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1.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 60(6): 1043-1046, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525965

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Aim of this study is to evaluate the prognosis of pregnant women having SARS-CoV-2 infection and investigate whether there was a difference in perinatal outcomes between pregnant women who had SARS-CoV-2 infection and those who did not. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted with 116 singleton pregnancies. Cases enrolling in the study were divided into two groups. While those in the first group had a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 46) the second group consisted of healthy pregnant women (n = 70). RESULTS: Emergency Cesarean section was performed on three SARS-CoV-2 infected pregnancies (30, 33 and 34 gestational weeks). Intensive care unit admission was required for all three cases after delivery and two of them died. Among the pregnancies that had an infection in the third trimester, 71.4% (n = 20) of them had delivery in 14 days after diagnosis and 17.4% (n = 8) of their newborns were followed up at newborn intensive care unit. Overall, only one newborn had a positive swab test result for SARS-CoV-2. There was no statistically significant difference between groups regarding their delivery week (37.02 ± 5.85 vs 38.5 ± 2.33). Similarly, there was no significant difference between groups, concerning mean age, parity, and birth weight (P = 0.707, P = 0.092, P = 0.334; P < 0.05). Furthermore, the difference between SARS-CoV-2 infected pregnancies that were followed up as inpatient or outpatient with respect to the delivery week and birth weight was not significant (p > 0.05). Also, APGAR 5 scores of hospitalized women (9.3 ± 1.1) were found to be lower than the outpatient group (9.8 ± 0.8) (P = 0.043; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: No significant difference was detected between groups in terms of the delivery week, birth weight, and APGAR scores. The inpatient group was found to have lower APGAR 5 scores.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Delivery, Obstetric , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Pregnant Women/psychology , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Birth Weight , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 43(10): 765-774, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517657

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate depression and sexual function among pregnant and non-pregnant women throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A total of 188 women, 96 pregnant and 92 non-pregnant were included. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) were applied to the participants after obtaining sociodemographic data. RESULTS: The depression scores of pregnant and non-pregnant women were similar (p = 0.846). We found that the depression scores were significantly higher among the group of participants who have lower economic status (p = 0.046). Moreover, the depression score was significantly higher among women who lost their income during the pandemic (p = 0.027). The score on the ASEX was significantly higher, and sexual dysfunction was more prevalent among women who have lower levels of schooling and income (p < 0.05). Likewise, the ASEX scores were significantly higher (p = 0.019) among the group who experienced greater income loss throughout the pandemic. Upon comparing the pregnant and non-pregnant groups, we detected that sexual dysfunction had a significantly higher rate among pregnant women (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In times of global crisis, such as the current pandemic, low-income families have an increased risk of experiencing depression and sexual dysfunction. When we compared pregnant women with non-pregnant women, depression scores were similar, but pregnant women were at a 6.2 times higher risk of developing sexual dysfunction.


Investigar a depressão e as funções sexuais de mulheres grávidas e não grávidas durante a pandemia de Covid-19. MéTODOS: Um total de 188 mulheres, 96 grávidas e 92 não grávidas, foram incluídas. O Inventário de Depressão de Beck (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI, em inglês) e a Escala de Experiências Sexuais do Arizona (Arizona Sexual Experience Scale, ASEX, em inglês) foram aplicados aos participantes após a obtenção dos dados sociodemográficos.As pontuações de depressão de mulheres grávidas e não grávidas foram semelhantes (p = 0,846). Verificou-se que as pontuações de depressão foram significativamente maiores no grupo de participantes de menor nível econômico (p = 0,046). Além disso, a pontuação de depressão foi significativamente maior em mulheres que perderam sua renda durante a pandemia (p = 0,027). A pontuação na ASEX foi significativamente maior, e a disfunção sexual foi mais prevalente em pessoas com menores escolaridade e nível de renda (p < 0,05). Da mesma forma, as pontuações na ASEX foram significativamente mais altas (p = 0,019) no grupo que experimentou maior perda de renda durante a pandemia. Ao comparar os grupos de gestantes e não gestantes, detectou-se que a disfunção sexual apresentava índice significativamente maior entre as gestantes (p <0,001). CONCLUSãO: Em tempos de crise global, como a atual pandemia, famílias de baixa renda têm um risco maior de sofrer depressão e disfunção sexual. Quando comparamos mulheres grávidas e mulheres não grávidas, as pontuações de depressão foram semelhantes, mas as mulheres grávidas apresentaram um risco 6,2 vezes maior de desenvolver disfunção sexual.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnant Women/psychology , Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Economic Factors , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Turkey/epidemiology , Unemployment/psychology , Young Adult
3.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 2120-2131, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510753

