended to improve maternal health service utilization during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Maternal Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Masks , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Class , Young Adult
5.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 245-250, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604118

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In patients with COVID-19, olfactory dysfunction and anosmia have been reported, which in pregnant women occur in up to 24.2 %. OBJECTIVE: To know the frequency at which pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection have olfactory dysfunction. METHODS: Age, gestational age, temperature, presence of nasal constipation or rhinorrhea, myalgia, headache, cough or chest pain were asked. Whether patients perceived and identified the scent of grape juice, coffee powder and menthol was evaluated. Central tendency and dispersion measures, frequencies and percentages were used. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were calculated. Mann-Whitney's U-test and contrast of proportions were used for comparisons between groups. RESULTS: There was a higher proportion of women with cough, headache, dyspnea, myalgia, odynophagia, rhinorrhea, chest pain, and anosmia in SARS-CoV-2-positive women. In patients without COVID-19, 88.9 % detected each one of the scents; only 31.8 % of the positive group detected grapes scent, 47.7 % coffee and 59.1 % menthol, which had the highest percentages of sensitivity (40 %), specificity (21 %), positive predictive value (59 %) and negative predictive value (11 %). CONCLUSION: Olfactory dysfunction occurs in a significant percentage of pregnant women with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
6.
Hum Reprod ; 36(11): 2883-2890, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603626

ABSTRACT

STUDY QUESTION: What is the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on the outcome of a pregnancy after medically assisted reproduction (MAR)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our results suggest that MAR pregnancies are not differentially affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to spontaneous pregnancies. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Information on the effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on pregnancy after MAR is scarce when women get infected during MAR or early pregnancy, even though such information is vital for informing women seeking pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Data from SARS-CoV-2 affected MAR pregnancies were collected between May 2020 and June 2021 through a voluntary data collection, organised by the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: All ESHRE members were invited to participate to an online data collection for SARS-CoV-2-infected MAR pregnancies. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The dataset includes 80 cases from 32 countries, including 67 live births, 10 miscarriages, 2 stillbirths and 1 maternal death. An additional 25pregnancies were ongoing at the time of writing. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: An international data registry based on voluntary contribution can be subject to selective reporting with possible risks of over- or under-estimation. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The current data can be used to guide clinical decisions in the care of women pregnant after MAR, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): The authors acknowledge the support of ESHRE for the data registry and meetings. J.S.T. reports grants or contracts from Sigrid Juselius Foundation, EU and Helsinki University Hospital Funds, outside the scope of the current work. The other authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Reproduction , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 5, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605314

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Salud Mesoamérica Initiative (SMI) is a public-private collaboration aimed to improve maternal and child health conditions in the poorest populations of Mesoamerica through a results-based aid mechanism. We assess the impact of SMI on the staffing and availability of equipment and supplies for delivery care, the proportion of institutional deliveries, and the proportion of women who choose a facility other than the one closest to their locality of residence for delivery. METHODS: We used a quasi-experimental design, including baseline and follow-up measurements between 2013 and 2018 in intervention and comparison areas of Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Honduras. We collected information on 8754 births linked to the health facility closest to the mother's locality of residence and the facility where the delivery took place (if attended in a health facility). We fit difference-in-difference models, adjusting for women's characteristics (age, parity, education), household characteristics, exposure to health promotion interventions, health facility level, and country. RESULTS: Equipment, inputs, and staffing of facilities improved after the Initiative in both intervention and comparison areas. After adjustment for covariates, institutional delivery increased between baseline and follow-up by 3.1 percentage points (ß = 0.031, 95% CI -0.03, 0.09) more in intervention areas than in comparison areas. The proportion of women in intervention areas who chose a facility other than their closest one to attend the delivery decreased between baseline and follow-up by 13 percentage points (ß = - 0.130, 95% CI -0.23, - 0.03) more than in the comparison group. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that women in intervention areas of SMI are more likely to go to their closest facility to attend delivery after the Initiative has improved facilities' capacity, suggesting that results-based aid initiatives targeting poor populations, like SMI, can increase the use of facilities closest to the place of residence for delivery care services. This should be considered in the design of interventions after the COVID-19 pandemic may have changed health and social conditions.


