Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 211
Filter
1.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(1): e25241, 2021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in changes to normal life and disrupted social and economic function worldwide. However, little is known about the impact of social media use, unhealthy lifestyles, and the risk of miscarriage among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the association between social media use, unhealthy lifestyles, and the risk of miscarriage among pregnant women in the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in China. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 456 singleton pregnant women in mainland China were recruited during January and February 2020. Sociodemographic characteristics, history of previous health, social media use, and current lifestyles were collected at baseline, and we followed up about the occurrence of miscarriage. Log-binomial regression models were used to estimate the risk ratios (RRs) of miscarriage for women with different exposures to COVID-19-specific information. RESULTS: Among all the 456 pregnant women, there were 82 (18.0%) who did no physical activities, 82 (18.0%) with inadequate dietary diversity, 174 (38.2%) with poor sleep quality, and 54 (11.8%) spending >3 hours on reading COVID-19 news per day. Women with excessive media use (>3 hours) were more likely to be previously pregnant (P=.03), have no physical activity (P=.003), have inadequate dietary diversity (P=.03), and have poor sleep quality (P<.001). The prevalence of miscarriage was 16.0% (n=73; 95% CI 12.6%-19.4%). Compared with women who spent 0.5-2 hours (25/247, 10.1%) on reading COVID-19 news per day, miscarriage prevalence in women who spent <0.5 hours (5/23, 21.7%), 2-3 hours (26/132, 19.7%), and >3 hours (17/54, 31.5%) was higher (P<.001). Miscarriage prevalence was also higher in pregnant women with poor sleep quality (39/174, 22.4% vs 34/282, 12.1%; P=.003) and a high education level (66/368, 17.9% vs 7/88, 8.0%; P=.02). In the multivariable model, poor sleep quality (adjusted RR 2.06, 95% CI 1.24-3.44; P=.006), 2-3 hours of media use daily (adjusted RR 1.74, 95% CI 1.02-2.97; P=.04), and >3 hours of media use daily (adjusted RR 2.56, 95% CI 1.43-4.59; P=.002) were associated with miscarriage. In the sensitivity analysis, results were still stable. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women with excessive media use were more likely to have no physical activity, inadequate dietary diversity, and poor sleep quality. Excessive media use and poor sleep quality were associated with a higher risk of miscarriage. Our findings highlight the importance of healthy lifestyles during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , Life Style , Pregnant Women/psychology , Social Media/trends , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Social Media/statistics & numerical data
2.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277501, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2112668

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to develop and examine the effects of an internet-based intervention program on environmental perception and behavior among Korean pregnant women based on revised protection motivation theory. METHOD: This study was a non-equivalent control group pre-post-test design. The experimental program consisted of prenatal education, reduction of fine dust, birth education, environmental health promotion, and postnatal management education using zoom video conferences. The face-to-face interventions were provided through regular prenatal classes at public health services for the control group. The total participant was 49 pregnant women: 25 in the experimental group and 24 in the control group. The program adaptation was conducted between April 2021 and November 2021 in Korea. The data were analyzed by ANCOVA and t-test to examine the effects using SPSS 26.0 program. RESULTS: After intervention of the program, environmental severity (F = 17.96, p < .001), response efficacy (F = 15.69, p < .001), and total environmental perception (F = 7.80, p = .008) were higher in the experimental group than in the control group. There were no significant differences in feasibility, accessibility, satisfaction, susceptibility, self-efficacy, barrier, personal environmental behavior, and community environmental behavior between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The internet-based educational program can be the alternative for the face-to-face prenatal class to promote environmental health perceptions during pregnancy in the pandemic situations.


Subject(s)
Internet-Based Intervention , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Republic of Korea , Environmental Health , Perception , Internet
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090182

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics and factors related to pain perception in pregnant women, such as optimism, personality traits, and fear of developing COVID-19 consequences. Sixty-six pregnant women aged 23 to 42 years participated in the study, and the comparison group consisted of n = 59 non-pregnant female students aged 19 to 23 years. Pressure pain threshold and pain tolerance were measured with an algometer. To assess psychological characteristics, the Life-Orientation Test-Revised was used to assess optimism, the Fear of COVID-19 Scale was used to assess COVID-19 anxiety, and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory was applied to assess personality traits in a five-factor model. The main results of the study showed that pain tolerance was significantly lower in both dominant and non-dominant hand pregnant women than in the comparison group. The studied pregnant women had higher scores for conscientiousness, fear of COVID-19, and optimism compared with the non-pregnant women. Regression analysis showed that the variability in pain perception among pregnant women could not be explained by individual differences in personality traits, optimism, and fear of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parturition , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Parturition/psychology , Pain Threshold , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090169

