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Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2222, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574478


The emergence of a novel human coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has engaged considerable awareness and attention around the world. The associated disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), has now involved virtually all 200 countries. The total number of confirmed cases has been much more than in the two previous outbreaks of human coronaviruses, that is, SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. In line with the outbreak escalation, false information about SARS-CoV-2 and its associated disease disseminated globally, particularly through online and social media. Believers in conspiracy theories promote misinformation that the virus is not contagious, is the result of laboratory manipulation or is created to gain profit by distributing new vaccines. The most dangerous effect of this widely disseminated misinformation is it will negatively influence the attitudes and behaviours for preventive measures to contain the outbreak. In this review, I discuss common conspiracy theories associated with SARS-CoV-2 and Covid-19 and consider how we can address and counterbalance these issues based on scientific information and studies.

COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mass Vaccination/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Politics , Prejudice/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Scientific Misconduct/ethics , Social Media/ethics
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(36)2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379372


Mounting reports in the media suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic has intensified prejudice and discrimination against racial/ethnic minorities, especially Asians. Existing research has focused on discrimination against Asians and is primarily based on self-reported incidents or nonrepresentative samples. We investigate the extent to which COVID-19 has fueled prejudice and discrimination against multiple racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States by examining nationally representative survey data with an embedded vignette experiment about roommate selection (collected in August 2020; n = 5,000). We find that priming COVID-19 salience has an immediate, statistically significant impact: compared to the control group, respondents in the treatment group exhibited increased prejudice and discriminatory intent against East Asian, South Asian, and Hispanic hypothetical room-seekers. The treatment effect is more pronounced in increasing extreme negative attitudes toward the three minority groups than decreasing extreme positive attitudes toward them. This is partly due to the treatment increasing the proportion of respondents who perceive these minority groups as extremely culturally incompatible (Asians and Hispanics) and extremely irresponsible (Asians). Sociopolitical factors did not moderate the treatment effects on attitudes toward Asians, but prior social contact with Hispanics mitigated prejudices against them. These findings suggest that COVID-19-fueled prejudice and discrimination have not been limited to East Asians but are part of a broader phenomenon that has affected Asians generally and Hispanics as well.

Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Prejudice , Attitude , COVID-19/ethnology , Humans , Intention , Minority Groups/psychology , Pandemics , Prejudice/ethnology , Racism/ethnology , Racism/psychology , United States
Lancet ; 398(10299): 482-483, 2021 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340904
Rev. baiana enferm ; 35: e36986, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1328345


Objetivo refletir acerca do cenário do novo Coronavírus no que tange à estigmatização e o preconceito para com as pessoas infectadas. Método ensaio de reflexão teórico-filosófica. Resultados uma crise atual e presente inclusive no cotidiano dos profissionais de saúde que estão na linha de frente da produção do cuidado junto às pessoas que têm desenvolvido a doença da COVID-19 e lotado as unidades de saúde. Panorama que se assemelha a uma guerra, todavia com armamento invisível e letal que desponta num cenário de mortes, gerando medo e ansiedade em toda a população mundial, além de propiciar disfunções sociais. Conclusão a discussão sobre a estigmatização remete aos estudos de Erving Goffman e a definição de estigma e sua repercussão na identidade da pessoa com distorções e comprometimentos emocional e social, o que tem influenciado o cotidiano de pessoas contaminadas pelo novo coronavírus marcado pela estigmatização e preconceito social.

Objetivo reflexionar sobre el escenario del nuevo Coronavirus con respecto a la estigmatización y los prejuicios hacia las personas infectadas. Método ensayo teórico-filosófico de reflexión. Resultados una crisis actual y presente incluso en la vida cotidiana de los profesionales de la salud que están en la línea frontal de la producción de atención con personas que han desarrollado la enfermedad de COVID-19 y han abarrotado las unidades sanitarias. Panorama que se asemeja a una guerra, sin embargo con armamento invisible y letal que emerge en un escenario de muertes, generando miedo y ansiedad en toda la población mundial, además de proporcionar disfunciones sociales. Conclusión la discusión sobre la estigmatización se refiere a los estudios de Erving Goffman y la definición del estigma y su repercusión en la identidad de la persona con distorsiones y discapacidades emocionales y sociales, lo que ha influido en la vida cotidiana de las personas infectadas por el nuevo coronavirus marcado por la estigmatización y los prejuicios sociales.

Objective to reflect on the scenario of the new Coronavirus regarding stigmatization and prejudice towards infected people. Method theoretical-philosophical reflection essay. Results a current and present crisis even in the daily life of health professionals who are on the front line of the production of care with people who have developed COVID-19 and crowded the health units. Panorama that resembles a war, however with invisible and lethal weaponry that emerges in a scenario of deaths, generating fear and anxiety in the entire world population, besides providing social dysfunctions. Conclusion the discussion about stigmatization refers to the studies of Erving Goffman and the definition of stigma and its repercussion on the identity of the person with distortions and emotional and social impairments, which has influenced the daily lives of people infected by the new coronavirus marked by stigmatization and social prejudice.