Subject(s)
Delivery, Obstetric , Health Promotion , Health Services Accessibility , Maternal Health Services , Prenatal Care , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Guatemala , Health Facilities , Honduras , Humans , Middle Aged , Nicaragua , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Young Adult
8.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 14, 2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604590

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is predominately known as a respiratory disease associated with pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure. However, extra-pulmonary complications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are increasingly being recognized. In this regard, some studies implied the hemostatic and vascular involvements in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ICH) in a pregnant patient with COVID-19 and history of cesarean section a week before the occurrence of ICH. The patient underwent emergent craniotomy with acceptable outcome. Hemorrhagic events, including ICH, may happen during COVID-19 infection with several possible mechanisms. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients, especially high-risk groups, are at a risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Therefore, close follow-up must be maintained and hemorrhagic events must be kept in mind in these cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Cerebral Hemorrhage/pathology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/surgery , Craniotomy , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/surgery , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Treatment Outcome
9.
BMC Res Notes ; 15(1): 3, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607105

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the change in trend of antenatal mental health and associated factors among a cohort of pregnant women during the second wave of COVID-19 using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Previous study using the same scale, during the first wave reported a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression. RESULTS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at the two large maternity hospitals in Colombo, Sri Lanka: Castle Street Hospital for Women (CSHW) and De Soysa Hospital for Women (DSHW). Consecutively recruited 311 women were studied. Out of which, 272 (87.5%) were having uncomplicated pregnancies at the time of the survey and 106 (34.1%) were either anxious, depressed, or both. Prevalence of anxiety was 17.0% and depression 27.0%. Overall, continuing COVID-19 pandemic increased antenatal anxiety and depression. The trend was to aggravate depression more intensively compared to anxiety in this cohort of women studied. Special support is needed for pregnant mothers during infectious epidemics taking more attention to antenatal depression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnant Women , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sri Lanka/epidemiology
10.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 17: 17455065211013262, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595974

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic poses unique challenges to healthcare delivery. To limit the exposure of providers and patients to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention encourages providers to use telehealth platforms whenever possible. Given the maternal mortality crisis in the United States and the compounding 2019 coronavirus disease public health emergency, continued access to quality preconception, prenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum care are essential to the health and well-being of mother and baby. OBJECTIVE: This commentary explores unique opportunities to optimize virtual obstetric care for low-risk and high-risk mothers at each stage of pregnancy. METHODS: In this review paper, we present evidence-based literature and tools from first-hand experience implementing telemedicine in obstetric care clinics during the pandemic. RESULTS: Using the best evidence-based practices with telemedicine, health care providers can deliver care in the safest, most respectful, and appropriate way possible while providing the critical support necessary in pregnancy. In reviewing the literature, several studies endorse the implementation of specific tools outlined in this article, to facilitate the implementation of telemedicine. From a quality improvement standpoint, evidence-based telemedicine provides a solution for overburdened healthcare systems, greater confidentiality for obstetric services, and a personalized avenue for health care providers to meet maternal health needs in the pandemic. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, continued access to quality prenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum care are essential to the health and well-being of mother and baby.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Female , Humans , Mothers , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Vital Signs
11.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(44): e309, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed maternal and neonatal outcomes of critically ill pregnant and puerperal patients in the clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Records of pregnant and puerperal women with polymerase chain reaction positive COVID-19 virus who were admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) from March 2020 to August 2021 were investigated. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data, pharmacotherapy, and neonatal outcomes were analyzed. These outcomes were compared between patients that were discharged from ICU and patients who died in ICU. RESULTS: Nineteen women were included in this study. Additional oxygen was required in all cases (100%). Eight patients (42%) were intubated and mechanically ventilated. All patients that were mechanically ventilated have died. Increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) was seen in all patients (100%). D-dimer values increased in 15 patients (78.9%); interleukin-6 (IL-6) increased in 16 cases (84.2%). Sixteen patients used antiviral drugs. Eleven patients were discharged from the ICU and eight patients have died due to complications of COVID-19 showing an ICU mortality rate of 42.1%. Mean number of hospitalized days in ICU was significantly lower in patients that were discharged (P = 0.037). Seventeen patients underwent cesarean-section (C/S) (89.4%). Mean birth week was significantly lower in patients who died in ICU (P = 0.024). Eleven preterm (57.8%) and eight term deliveries (42.1%) occurred. CONCLUSION: High mortality rate was detected among critically ill pregnant/parturient patients followed in the ICU. Main predictors of mortality were the need of invasive mechanical ventilation and higher number of days hospitalized in ICU. Rate of C/S operations and preterm delivery were high. Pleasingly, the rate of neonatal death was low and no neonatal COVID-19 occurred.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Puerperal Disorders/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Cesarean Section , Combined Modality Therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the effectiveness on stress urinary incontinence (SUI) prevention of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) for pregnant women has been inconclusive, we are planning to conduct a trial to evaluate a video program designed for prevention of SUI developed through combining PFMT with global postural reeducation (GPR). METHODS: As a randomized controlled trial, eligible participants will be randomized (1:1) into an exercise group and a control group to perform PFMT regularly following video guidance or with no intervention, respectively. The experimental stage will be from the 16th gestation week (GW) to the 12th month postpartum, with eight appointments at the 16th, 28th, 37th GW, delivery, the 6th week and the 3rd, 6th, and 12th month postpartum. Data will be collected regarding urinary leakage symptoms, the stress test, the modified Oxford Scale, pelvic floor ultrasound, perineal laceration classification at delivery, neonatal Apgar score, and questionnaires (PISQ-12, ICIQ-UI SF, I-QOL, OABSS). The primary outcome is the occurrence of the symptomatic SUI and positive stress test at the 6th week postpartum. DISCUSSION: This protocol is anticipated to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention via video app for the design of a future randomized control trial (RCT). TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial has been registered at Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration number: ChiCTR2000029618).