ABSTRACT

The study aims to assess pregnancy-specific stress among pregnant women in Spain during the first lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic. Two samples of pregnant women from the south of Spain (Andalusia) were assessed using the Prenatal Distress Questionnaire (PDQ) and a sociodemographic and obstetric questionnaire. Group 1 (N = 155) was recruited face-to-face, whereas Group 2 (N = 78) was recruited online. Pregnancy-specific stress levels were significantly different in both groups. The face-to-face group (Group 1) had higher pregnancy-specific stress levels than the online group (Group 2). The online sample over-represents young adult pregnant women with high education levels and a high number of previous miscarriages. The face-to-face study seems more accessible to racially and ethnically diverse groups. The main concern among both groups was the risk of having a sick neonate. Research during the COVID-19 pandemic can benefit from using online resources to collect data to screen and identify perinatal mental health problems in a crisis environment. Nevertheless, researchers should be aware of the potential limitations this strategy can have, for example, certain groups of people may have limited access to the internet.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infant, Newborn , Young Adult , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Pregnant Women/psychology , Parturition/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Anxiety
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 995382, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080298

ABSTRACT

Background: Pregnant women, especially those with comorbidities, compared to those non-pregnant, have higher risk of developing a severe form of COVID-19. However, COVID-19 vaccine uptake is very low among them. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was administered to randomly selected women 18 years of age that were currently pregnant or had just given birth between September 2021 and May 2022 in the geographic area of Naples. Vaccine hesitancy was assessed using the vaccine hesitancy scale (VHS). Results: A total of 385 women participated. Women who had not been infected by SARS-CoV-2 and who needed information about vaccination against COVID-19 had a higher perceived risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2. More than half (54.3%) of the women were very afraid of the potential side effects of the COVID-19 vaccination on the fetus. There was higher concern of the side effects of the vaccine on the fetus among those who did not have a graduate degree, those with high-risk pregnancy, those who had not been infected by SARS-CoV-2, those who were more concerned that they could be infected by SARS-CoV-2, those who did not know that this vaccination was recommended for them, and those trusting mass media/internet/social networks for information. Only 21.3% were vaccinated when pregnant, mostly women with a university degree, those who had been infected by SARS-CoV-2 before pregnancy, those who did not need information, and those who acquired information about the vaccination from gynecologists. Almost three-quarters (71.9%) were willing to receive the vaccination and those more likely were those with a university degree, those who have had at least one relative/cohabitant partner/friend who had been infected by SARS-CoV-2, those who were more concerned that they could be infected by SARS-CoV-2, and those who were not extremely concerned of the side effects of the vaccine on the fetus. A total of 86.4% were highly hesitant. Highly hesitant were respondents who did not get a graduate degree, those less concerned that they could be infected by SARS-CoV-2, and those trusting mass media/internet/social networks for information. Conclusion: Public health efforts and education campaigns for pregnant women are needed for changing their perception patterns and for supporting gynecologists in promoting the uptake of this vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Pregnant Women , Vaccination Hesitancy , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Pregnant Women/psychology , Vaccination Hesitancy/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 938156, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080286

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has dramatically impacted people's health, especially mental health. This study aimed to compare the psychological status of pregnant women before and after the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: Participants were recruited (from September 29, 2019, to November 5, 2020) and screened by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). The study participants were categorized into three groups based on two turning-points: January 23, 2020, when China initiated a locked-down strategy, and May 11, 2020, when Shanghai started to ease the COVID-19 measures. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with depression and anxiety in pregnant women. We used enter method for variable selection; only variables with P <0.10 were included in the final model. Results: We recruited 478 pregnant women. After the outbreak, the depression rate (PHQ-9 ≥ 5) increased by 12.3% (from 35.4 to 47.7%), and the anxiety rate (GAD-7 ≥ 5) was stable (13.3 vs. 16.2%). The multivariable logistic regression results further confirmed that the odds of depression in pregnant women increased 81% after the outbreak (aOR = 1.81, 95%CI: 1.16-2.84). However, the median depression scale score was still statistically higher after the pandemic situation was stable (5.0 vs. 4.0) compared to the outbreak period. Conclusion: The depression rate increased among pregnant women after the outbreak and was not recovered after the ease of COVID-19 measures in Shanghai. Health institutes should pay attention to the long-term influence of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pregnant Women/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , China/epidemiology
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 260, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038675