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has been influencing people's psychological health, especially in pregnant women. We aimed to examine associated factors of fear of COVID-19, anxiety and depression among pregnant women during the pandemic where the impacts of healthy eating behaviour (HES) and health literacy (HL) were emphasized. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between 14 February 2020 and 31 May 2020 in 18 health centres and hospitals across Vietnam. Data of 518 pregnant women were analysed, including socio-demographics, pregnant-related factors, HES, HL, health-related behaviours, fear of COVID-19 scale (FCoV-19S), anxiety (using the generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7)) and depression (using the patient health questionnaire with 9 items (PHQ-9)). Regression analysis was utilized to explore the associations. RESULTS: Pregnant women with higher scores of HES and HL had lower likelihood of anxiety (odds ratio, OR, 0.79; 95% confidence interval (95%CI), 0.73, 0.87; p < .001; and OR, 0.94; 95%CI, 0.90, 0.99; p = .018) and depression (OR, 0.84; 95%CI, 0.78, 0.91; p < .001; and OR, 0.96; 95%CI, 0.91, 0.99; p = .044), respectively. Pregnant women being employed had a lower FCoV-19S score (regression coefficient, B, -1.46; 95%CI, -2.51, -0.40; p = .007). Besides, other significant predictors of anxiety were eating healthier during the pandemic, unchanged or more physical activity, elevated gestational age and smoking. Other significant predictors of depression were eating healthier during the pandemic, elevated gestational age and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Among others, HES and HL had positive impacts on protecting pregnant women against anxiety and depression. Improving HES and HL should be addressed as a strategic approach to improve reproductive health during the pandemic.KEY MESSAGEThe COVID-19 pandemic influences antenatal mental disorders with the higher level as opposed to that before the pandemic.Healthy eating behaviour and better health literacy (HL) had critical roles in lowering prenatal anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 crisis.Strategic approaches for improving healthy eating and HL should be recommended for protecting pregnant women from mental health problems during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Diet, Healthy , Fear/psychology , Health Literacy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 755, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the financial insecurity of women and their families globally. Some studies have explored the impact of financial strain among pregnant women, in particular, during the pandemic. However, less is known about the factors associated with pregnant women's experiences of material hardship. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used a non-probability sample to examine the factors associated with pregnant women's experiences of material hardship during the COVID-19 pandemic. In January 2021, 183 pregnant women living in the United States participated in an online Qualtrics panel survey. In addition to socio-demographic characteristics, individuals were asked about their finances and predictors of financial well-being, mental health symptoms, and intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences. Chi-square analysis and one-way ANOVA were used to examine whether women's experiences with material hardship and associated factors differed by income level (i.e., less than $20,000; $20,000 to $60,000; more than $60,000). Ordinary least squares regression was used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted estimates. RESULTS: Study findings showed that the majority of women in the sample experienced at least one form of material hardship in the past year. Individuals with an annual household income less than $20,000 reported the highest average number of material hardships experienced (M = 3.7, SD = 2.8). Compared to women with household incomes less than $20,000, women with incomes of more than $60,000 reported significantly fewer material hardships, less financial strain, and higher levels of financial support, economic self-efficacy, and economic-self-sufficiency. Women with incomes of $60,000 or more also reported significantly lower levels of psychological abuse, and a smaller percentage met the cut-off for anxiety. Economic self-sufficiency, financial strain, posttraumatic stress disorder, and economic abuse were all significantly associated with material hardship. CONCLUSIONS: A contribution of this study is that it highlights the significant, positive association between economic abuse, a unique form of IPV, and material hardship among pregnant women during the pandemic. These findings suggest the need for policy and practice interventions that help to ameliorate the financial insecurity experienced by some pregnant women, as well as respond to associated bidirectional vulnerabilities (e.g., mental health symptoms, experiences of IPV).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Economic Status , Income/classification , Pregnant Women/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Income/statistics & numerical data , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 271, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505637