Subject(s)
Mobile Applications , Urinary Incontinence, Stress , Exercise Therapy , Female , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pelvic Floor , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Urinary Incontinence, Stress/prevention & control
14.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(1): 119-121, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591380

ABSTRACT

The goal of this study was to investigate the maternal death rate among admitted pregnant patients with SARS-COV-2 during its 4th wave in Pakistan. It was a cross-sectional analytical study, carried on pregnant patients admitted due to COVID-19, in Sadiq Abbasi Hospital from 15th August to 15th September, 2021. Thirty-three PCR confirmed and HRCT suggestive patients were included with mean age of 28 ± 4.5 years and mean gestational age of 28.5 ± 6 weeks. Twenty-seven (81%) were non-vaccinated, 22 (66%) were admitted with severe disease, 13 (39.4%) and 11 (33.3%) were on non-invasive and invasive ventilator support, respectively. Only nine (27%) patients could continue their pregnancy. Fifteen (45%) patients had severe oligohydramnios. Twenty-two (66.7%) patients were died, all were unvaccinated. Regression analysis for maternal mortality predicted by severity and vaccination status was significant with R2=.68, F (1, 31) =66.6, p <.001 CI (-.69, -.42) and R2=.44, F (1, 31) = 24.8, p <.001 CI (-1.14, -.48), respectively. There was substantial mortality in the admitted and non-vaccinated pregnant patients with COVID-19. Key Words: Pregnancy, Vaccination, Severe COVID, Maternal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Vaccines , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Maternal Mortality , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
15.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(12): e25846, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591262

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: While pregnant people have been an important focus for HIV research, critical evidence gaps remain regarding prevention, co-infection, and safety and efficacy of new antiretroviral therapies in pregnancy. Such gaps can result in harm: without safety data, drugs used may carry unacceptable risks to the foetus or pregnant person; without pregnancy-specific dosing data, pregnant people face risks of both toxicity and undertreatment; and delays in gathering evidence can limit access to beneficial next-generation drugs. Despite recognition of the need, numerous barriers and ethical complexities have limited progress. We describe the process, ethical foundations, recommendations and applications of guidance for advancing responsible inclusion of pregnant people in HIV/co-infections research. DISCUSSION: The 26-member international and interdisciplinary Pregnancy and HIV/AIDS: Seeking Equitable Study (PHASES) Working Group was convened to develop ethics-centred guidance for advancing timely, responsible HIV/co-infections research with pregnant people. Deliberations over 3 years drew on extensive qualitative research, stakeholder engagement, expert consultation and a series of workshops. The guidance, initially issued in July 2020, highlights conceptual shifts needed in framing research with pregnant people, and articulates three ethical foundations to ground recommendations: equitable protection from drug-related risks, timely access to biomedical advances and equitable respect for pregnant people's health interests. The guidance advances 12 specific recommendations, actionable within the current regulatory environment, addressing multiple stakeholders across drug development and post-approval research, and organized around four themes: building capacity, supporting inclusion, achieving priority research and ensuring respect. The recommendations describe strategies towards ethically redressing the evidence gap for pregnant people around HIV and co-infections. The guidance has informed key efforts of leading organizations working to advance needed research, and identifies further opportunities for impact by a range of stakeholder groups. CONCLUSIONS: There are clear pathways towards ethical inclusion of pregnant people in the biomedical research agenda, and strong agreement across the HIV research community about the need for - and the promise of - advancing them. Those who fund, conduct, oversee and advocate for research can use the PHASES guidance to facilitate more, better and earlier evidence to optimize the health and wellbeing of pregnant people and their children.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Biomedical Research , Coinfection , HIV Infections , Child , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pregnancy , Stakeholder Participation
16.
Trials ; 23(1): 5, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1590540