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to unprecedented worries and challenges for pregnant women due to social restrictions and changes in maternity care provision. We aimed to investigate the mental health impact of COVID-19 pandemic on pregnant women in Sweden and explore factors associated with poor perinatal mental health in this specific context. METHOD: This was a nation-wide cross-sectional survey of pregnant women living in Sweden. Validated questionnaires were distributed through non-profit organizations´ websites and social media channels from May 2020 to February 2021. Perinatal depression, anxiety, and acute stress reaction were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Impact Event Scale (Revised) (IES-R), respectively. Sociodemographic characteristics and self-perceived mental well-being were also obtained. Factors associated with mental health outcomes were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: Among a total of 470 participants, 43.2% (n = 203) reported depression (EPDS ≥13), 25.7% (n = 121) moderate to severe anxiety (GAD-7 score ≥ 10), and 23.7% (n = 110) moderate to severe acute stress reaction (IES-R ≥ 33). 27.4% participants (n = 129) expressed concerns regarding their mental well-being during the pandemic. Pregnant mothers who had sick family members reported poorer mental health outcomes than those who did not (median [Interquartile range (IQR)] EPDS scores: 14.0 [8.75-18.0] vs 11.0 [6.25-15.0], p < .001; median (IQR) GAD7 scores: 7.0 [4.0-12.25] vs 6.0 [3.0-9.0], p = .003); median (IQR) IES-R scores: 20.0 [9.0-38.0] vs 15.0 [7.0-30.0], p = .048). Logistic regression analyses revealed that risk factors for poor mental health outcomes were having a sick family member with any illness, unemployment, and experiencing a substantially stressful life event. Having a higher educational level and a younger age during the pandemic were protective. CONCLUSION: Depression and anxiety were highly prevalent among pregnant women in Sweden during the COVID-19 pandemic, indicating a need for professional mental health support for this vulnerable group of population. Unemployment was an associated risk factor whereas younger age and higher educational level were protective suggesting an important role of socio-economic factors in modulating the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on perinatal mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Maternal Health Services , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Health Status , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Self Report , Sweden/epidemiology
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032956

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic induced long-term damages that weigh on the national health systems of various countries in terms of support and care. This review aimed to highlight the mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in pregnant women. We first report data on the immune system physiopathology and the main viral infections in pregnancy, including COVID-19. Then, the attention is focused on the main factors that affect the mental health of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic, such as (1) the fear of being infected and transmitting the infection to the fetus, (2) the cancellation of checkups and pre-child courses, and (3) confinement and the inability to have close friends or a partner at the time of delivery or in the first days after delivery, as well as family tensions. Because of all this, pregnant women find themselves in a stressful condition independent of the pregnancy, and thus experience anxiety, depression, insomnia, hostility, delirium, and an alteration of the mother-baby relationship. Several studies have shown an involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in response to the pandemic. We propose a possible involvement of the neuroendocrine system as a mediator of the psychological symptoms of pregnant women induced by COVID-19-related stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Pandemics , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/etiology
9.
Reprod Health ; 19(1): 189, 2022 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009430