ABSTRACT

This study is based on a psychoanalytically inspired psychological investigation of two pregnant women with COVID-19 at different stages of pregnancy in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology A at the Charles Nicolle Hospital. Our study was conducted between 2020 and 2021, until deliveries. Two young Tunisian women aged 28 and 30 years were tested positive for COVID-19 during pregnancy. They suffered from emotional shock. In this study, we discuss the different points of collision between life and death by describing, in detail, the experiences of these two women during their confinement.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20261, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467134

ABSTRACT

While pregnant women are already at-risk for developing symptoms of anxiety and depression, this is heightened during the COVID-19 pandemic. We compared anxiety and depression symptoms, as indicators of psychological distress, before and during COVID-19, and investigated the role of partner, social network and healthcare support on COVID-19-related worries and consequently on psychological distress. A national survey, conducted during the first lockdown in The Netherlands, assessed COVID-19 experiences and psychological distress (N = 1421), whereas a comparison sample (N = 1439) was screened for psychological distress in 2017-2018. During COVID-19, the percentage of mothers scoring above the questionnaires' clinical cut-offs doubled for depression (6% and 12%) and anxiety (24% and 52%). Women reported increased partner support during COVID-19, compared to pre-pandemic, but decreased social and healthcare support. Higher support resulted in lower COVID-19-related worries, which in turn contributed to less psychological distress. Results suggest that a global pandemic exerts a heavy toll on pregnant women's mental health. Psychological distress was substantially higher during the pandemic than the pre-pandemic years. We identified a protective role of partner, social, and healthcare support, with important implications for the current and future crisis management. Whether increased psychological distress is transient or persistent, and whether and how it affects the future generation remains to be determined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Pregnant Women/psychology , Psychological Distress , Quarantine/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Netherlands , Pregnancy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Women's Health
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 664, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448216

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic caused great uncertainty about causes, treatment and mortality of the new virus. Constant updates of recommendations and restrictions from national authorities may have caused great concern for pregnant women. Reports suggested an increased number of pregnant women choosing to give birth at home, some even unassisted ('freebirth') due to concerns of transmission in hospital or reduction in birthplace options. During April and May 2020, we aimed to investigate i) the level of concern about coronavirus transmission in Danish pregnant women, ii) the level of concern related to changes in maternity services due to the pandemic, and iii) implications for choice of place of birth. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional online survey study, inviting all registered pregnant women in Denmark (n = 30,009) in April and May 2020. RESULTS: The response rate was 60% (n = 17,995). Concerns of transmission during pregnancy and birth were considerable; 63% worried about getting severely ill whilst pregnant, and 55% worried that virus would be transmitted to their child. Thirtyeight percent worried about contracting the virus at the hospital. The most predominant concern related to changes in maternity services during the pandemic was restrictions on partners' attendance at birth (81%). Especially nulliparous women were concerned about whether cancelled antenatal classes or fewer physical midwifery consultations would affect their ability to give birth or care for their child postpartum.. The proportion of women who considered a home birth was equivalent to pre-pandemic home birth rates in Denmark (3%). During the temporary discontinue of public home birth services, 18% of this group considered a home birth assisted by a private midwife (n = 125), and 6% considered a home birth with no midwifery assistance at all (n = 41). CONCLUSION: Danish pregnant womens' concerns about virus transmission to the unborn child and worries about contracting the virus during hospital appointments were considerable during the early pandemic. Home birth rates may not be affected by the pandemic, but restrictions in home birth services may impose decisions to freebirth for a small proportion of the population.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Birth Setting , COVID-19/psychology , Maternal Health Services , Parturition/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Midwifery , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spouses , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Nursing ; 51(10): 50-54, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440655

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Recommendations for social distancing and avoidance of mass gatherings during the COVID-19 pandemic have correlated with increased depressive symptoms in some individuals, such as loss of interest in daily activities, sleeplessness, or sadness. Perinatal depression screening using established, validated tools can aid with early diagnosis, guide management strategies, and optimize outcomes for pregnant women and their families. Identifying at-risk patients early in pregnancy and implementing a plan of care with appropriate mental health resources such as counseling or therapy have been shown to decrease clinical depression by more than 40%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression/diagnosis , Mass Screening/nursing , Perinatal Care , Pregnant Women/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Nursing Diagnosis , Nursing Evaluation Research , Pregnancy , Young Adult
9.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 100(11): 2009-2018, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429487