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding offers many medical and neurodevelopmental advantages for birthing parents and infants; however, the majority of parents stop breastfeeding before it is recommended. Professional lactation support by the International Board Certified Lactation Consultants (IBCLCs) increases breastfeeding rates; however, many communities lack access to IBCLCs. Black and Latinx parents have lower breastfeeding rates, and limited access to professional lactation support may contribute to this disparity. Virtual "telelactation" consults that use two-way video have the potential to increase access to IBCLCs among disadvantaged populations. We present a protocol for the digital Tele-MILC trial, which uses mixed methods to evaluate the impact of telelactation services on breastfeeding outcomes. The objective of this pragmatic, parallel design randomized controlled trial is to assess the impact of telelactation on breastfeeding duration and exclusivity and explore how acceptability of and experiences with telelactation vary across Latinx, Black, and non-Black and non-Latinx parents to guide future improvement of these services. METHODS: 2400 primiparous, pregnant individuals age > 18 who intend to breastfeed and live in the USA underserved by IBCLCs will be recruited. Recruitment will occur via Ovia, a pregnancy tracker mobile phone application (app) used by over one million pregnant individuals in the USA annually. Participants will be randomized to (1) on-demand telelactation video calls on personal devices or (2) ebook on infant care/usual care. Breastfeeding outcomes will be captured via surveys and interviews and compared across racial and ethnic groups. This study will track participants for 8 months (including 6 months postpartum). Primary outcomes include breastfeeding duration and breastfeeding exclusivity. We will quantify differences in these outcomes across racial and ethnic groups. Both intention-to-treat and as-treated (using instrumental variable methods) analyses will be performed. This study will also generate qualitative data on the experiences of different subgroups of parents with the telelactation intervention, including barriers to use, satisfaction, and strengths and limitations of this delivery model. DISCUSSION: This is the first randomized study evaluating the impact of telelactation on breastfeeding outcomes. It will inform the design and implementation of future digital trials among pregnant and postpartum people, including Black and Latinx populations which are historically underrepresented in clinical trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04856163. Registered on April 23, 2021.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Telemedicine , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant , Middle Aged , Parents , Postnatal Care , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
17.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 9(2)2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598547

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Early diagnosis of prediabetes based on blood sampling for the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is crucial for intervention but multiple barriers hinder its uptake. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and precision of a self-administered capillary OGTT for type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in high-risk individuals. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants with history of gestational diabetes or prediabetes were recruited in primary care. Due to their prediabetic status and previous diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus, a proportion of participants had previous experience doing OGTT. They self-administered the capillary OGTT and concurrently their venous glucose samples were obtained. They filled a questionnaire to collect their demographic information, views of their capillary OGTT, and their preferred site of the test. RESULTS: Among 30 participants enrolled in this feasibility study, 93.3% of them felt confident of performing the capillary OGTT themselves, and 70.0% preferred the test at home. Older, less educated participants found it less acceptable. Mean capillary glucose values were significantly higher than venous glucose values, with mean difference at 0.31 mmol/L (95% CI 0.13 to 0.49) at fasting, and 0.47 mmol/L (95% CI 0.12 to 0.92) 2 hours post-OGTT. Capillary and venous glucose measurements were correlated for fasting (r=0.95; p<0.001) and 2-hour-post-OGTT (r=0.95;p<0.001). The Fleiss-Kappa Score (0.79, p<0.0001) indicated fair agreement between the two methods. The capillary OGTT had excellent sensitivity (94.1%) and negative predictive value (NPV=91.7%) in identifying prediabetes or T2DM status, vis-a-vis to venous glucose samples. CONCLUSION: Self-administered capillary OGTT is feasible and acceptable, especially among younger adults, with excellent sensitivity and NPV compared with plasma-based OGTT.