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The onset of mental illness such as depression and anxiety disorders in pregnancy and postpartum period is common. The coronavirus induced disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the resulting public policy responses represent an exceptional situation worldwide and there are hints for adverse psychosocial impact, hence, the study of psychological effects of the pandemic in women during hospitalization for delivery and in the postpartum period is highly relevant. METHODS: Patients who gave birth during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany (March to June 2020) at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Würzburg, Germany, were recruited at hospital admission for delivery. Biosamples were collected for analysis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and various stress hormones and interleukin-6 (IL-6). In addition to sociodemographic and medical obstetric data, survey questionnaires in relation to concerns about and fear of COVID-19, depression, stress, anxiety, loneliness, maternal self-efficacy and the mother-child bonding were administered at T1 (delivery stay) and T2 (3-6 months postpartum). RESULTS: In total, all 94 recruited patients had a moderate concern of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) at T1 with a significant rise at T2. This concern correlated with low to low-medium general psychosocial stress levels and stress symptoms, and the women showed a significant increase of active coping from T1 to T2. Anxiety levels were low and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale showed a medium score of 5 with a significant (T1), but only week correlation with the concerns about SARS-CoV-2. In contrast to the overall good maternal bonding without correlation to SARS-CoV-2 concern, the maternal self-efficiency correlated negatively with the obstetric impairment caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: Obstetric patients` concerns regarding SARS-CoV-2 and the accompanying pandemic increased during the course of the pandemic correlating positively with stress and depression. Of note is the increase in active coping over time and the overall good mother-child-bonding. Maternal self-efficacy was affected in part by the restrictions of the pandemic. Clinical trial registration DRKS00022506.


The global pandemic of COVID-19 (coronavirus induced disease 2019) is challenging our society in many ways. Especially pregnant women are facing extraordinary conditions and worries, like uncertain risks for mother and fetus in case of infection, restricted prenatal classes or restricted visitor regulations in hospitals. Particularly it is known that pregnancy and the postnatal period are presenting a more psychologically vulnerable time in a woman's life. Developing the GeZeCO study, we aimed to focus on the pandemic's effects on mental health of pregnant women during this time. Women giving birth in the department of obstetrics of the University Hospital Würzburg were asked to participate in the study. In total, 94 women completed several questionnaires concerning their mental health postpartum and again after 3 to 6 months. Further, we took blood samples of the women during the delivery stay and registered sociodemographic and obstetric data. Our results showed, that the women's concern relating to COVID-19, as well as the level of depression and anxiety raised during the pandemic. In addition, the self-efficacy of the mothers was affected by the restriction measures. Despite this, the women had at large a good mother­child-bonding and their competence of active coping increased during time. In summary, we did find that the mental health of obstetric patients is impaired by the COVID-19 pandemic. This points out the importance of not only attending to physical health but also taking care of psychological stress and mental health problems of obstetric patients during this exceptional time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnant Women , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Parturition , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006007

ABSTRACT

Exercise during pregnancy presents many benefits for the mother and baby. Yet, pregnancy is characterised by a decrease in exercise. Studies have reported barriers to antenatal exercise. The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic may have further exacerbated barriers to antenatal exercise as pregnant females faced many challenges. Rich, in-depth exploration into pregnant female's perceived barriers to antenatal exercise during COVID-19 is imperative. Questionnaires reporting physical activity levels were completed by all participants (n = 14). Semi-structured interviews were conducted between November 2020 and May 2021 in the UK. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis and revealed four main themes: 'Perceptions of being an active person shaping activity levels in pregnancy', 'How do I know what is right? Uncertainty, seeking validation and feeling informed', 'Motivators to antenatal exercise' and 'A process of adaptations and adjustment'. Findings indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated barriers to antenatal exercise and highlight the importance of direct psychosocial support and clear, trustworthy information. Findings also support the fundamental need for better education amongst healthcare professionals regarding antenatal exercise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Female , Humans , Mothers , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Qualitative Research
11.
J Affect Disord ; 317: 79-83, 2022 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women themselves are at higher risk for psychological symptoms. The impact of ongoing COVID-19 may increase the risk. However, it is uncertain whether COVID-19 affects pregnant women's psychological symptoms directly or indirectly being mediated. METHODS: This survey was conducted in four obstetrics and gynecology hospitals in Beijing from February 28, 2020, to April 26, 2020. Pregnant women who visited the antenatal-care clinic were mobilized to finish the online questionnaires, including the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Connor-Davidson resilience scale, and Insomnia Severity Index. RESULTS: A total of 828 pregnant women were included in the analysis. The estimated self-reported rates of anxiety, depression, insomnia, and any of the three were 12.2 %, 24.3 %, 13.3 %, and 33.1 %, respectively. Mediating effect analysis showed that pregnant women's response to COVID-19 was not directly associated with psychological symptoms but indirectly through the mediating effect of maternal concerns, which accounted for 32.35 % of the total effect. Stratified analysis by psychological resilience showed that women's attitude toward COVID-19 (OR, 2.68, 95 % CI: 1.16-6.18) was associated with a higher risk of psychological symptoms in those with poor psychological resilience. LIMITATIONS: The study was a non-probability sampling survey, and the causal relationship between maternal concerns and psychological symptoms could not be determined due to the study's design. CONCLUSIONS: Under public health emergencies such as COVID-19, routine antenatal care should still be prioritized, and concerns related to childbirth-related caused by such emergencies should also be addressed, especially for those with weak psychological resilience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Emergencies , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272862, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993498

