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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(24): 895-899, 2021 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278794

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines are critical for ending the COVID-19 pandemic; however, current data about vaccination coverage and safety in pregnant women are limited. Pregnant women are at increased risk for severe illness and death from COVID-19 compared with nonpregnant women of reproductive age, and are at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth (1-4). Pregnant women are eligible for and can receive any of the three COVID-19 vaccines available in the United States via Emergency Use Authorization.* Data from Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD), a collaboration between CDC and multiple integrated health systems, were analyzed to assess receipt of ≥1 dose (first or second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccines or a single dose of the Janssen [Johnson & Johnson] vaccine) of any COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy, receipt of first dose of a 2-dose COVID-19 vaccine (initiation), or completion of a 1- or 2-dose COVID-19 vaccination series. During December 14, 2020-May 8, 2021, a total of 135,968 pregnant women were identified, 22,197 (16.3%) of whom had received ≥1 dose of a vaccine during pregnancy. Among these 135,968 women, 7,154 (5.3%) had initiated and 15,043 (11.1%) had completed vaccination during pregnancy. Receipt of ≥1 dose of COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy was highest among women aged 35-49 years (22.7%) and lowest among those aged 18-24 years (5.5%), and higher among non-Hispanic Asian (Asian) (24.7%) and non-Hispanic White (White) women (19.7%) than among Hispanic (11.9%) and non-Hispanic Black (Black) women (6.0%). Vaccination coverage increased among all racial and ethnic groups over the analytic period, likely because of increased eligibility for vaccination† and increased availability of vaccine over time. These findings indicate the need for improved outreach to and engagement with pregnant women, especially those from racial and ethnic minority groups who might be at higher risk for severe health outcomes because of COVID-19 (4). In addition, providing accurate and timely information about COVID-19 vaccination to health care providers, pregnant women, and women of reproductive age can improve vaccine confidence and coverage by ensuring optimal shared clinical decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pregnant Women , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/ethnology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
Public Health Nurs ; 38(4): 596-602, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177470

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study explored stress and coping among pregnant Black women prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal, cohort study. SAMPLE: Thirty-three women enrolled in the Biosocial Impact on Black Births study prior to the COVID-19 pandemic and who were still pregnant during the pandemic. MEASUREMENTS: Questionnaires included the Perceived Stress Scale, Prenatal Coping Inventory, and questions related to sociodemographic characteristics, worry about COVID-19, and coping strategies used during the pandemic. RESULTS: Women reported very much being worried about my child getting COVID-19 (46%) and my family member getting COVID-19 (46%). Women reported specific active coping strategies very much reduced their feelings of discomfort during COVID-19: God, religion, or spirituality (24%), social media (24%), and following government advice (24%). Higher use of avoidance coping prior to the pandemic was associated with higher levels of stress both prior to (r = 0.60, p < .001) and during (r = 0.47, p < .01) the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Women reported worries about COVID-19 and used various strategies to cope with feelings of discomfort due to the pandemic. Nurses should assess the stress level of pregnant Black women and recommend active coping strategies during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , African Americans/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Pregnant Women/ethnology , Stress, Psychological/ethnology , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Anxiety/ethnology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Prospective Studies , Stress, Psychological/nursing , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
Matern Child Nutr ; 17(3): e13165, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140288

ABSTRACT

Rapid household food insecurity (HFI) tracking has been identified as a priority in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath. We report the validation of the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (Escala Latinoamericana y Caribena de Seguridad Alimentaria [ELCSA]) among pregnant women in Sri Lanka. The eight-item adult version of the ELCSA was translated from English to Sinhala and Tamil. Cognitive testing (on 10 pregnant women and five local experts) and psychometric validation of the self-administered HFI tool were conducted among pregnant women (n = 269) attending the special clinics of the Rajarata Pregnancy Cohort (RaPCo) in Anuradhapura in February 2020. We assessed the psychometric properties and fit using a one parameter logistic model (Rasch model analysis) using STATA Version 14 and WINSTEP software Version 4.3.4. Concurrent validity was tested using psychological distress. The scale was internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.79) and had a good model fit (Rasch items infit statistic range: 0.85 to 1.07). Item 8 ('did not eat for the whole day') was removed from the model fit analysis, as it was not affirmed by respondent. Item severity scores ranged from -2.15 for 'not eating a diverse diet' to 4.43 for 'not eating during the whole day'. Concurrent validity between HFI and psychological distress was confirmed (r = 0.15, p < 0.05). The self-applied version of ELCSA-pregnancy in Sri Lanka (ELCSA-P-SL) is a valid and feasible valid tool. We recommend it to track HFI among pregnant women in lower income countries during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Food Insecurity , Pregnant Women , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Food Supply , Humans , India , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/ethnology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Sri Lanka
4.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 303(2): 463-469, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-812603

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the anxiety and depression in pregnant women in China, and its influencing factors during the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: From February 22 to February 27, a questionnaire survey was conducted on 156 pregnant women, including demographic characteristics, a self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), and a self-depression rating scale (SDS). RESULTS: A total of 13 non-homologous end-joining (8.3%, 13/156) patients were anxious, 79 patients (50.6%, 79/156) were depressed, and 13 patients (8.3%, 13/156) suffered from both anxiety and depression. The SAS score of pregnant women was 40.55 ± 6.09, and the SDS score was 50.42 ± 11.64. For the SAS score, only 8.3% of all patients (13/156) were in a light anxiety state. For the SDS score, 46.79% (73/156) of patients was normal, 23.72% of patients (37/156) showed mild depression, 22.44% (35/156) showed moderate depression, and 4.49% (7/156) showed severe depression. No significant changes were observed in SAS and SDS scores between patients from different regions within China, health state, gestational week, educational background, and living condition (P > 0.05). Moreover, no significant differences were observed between diagnosed/suspected patients and the normal control group (P > 0.05), and between pregnant women in Wuhan compared to other regions (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 epidemic, the anxiety level of pregnant women was the same as that before the epidemic, while the level of depression was significantly higher. Pregnant women who lived in Wuhan, the epicenter of the epidemic, were not more anxious or depressed compared to pregnant women in other regions during the COVID-19 epidemic. Furthermore, the mental health status of pregnant women with COVID-19 was not more severe.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pregnant Women/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Status , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/ethnology , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
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