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the associated regulations issued to minimize risk of disease transmission seem to have had an impact on general mental health in most populations, but it may have affected pregnant women even more because of pregnancy-related uncertainties, limited access to healthcare resources, and lack of social support. We aimed to compare the mental health response among pregnant women with that in similarly aged women from the general population during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From April 14 to July 3, 2020, 647 pregnant women in their second trimester were enrolled in this study. For comparison, 858 women from the general Danish population (20-46 years) were sampled from an ongoing observational study. Participants responded to a questionnaire including six mental health indicators (concern level, perceived social isolation, quality of life, anxiety, mental health, and loneliness). Loneliness was measured using the UCLA Three-item Loneliness Scale and anxiety by the Common Mental Health Disorder Questionnaire 4-item Anxiety Subscale. RESULTS: The pregnant women had better scores during the entire study period for all mental health indicators, and except for concerns, social isolation, and mental health, the differences were also statistically significant. Pregnant women were more concerned about becoming seriously ill (40.2% vs. 29.5%, p < 0.001), whereas the general population was more concerned about economic consequences and prospects. Many pregnant women reported negative feelings associated with being pregnant during the COVID-19 pandemic and concerns regarding social isolation and regulation-imposed partner absence during hospital appointments and childbirth. All mental health indicators improved as Denmark began to reopen after the first wave of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women exhibited lower rates of poor mental health compared with the general population. However, they were more concerned about becoming seriously ill, expressed negative feelings about being pregnant during the pandemic, and were worried about the absence of their partner due to imposed regulations. These finding may be taken into account by policy-makers during pandemics to balance specific preventive measures over the potential mental health deterioration of pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Pregnant Women/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Quality of Life , Social Isolation/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
11.
J Health Commun ; 26(7): 473-479, 2021 07 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409987

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women are especially vulnerable to COVID-19 while the short- and long-term impact of COVID-19 on maternal and infant health is only partially understood. We assessed the amount of uncertainty and anxiety pregnant women experienced about COVID-19 and whether, and the extent to which, they engaged in information seeking about COVID-19. In total, 320 pregnant women from 38 states took part in this research. The results showed that pregnant women experienced uncertainty and anxiety about pregnancy and breastfeeding and engaged in information seeking from their healthcare providers. Pregnant women's uncertainty influenced information seeking via anxiety, but the effect varied depending on participants' assessments of coping, communication, and target efficacy. While healthcare providers need to discuss ways to avoid COVID-19 infection, participants were assured that their providers had a plan to help them if they became infected with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Information Seeking Behavior , Pandemics , Pregnant Women/psychology , Uncertainty , Breast Feeding/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Physician-Patient Relations , Pregnancy/psychology , United States/epidemiology
13.
J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs ; 50(6): 742-752, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392426

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the roles and experiences of labor and delivery (LD) nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Online distribution between the beginning of July and end of August 2020. PARTICIPANTS: LD nurses (N = 757) responded to an open-ended question about changes to their roles during the COVID-19 pandemic as part of a larger national survey. METHODS: We calculated descriptive statistics on respondents' characteristics and their hospitals' characteristics. We applied conventional content analysis to free-text comments. RESULTS: We derived four major categories from the responses: Changes in Roles and Responsibilities, Adaptations to Changes, Psychological Changes, and Perceived Effects on LaborSupport. Nearly half (n = 328) of respondents reported changes in their roles and responsibilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. They described adaptations and responses to these changes and perceived effects on patient care. Infection control policies and practices as well as the stress of a rapidly changing work environment affected the provision of labor support and personal well-being. CONCLUSION: The experiences described by respondents conveyed considerable changes in their roles and subsequent direct and indirect effects on quality of patient care and personal well-being. Policies and practices that can facilitate the ability of LD nurses to safely and securely remain at the bedside and provide high-touch, hands-on labor support are needed. The findings of our study can help facilitate the provision of labor support during times of disruption and foster the resiliency of the nursing workforce.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Delivery, Obstetric/nursing , Nurses/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Prenatal Care/psychology , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery, Obstetric/psychology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
14.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256597, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372014