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, pregnant women have been at high risk for psychological distress. Lifestyle factors may be modifiable elements to help reduce and promote resilience to prenatal stress. We used Machine-Learning (ML) algorithms applied to questionnaire data obtained from an international cohort of 804 pregnant women to determine whether physical activity and diet were resilience factors against prenatal stress, and whether stress levels were in turn predictive of sleep classes. A support vector machine accurately classified perceived stress levels in pregnant women based on physical activity behaviours and dietary behaviours. In turn, we classified hours of sleep based on perceived stress levels. This research adds to a developing consensus concerning physical activity and diet, and the association with prenatal stress and sleep in pregnant women. Predictive modeling using ML approaches may be used as a screening tool and to promote positive health behaviours for pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications , Female , Humans , Machine Learning , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Prospective Studies , Stress, Psychological/psychology
13.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 20(1): 234-240, 2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental health of pregnant individuals has been profoundly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Effective coping strategies are found to be associated with better psychological wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of the present study is to assess psychological distress and coping among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted from May 2020 to July 2020 among 115 pregnant women attending obstetric unit of a tertiary care centre using convenience sampling technique. Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Committee of the Institute. Covid-19 Peritraumatic Distress Index and Brief COPE inventory was used to collect the data. Data entry was done in Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and analysed in SPSS version 16. RESULTS: Psychological distress was found in 2.6% of the participants. Psychological distress was significantly associated with occupation, fear of ANC visit, fear of visit to hospital for other health problems and fear of being alone or without help around delivery. Emotion focused coping was the most commonly used coping strategies among the pregnant women with the mean score of 21.37±3.130. Psychological distress and over all coping strategies had a positive correlation (<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Psychological distress was found to be low among the pregnant women in this study. Fear of being without help and fear of contacting the virus during the visit to the hospital during the Covid-19 pandemic were the likely reasons of the psychological distress in the pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Nepal/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(15): 5581-5586, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988905