Humans , Anxiety , Prejudice , Coronavirus Infections , Fear , Social Stigma , Pandemics , Stereotyping
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14521, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315607


Home advantage in professional sports is a widely accepted phenomenon despite the lack of any controlled experiments at the professional level. The return to play of professional sports during the COVID-19 pandemic presents a unique opportunity to analyze the hypothesized effect of home advantage in neutral settings. While recent work has examined the effect of COVID-19 restrictions on home advantage in European football, comparatively few studies have examined the effect of restrictions in the North American professional sports leagues. In this work, we infer the effect of and changes in home advantage prior to and during COVID-19 in the professional North American leagues for hockey, basketball, baseball, and American football. We propose a Bayesian multi-level regression model that infers the effect of home advantage while accounting for relative team strengths. We also demonstrate that the Negative Binomial distribution is the most appropriate likelihood to use in modelling North American sports leagues as they are prone to overdispersion in their points scored. Our model gives strong evidence that home advantage was negatively impacted in the NHL and NBA during their strongly restricted COVID-19 playoffs, while the MLB and NFL showed little to no change during their weakly restricted COVID-19 seasons.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Return to Sport/statistics & numerical data , Sports/psychology , Athletes/psychology , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/psychology , North America , Pandemics , Prejudice/psychology , Return to Sport/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Team Sports
J Soc Psychol ; 161(4): 435-451, 2021 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305390


The research presented here examined the relationship between the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, social group identity, intergroup contact, and prejudice. Utilizing a common ingroup identity approach, two datasets, which were composed of data from university students collected via online questionnaires before and after the onset of COVID-19, were combined (N = 511). Participants identified as either one of two subordinate student identities: domestic (i.e. U.S. citizen or permanent resident) or international (i.e. non-U.S. citizen or foreign resident), then reported on the strength of their subordinate and superordinate identity (university identity). Participants also reported on their contact experiences with outgroup members, outgroup stereotypes, and completed a novel intergroup bias task. Results indicated that after the onset of the pandemic, participants more strongly identified with the superordinate group, which predicted greater perceived intergroup contact and lower intergroup bias. Theoretical implications and future directions are discussed.

COVID-19/psychology , Interpersonal Relations , Prejudice/psychology , Social Identification , Students/psychology , Adult , Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology , Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prejudice/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(13)2021 06 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302303


Dance is proven to offer a myriad of physical, psychological, and social benefits. However, because dance has been frequently perceived as a feminine practice, there is a prevailing prejudice towards boys who dance, making it hard for them to engage in this physical activity. Social marketing has been presented as a promising framework to deal with different social problems, including prejudice, although its effectiveness is still difficult to establish. Drawing on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), a quasi-experimental study involving a sample of 436 children and adolescents, composed of 51.38% boys and 48.62% girls was implemented to measure the effectiveness of a Social Marketing Intervention (SMI) in reducing prejudice towards dance and boys who dance, in particular, and in increasing their intentions to practice this physical activity. The study furthermore aimed to compare the influence of the SMI on participants of two different stages of child development to ascertain when it is most effective to intervene. The questionnaire was used to collect information and included items derived from relevant literature. To assess differences between children and adolescents before and after the SMI, the analysis relied on independent t-tests and paired t-tests. Results suggest positive effects of the SMI on some dimensions of the TPB.

Dancing , Adolescent , Child , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Prejudice , Psychological Theory , Social Marketing
J Anal Psychol ; 66(3): 719-728, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299059


This paper intends to analyse the current political and social situation in Brazil and show how this context has influenced the management of the public health crisis generated by the COVID-19 pandemic. To this end, the authors conducted an investigation into Brazil's historical roots, which have not only engendered deep class differences but, also, social psychopathologies such as dissociation and perversion. Finally, this paper presents a symbolic analysis of social exclusion and how the mythical figure of Sophia can inspire a renewed movement of inclusion and tolerance.

COVID-19 , Culture , Politics , Prejudice , Psychoanalytic Theory , Brazil/ethnology , Colonialism , Enslavement , Humans , Social Inclusion , Social Isolation
Natl Med J India ; 33(5): 315, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289148

COVID-19 , Humans , Prejudice , SARS-CoV-2
Ann Emerg Med ; 78(5): 577-586, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281385


The COVID-19 pandemic has shed light on the ongoing pandemic of racial injustice. In the context of these twin pandemics, emergency medicine organizations are declaring that "Racism is a Public Health Crisis." Accordingly, we are challenging emergency clinicians to respond to this emergency and commit to being antiracist. This courageous journey begins with naming racism and continues with actions addressing the intersection of racism and social determinants of health that result in health inequities. Therefore, we present a social-ecological framework that structures the intentional actions that emergency medicine must implement at the individual, organizational, community, and policy levels to actively respond to this emergency and be antiracist.

Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Medicine , Health Status Disparities , Racism , Social Determinants of Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cultural Competency , Cultural Diversity , Emergency Medical Services/organization & administration , Emergency Medicine/education , Emergency Medicine/organization & administration , Health Policy , Humans , Pandemics , Prejudice , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(7): 712-717, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270769


ABSTRACT: The field of physical medicine and rehabilitation should strive for a physician workforce that is ethnically/racially, sex, and ability diverse. Considering the recent realities of disparities in health outcomes related to COVID-19 and in racial injustice in the United States, we are called to be champions for antiracism and equity. The specialty of physical medicine and rehabilitation should be the leaders in fostering a culture of inclusion and pay special attention to the population of applicants who are underrepresented in medicine. The specialty needs tools to start addressing these disparities. This article aims to provide strategic and intentional evidence-based recommendations for programs to follow. Holistic review, implicit bias training, structured interviews, and targeted outreach for those underrepresented in medicine are some of the tools that will help students enter and become successful in our specialty. Furthermore, this article provides novel guidance and considerations for virtual interviews during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Cultural Diversity , Disabled Persons , Education, Medical, Graduate/standards , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine , Prejudice/prevention & control , Workforce , Humans , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine/education , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine/organization & administration , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine/standards , Prejudice/ethnology , Socioeconomic Factors , United States , Workforce/organization & administration , Workforce/standards