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study objectives were to investigate maternal psychological distress, mothers' fear of their children contracting COVID-19, mothers' perceptions of the information available regarding children and COVID-19, changes in children's behavior during lockdown, and concerns of pregnant women in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study surveyed women aged 18 years and older who either had children under 10 years of age or were pregnant at the time of the survey. The outcomes included psychological distress, mothers' fear of their children contracting COVID-19, change in children's behaviors during COVID-19 lockdown and pregnant women's concerns. Multivariable ordinary least squares regression models were employed to examine the adjusted associations between sociodemographic factors and psychological distress, as well as fear of COVID-19. RESULTS: Of 628 women, 11.8% (n = 74) were pregnant at the time of survey. Most of the pregnant women (89.2%, n = 66) had some degree of concerns about their unborn babies getting infected during delivery in the hospital. Among mothers of children under 10 years of age (n = 564), half (n = 282) reported change in their children's behavior during the lockdown. Most mothers and pregnant women (94.9%, n = 569) had some degree of psychological distress. Mothers and pregnant women with a college degree had significantly lower psychological distress (ß = -1.346; p = 0.014) than women with a high school education or less. Similarly, mothers and pregnant women with monthly family income ≥ US$ 1,333 had lower psychological distress than those with < US$ 1,333. Women with pre-existing chronic physical (ß = 2.424; p < 0.001) or mental (ß = 4.733; p < 0.001) conditions had higher psychological distress than those without these conditions. Having children in the house was a contributory factor for higher psychological distress. For example, mothers with one child (ß = 2.602; p = 0.007) had significantly higher psychological distress compared to expectant mothers without children in the house. CONCLUSIONS: Most mothers and expectant mothers in our study had moderate to high levels of psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in Saudi Arabia. Education, family income and chronic mental and physical conditions were associated with high psychological distress in Saudi Arabia during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Fear , Mothers/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Psychological Distress , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254364, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to understand how physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels of pregnant women with gestational diabetes in the UK have been affected by COVID-19. METHODS: An online survey exploring physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels of pregnant women with gestational diabetes during COVID-19 was distributed through social media platforms. Women who had been pregnant during the COVID-19 outbreak and had gestational diabetes, were resident in the UK, were 18 years old or over and could understand written English were invited to take part. RESULTS: A total of 724 women accessed the survey, 553 of these met the eligibility criteria and took part in the survey. Sedentary time increased for 79% of the women during the pandemic. Almost half of the women (47%) were meeting the physical activity guidelines pre COVID-19 during their pregnancy, this dropped to 23% during the COVID-19 pandemic. Fear of leaving the house due to COVID-19 was the most commonly reported reason for the decline. Significant associations were found between meeting the physical activity guidelines during COVID-19 and educational attainment, fitness equipment ownership and knowledge of how to exercise safely in pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These results show the impact of COVID-19 on physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels and highlight the need for targeted public health initiatives as the pandemic continues and for future lockdowns. Women with gestational diabetes need to know how it is safe and beneficial to them to engage in physical activity and ways to do this from their homes if fear of leaving the house due to COVID-19 is a barrier for them. Online physical activity classes provided by certified trainers in physical activity for pregnant women may help them remain active when face-to-face appointments are reduced and limited additional resources are available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes, Gestational , Sedentary Behavior , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Diabetes, Gestational/psychology , Exercise , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , United Kingdom
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341678

ABSTRACT

The impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on people with existing mental health conditions is likely to be high. We explored the consequences of the pandemic on women of lower socioeconomic status with prenatal anxiety symptoms living in urban Rawalpindi, Pakistan. This qualitative study was embedded within an ongoing randomized controlled trial of psychosocial intervention for prenatal anxiety at a public hospital in Rawalpindi. The participants were women with symptoms of anxiety who had received or were receiving the intervention. In total, 27 interviews were conducted; 13 women were in their third trimester of pregnancy, and 14 were in their postnatal period. The data were collected through in-depth interviews and analyzed using framework analysis. Key findings were that during the pandemic, women experienced increased perinatal anxiety that was linked to greater financial problems, uncertainties over availability of appropriate obstetric healthcare, and a lack of trust in health professionals. Women experienced increased levels of fear for their own and their baby's health and safety, especially due to fear of infection. COVID-19 appears to have contributed to symptoms of anxiety in women already predisposed to anxiety in the prenatal period. Efforts to address women's heightened anxiety due to the pandemic are likely to have public health benefits.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Pandemics , Pregnant Women/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression , Female , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , Parturition , Pregnancy
17.
Midwifery ; 102: 103116, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340769

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore women's experiences of maternity service reconfiguration during the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic. DESIGN: Qualitative interview study. SETTING: South London, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Women (N=23) who gave birth between March and August 2020 in one of the ten South London maternity hospitals. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted (N=23), via video-conferencing software. Transcribed interviews were analysed 'by hand' using Microsoft Word. Template analysis was selected to code, analyse, and interpret data, according to the findings of a recently-published national survey of maternity service reconfiguration across the UK in response to COVID-19. FINDINGS: Three main themes emerged through analysis: (i) Disruption to In-Person Care and Increased Virtual Care Provision, (ii) Changes to Labour and Birth Preferences and Plans, (iii) Advice for Navigating Maternity Services During a Pandemic. KEY CONCLUSIONS: Women reported mixed views on the reduction in scheduled in-person appointments. The increase in remote care, especially via telephone, was not well endorsed by women. Furthermore, women reported an under-reliance on healthcare professionals for support, rather turning to family. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: We provide insight into the experiences of women who received antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal care during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings should inform healthcare policy to build back better maternity care services after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Maternal Health Services/organization & administration , Pregnant Women/psychology , Telemedicine , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Maternal Health Services/trends , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
18.
J Psychosom Res ; 149: 110586, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331005

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in pregnant women before and during COVID-19 pandemic and analyzes their risk factors. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analyses included pregnant women with depression, anxiety, and stress levels evaluated both in the Novel Coronavirus-Pregnancy Cohort study (NCP) and the Healthy Baby Cohort study (HBC). NCP was conducted during COVID-19 pandemic, while HBC was performed before the pandemic. Multiple logistic regressions were employed to evaluate the associations between COVID-19 pandemic and other co-variables and maternal mental health. RESULTS: NCP and HBC studies respectively included 531 and 2352 participants. Depression rates differed significantly between the two studies (p < 0.05). The mild and moderate-to-severe depression rates in NCP study were 25.8% and 10.36%, respectively, and 19.94% and 0.55% in HBC study. The stress rate of participants was higher in HBC study (69.39%) than in NCP study (60.45%) (p < 0.05). COVID-19 pandemic was correlated with higher depression but lower stress risks (p < 0.05) in pregnant women, with OR and 95% CI as 1.68 (1.16, 2.44) and 0.42 (0.29, 0.61), respectively. Pregnant women with pre-pregnancy obesity and high educational levels might have lower risks for depression, anxiety, and stress than those with normal weight and low educational levels. CONCLUSIONS: Depression among pregnant women was impacted by the pandemic. Apart from COVID-19 pandemic impact, pre-pregnant weight status and educational level might also influence depression, anxiety and stress statuses in pregnant women.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Depression/epidemiology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Risk Factors
19.
JAAPA ; 34(8): 1-4, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328939

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: This literature review assesses recent research highlighting the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in pregnant patients and children. With better understanding, clinicians can offer risk assessment for those planning pregnancies amid the pandemic while using the best practice guidelines to reassure and assist pregnant patients throughout all spectrums of perinatal care, delivery, and postpartum care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Maternal Health/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Prenatal Education/methods , Adaptation, Psychological , Female , Humans , Maternal Health Services , Perinatal Care/methods , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 515, 2021 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In light of the pandemic, pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to increased psychological distress and in need of imperative preventive measures. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the pandemic on mental health, lifestyle adaptations, and their determinants among pregnant women in the United Arab Emirates. METHODS: A survey was conducted electronically between June and August 2020. Pregnant women were recruited from prenatal clinics in the UAE and invited to participate in an online survey developed on Google Forms. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, the Impact of Event Scale- Revised, the Perceived Support Scale and lifestyle-related factors. RESULTS: A total of 384 pregnant women completed the questionnaire of whom 20.6% were in their 1st trimester, 46.1% in their 2nd and 33.3% in their 3rd trimester. The mean IES-R score for the respondents was 26.15 ± 13.55, corresponding to a mild stressful impact, which did not differ significantly among trimesters of pregnancy. Pregnant women expressed increased stress from staying home (64%), work (40%), feeling frightened (66%) and apprehensive (59%). Women reported increased support and sharing their feelings with family members (59%), mainly in the 1st and 3rd trimester of pregnancy (P < 0.05). There was a greater attention to mental health (48%), resting time (55.3%), and relaxing time (57.3%); while a decreased amount of time was spent engaging in physical activities (53.6%), which differed significantly between trimesters (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a mild stressful impact among pregnant women in the UAE, braced by strong family support and self-care mental health behaviors.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19 , Pregnant Women/psychology , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Pregnancy , Social Support , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Arab Emirates
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