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the COVID-19 anxiety level in pregnant women who presented to an outpatient clinic during the COVID-19 pandemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study including 203 of 310 pregnant women who presented to the outpatient clinic of a training and research hospital of the Ministry of Health between 29 September-1 October, 2020. The level of anxiety was assessed with the COVID-19 Anxiety Inventory (CAS) using a face-to-face survey method. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 28.15±5.95 years. In the study, while 6.2% of women over 30 years old was identified to have psychological problems, 0.7% of those under 30 years old had such problems. The rate of diagnosis of COVID-19 in the family/acquaintances of those with an educational level of high school or higher was 56.9%, and those who had an educational level under high school had a corresponding rate of 39.5%. The rate of COVID-19 diagnosis in the family/acquaintances of those with an educational level of high school or higher was significantly higher (p<0.05). The mean COVID-19 anxiety scale score was 0.18±0.47; COVID-19 anxiety was not observed in pregnant women. CONCLUSIONS: This study detected no anxiety in pregnant women. Therefore, it can be said that pregnant women do not need immediate psycho-social support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
15.
J Affect Disord ; 316: 245-253, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic was a significant threat to perinatal mental health. This study examined differences in clinically significant depression, anxiety, and co-morbid symptoms among pregnant and postpartum women across several countries and compared prevalence of perinatal depression and anxiety before and during the pandemic in each participating country. METHODS: Participants were 3326 pregnant and 3939 postpartum women (up to six months postpartum) living in Brazil, Chile, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. An online survey was completed between June 7th and October 31st 2020, and included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7). The pre-pandemic studies were identified through literature review. RESULTS: Prevalence of clinically significant depression (EPDS≥13), anxiety (GAD-7 ≥ 10), and co-morbid (EPDS≥13 and GAD-7 ≥ 10) symptoms was 26.7 %, 20 % and 15.2 %, in pregnant women, and 32.7 %, 26.6 % and 20.3 %, in postpartum women, respectively. Significant between-country differences were found in all mental health indicators in both perinatal periods. Higher levels of symptoms were observed during (versus before) the pandemic, especially among postpartum women. LIMITATIONS: Participants were mostly highly educated and cohabiting with a partner. The online nature of the survey may have limited the participation of women from vulnerable socio-economically backgrounds. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings expand previous literature on the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on perinatal mental health, by highlighting that this may be influenced by country of residence. Mental health care policies and interventions should consider the unique needs of perinatal women in different parts of the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Parturition , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology
16.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 493, 2022 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence indicates that the COVID-19 pandemic has had detrimental mental health effects for pregnant women. However, little is known about the specific stressors that increased anxiety for pregnant women at the start of the pandemic. The present study aimed to better understand the concerns of pregnant women during the beginning COVID-19 pandemic by analyzing content posted during the month of March 2020 on online pregnancy message boards hosted on WhatToExpect.com. METHODS: All posts published between March 1-31, 2020 on nine different due-date specific WhatToExpect.com message boards were reviewed for COVID-19 relevance. Posts mentioning COVID-19 or its direct effects (e.g., "quarantine" or "stay-at-home order") were included in our final sample. Data were coded by three authors according to a codebook developed inductively by all four authors. Posts were analyzed by overall frequency of appearance, by trimester, and temporally across the month of March 2020. RESULTS: Across the 5,541 posts included in our final sample, the most common topics were fear of COVID-19 exposure, concerns with labor and delivery, navigating social interactions, and disruptions to prenatal care. The most dominant topics by trimester were disruptions to prenatal care (first trimester), fear of COVID-19 exposure (second trimester), and concerns about labor and delivery (third trimester). CONCLUSION: Our findings add to prior literature by demonstrating the salience of social concerns, which was the third largest COVID-19 topic in our sample. Emotional distress was most salient with regard to restrictions on birthing partners, but was apparent in everything from disruptions to pregnancy announcements, to cancelled baby showers, and limitations on newborn visitors. Given that anxiety during pregnancy is associated with worse maternal-fetal health outcomes, in the early stages of future pandemics healthcare providers should focus not only on strictly health-related concerns expressed by pregnant women, but also more broadly on other sources of anxiety that may be impacting the well-being and mental health of their patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 92, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy and early motherhood are sensitive times where epidemic disease outbreaks can affect mental health negatively. Countries and health care systems handled the pandemic and lockdowns differently and knowledge about how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the mental well-being of pregnant women and new mothers is limited and points in different directions. AIM: To investigate symptoms of anxiety and depression in a population of pregnant women and new mothers in various stages of infection pressure and lockdown during the first 15 months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Denmark. METHODS: The study population was nested an inception cohort of women recruited in their first trimester of pregnancy. Data about mental health of the woman were obtained in relation to pregnancy and child development (first trimester, 8 weeks postpartum and 5 months postpartum), and data were analysed cross-sectionally according to calendar time (periods defined by infection rate and lock-down during the COVID-19 pandemic). RESULTS: No differences in reported levels of depressive symptoms between the six examined time periods of the pandemic were observed. Specifically, symptoms remained unchanged after the first lock-down. No major changes in anxiety symptoms were observed in relation to increased infection pressure or lockdowns, but a small increase was observed during the second lockdown in women 8 weeks postpartum. CONCLUSION: No clear change in mood among pregnant women was seen between during the stages of COVID-19 pandemic in Denmark.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Mothers/psychology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Matern Child Health J ; 26(9): 1779-1789, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1959049