Subject(s)
Diabetes, Gestational , Prediabetic State , Adult , Blood Glucose , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Feasibility Studies , Female , Glucose Tolerance Test , Humans , Prediabetic State/diagnosis , Pregnancy
18.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598389

ABSTRACT

Both in utero exposure to maternal immune activation and cannabis use during adolescence have been associated with increased risk for the development of schizophrenia; however, whether these exposures exert synergistic effects on brain function is not known. In the present study, mild maternal immune activation (MIA) was elicited in mice with prenatal exposure to polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), and ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was provided throughout adolescence in cereal (3 mg/kg/day for 5 days). Neither THC nor MIA pretreatments altered activity in assays used to characterize hyperdopaminergic states in adulthood: amphetamine hyperlocomotion and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex. Adolescent THC treatment elicited deficits in spatial memory and enhanced spatial reversal learning in adult female mice in the Morris water maze, while exposure to MIA elicited female-specific deficits in fear extinction learning in adulthood. There were no effects in these assays in adult males, nor were there interactions between THC and MIA in adult females. While doses of poly(I:C) and THC were sufficient to elicit behavioral effects, particularly relating to cognitive performance in females, there was no evidence that adolescent THC exposure synergized with the risk imposed by MIA to worsen behavioral outcomes in adult mice of either sex.


Subject(s)
Aging/physiology , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Dronabinol/pharmacology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/immunology , Amphetamine , Animals , Conditioning, Classical , Extinction, Psychological/drug effects , Fear/drug effects , Female , Locomotion/drug effects , Male , Maze Learning/physiology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pregnancy , Prepulse Inhibition/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reflex, Startle/drug effects , Swimming
19.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261700, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597256

ABSTRACT

Dietary adequacy and diversity during the lactation period are necessary to ensure good health and nutrition among women and children. Behavioral interventions pertaining to health and nutrition counselling during pregnancy and lactation are critical for awareness about dietary diversity. The issue assumes salience for marginalized communities because of the Covid-19 pandemic and associated economic and societal disruptions. This paper assesses the dietary patterns among 400 lactating mothers in the tribal-dominated district of Palghar in Maharashtra, India in 2020. The study is based on primary data regarding consumption of 10 food groups among women across 10 food groups based on 24-hour recall period. The primary outcome variable was binary information regarding Minimum Dietary Diversity defined as consumption from at least 5 food groups. Econometric analysis based on multilevel models and item-response theory is applied to identify food groups that were most difficult to be received by mothers during the early and late lactation period. We find that the daily diet of lactating mothers in Palghar primarily consists of grains, white roots, tubers, and pulses. In contrast, the intake of dairy, eggs, and non-vegetarian food items is much lower. Only Half of the lactating women (56.5 percent; 95% CI: 37.4; 73.8) have a minimum diversified diet (MDD). The prevalence of lactating women with MDD was higher among households with higher income (73.1 percent; 95% CI: 45.2; 89.9) than those in lower income group (50.7 percent; 95% CI: 42.3; 58.9). Lactating Women (in early phase) who received health and nutrition counseling services are more likely (OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 0.90; 6.26) to consume a diversified diet. Food groups such as fruits, meat, poultry, fish, nuts, and seeds were among the rare food items in daily diet. The dietary pattern lacking in fruits, nuts, and heme (iron) sources indicates more significant risks of micronutrient deficiencies. The findings call for improving dietary diversity among lactating mothers, particularly from the marginalized communities, and are driven by low consumption of dairy products or various fruits and vegetables. Among the different food items, the consumption of micronutrient-rich seeds and nuts is most difficult to be accessed by lactating mothers. Also, diet-centric counseling and informing lactating mothers of its benefits are necessary to increase dietary diversity for improving maternal and child nutrition.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet/methods , Lactation/physiology , Nutritional Status/physiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dairy Products , Female , Fruit , Humans , Income , India/epidemiology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Vegetables , Young Adult
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