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 was declared as a pandemic on March 2020. Research on its psychological effects is still lacking. Perinatal depression is a medical complication of pregnancy, especially in situations of stress. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of symptoms of depression in pregnant women during the lockdown period in Portugal. METHODS: This study consisted in a cross-sectional study among Portuguese pregnant women, who completed an online self-report questionnaire between 25th April and 30th April 2020. An anonymous online questionnaire was developed to assess depression and concerns related to COVID-19. This study was approved by the IRB of Hospital Dona Estefânia and performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki. Eligibility criteria included pregnant women, ≥ 18 years and living in Portugal. The primary outcome was to evaluate the presence of depressive symptoms and its association to socio-demographic characteristics and to concerns related to COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 1698 pregnant women were enrolled. The mean age was 31.9 years. 82.4% felt a negative impact of the pandemic in the surveillance of pregnancy and 43% felt insufficient support. 26.3% showed "possible depression" according to the EPDS. A regression analysis revealed the possibility of depression increased as the concerns about COVID increased and was lower for women with support. The possibility of depression was higher for women with psychiatric medical history. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated a significant increase in clinically significant depressive symptoms in pregnant women during the lockdown. It also revealed some of the socio-demographic characteristics of women at risk for depression. If left untreated, depression tends to persist, affecting the woman and also the child. Our findings suggest that COVID-19 represents a serious challenge for this population and reinforce the urgent need for early detection and intervention on mental health issues during pregnancy, especially during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Portugal/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 468, 2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are very few developed countries where physical isolation and low community transmission has been reported for COVID-19 but this has been the experience of Australia. The impact of physical isolation combined with low disease transmission on the mental health of pregnant women is currently unknown and there have been no studies examining the psychological experience for partners of pregnant women during lockdown. The aim of the current study was to examine the impact of the first COVID-19 lockdown in March 2020 and post lockdown from August 2020 on the mental health of pregnant women or postpartum women and their partners. METHODS: Pregnant women and their partners were prospectively recruited to the study before 24 weeks gestation and completed various questionnaires related to mental health and general wellbeing at 24 weeks gestation and then again at 6 weeks postpartum. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were used as outcome measures for the assessment of mental health in women and DASS-21 was administered to their partners. This analysis encompasses 3 time points where families were recruited; before the pandemic (Aug 2018-Feb 2020), during lockdown (Mar-Aug 2020) and after the first lockdown was over (Sept-Dec 2020). RESULTS: There was no significant effect of COVID-19 lockdown and post lockdown on depression or postnatal depression in women when compared to a pre-COVID-19 subgroup. The odds of pregnant women or postpartum women experiencing severe anxiety was more than halved in women during lockdown relative to women in the pre-COVID-19 period (OR = 0.47; 95%CI: 0.27-0.81; P = 0.006). Following lockdown severe anxiety was comparable to the pre-COVID-19 women. Lockdown did not have any substantial effects on stress scores for pregnant and postpartum women. However, a substantial decrease of over 70% in the odds of severe stress was observed post-lockdown relative to pre-COVID-19 levels. Partner's depression, anxiety and stress did not change significantly with lockdown or post lockdown. CONCLUSION: A reproductive age population appear to be able to manage the impact of lockdown and the pandemic with some benefits related to reduced anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Prospective Studies , Queensland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e055333, 2022 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950142

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women remains a major global public health problem with harmful consequences for individuals and society. People's lifestyles have been greatly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigated the prevalence of and relationship between IPV and anxiety and depression in pregnant Chinese women during the pandemic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: This investigation was conducted in Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province, China from 15 September to 15 December 2020. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3434 pregnant women were screened with the Abuse Assessment Screen Questionnaire to evaluate IPV and General Anxiety Disorder and Patient Health Questionnaire to evaluate symptoms of anxiety and depression, respectively. Pregnant women with perinatal health records at Shenzhen District Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospitals who consented to participate were enrolled. Women with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, mania or substance dependence and pregnant women who refused to participate were excluded. Data were analysed with the χ2 test and by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of IPV among pregnant women was 2.2%. Mental violence was the most common type of violence (2.2%), followed by physical (0.6%) and sexual (0.7%) violence. The prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms was 9.8% and 6.9%, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, there was a statistically significant association between IPV and prenatal anxiety (OR=4.207, 95% CI: 2.469 to 7.166) and depression (OR=3.864, 95% CI: 2.095 to 7.125). CONCLUSIONS: IPV increased the risk of prenatal anxiety and depression in pregnant women in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Efforts should be made by the government and civil society to promote long-lasting antenatal interventions to ensure the safety and protect the mental health of pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Prevalence , Risk Factors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL