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1.
Am J Public Health ; 112(3): 405-407, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708980

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To report findings from qualitative research that describe sources of hesitancy and barriers to vaccine uptake among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA) populations. Methods. In March 2021, we conducted focus groups with members of the Los Angeles, California LGBTQIA community to identify barriers to becoming vaccinated. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 32 individuals in 5 focus groups. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify themes. Results. Historical and ongoing medical trauma, including misgendering, and perceived emotional violence emerged as significant barriers to LGBTQIA individuals becoming vaccinated. Fear of violence was found to be a major barrier among transgender individuals, whereas fear of an unwelcoming vaccination site was a barrier for seniors. Finally, surviving was a higher priority than becoming vaccinated. Conclusions. Participants reported vaccine hesitancy and barriers that are unique to the life experiences of LGBTQIA individuals; these include medical trauma, violence, stigma, and discrimination. Our findings highlight the need to include LGBTQIA leaders and trusted individuals in the development of vaccination education and the delivery of vaccination services. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(3):405-407. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306599).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , /psychology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Female , Focus Groups , Humans , Los Angeles , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prejudice/psychology , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Stigma , Violence/psychology , Young Adult
2.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261726, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1651026

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We explored public perceptions about the COVID-19 pandemic to learn how those attitudes may affect compliance with health behaviors. METHODS: Participants were Central Pennsylvania adults from diverse backgrounds purposively sampled (based on race, gender, educational attainment, and healthcare worker status) who responded to a mixed methods survey, completed between March 25-31, 2020. Four open-ended questions were analyzed, including: "What worries you most about the COVID-19 pandemic?" We applied a pragmatic, inductive coding process to conduct a qualitative, descriptive content analysis of responses. RESULTS: Of the 5,948 respondents, 538 were sampled for this qualitative analysis. Participants were 58% female, 56% with ≥ bachelor's degree, and 50% from minority racial backgrounds. Qualitative descriptive analysis revealed four themes related to respondents' health and societal concerns: lack of faith in others; fears of illness or death; frustration at perceived slow societal response; and a desire for transparency in communicating local COVID-19 information. An "us-versus-them" subtext emerged; participants attributed non-compliance with COVID-19 behaviors to other groups, setting themselves apart from those Others. CONCLUSION: Our study uncovered Othering undertones in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, occurring between groups of like-minded individuals with behavioral differences in 'compliance' versus 'non-compliance' with public health recommendations. Addressing the 'us-versus-them' mentality may be important for boosting compliance with recommended health behaviors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Fear/psychology , Patient Compliance/psychology , Prejudice/psychology , Public Health/ethics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Trust/psychology
3.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2222, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574478

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a novel human coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has engaged considerable awareness and attention around the world. The associated disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), has now involved virtually all 200 countries. The total number of confirmed cases has been much more than in the two previous outbreaks of human coronaviruses, that is, SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. In line with the outbreak escalation, false information about SARS-CoV-2 and its associated disease disseminated globally, particularly through online and social media. Believers in conspiracy theories promote misinformation that the virus is not contagious, is the result of laboratory manipulation or is created to gain profit by distributing new vaccines. The most dangerous effect of this widely disseminated misinformation is it will negatively influence the attitudes and behaviours for preventive measures to contain the outbreak. In this review, I discuss common conspiracy theories associated with SARS-CoV-2 and Covid-19 and consider how we can address and counterbalance these issues based on scientific information and studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mass Vaccination/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Politics , Prejudice/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Scientific Misconduct/ethics , Social Media/ethics
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14521, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315607

ABSTRACT

Home advantage in professional sports is a widely accepted phenomenon despite the lack of any controlled experiments at the professional level. The return to play of professional sports during the COVID-19 pandemic presents a unique opportunity to analyze the hypothesized effect of home advantage in neutral settings. While recent work has examined the effect of COVID-19 restrictions on home advantage in European football, comparatively few studies have examined the effect of restrictions in the North American professional sports leagues. In this work, we infer the effect of and changes in home advantage prior to and during COVID-19 in the professional North American leagues for hockey, basketball, baseball, and American football. We propose a Bayesian multi-level regression model that infers the effect of home advantage while accounting for relative team strengths. We also demonstrate that the Negative Binomial distribution is the most appropriate likelihood to use in modelling North American sports leagues as they are prone to overdispersion in their points scored. Our model gives strong evidence that home advantage was negatively impacted in the NHL and NBA during their strongly restricted COVID-19 playoffs, while the MLB and NFL showed little to no change during their weakly restricted COVID-19 seasons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Return to Sport/statistics & numerical data , Sports/psychology , Athletes/psychology , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/psychology , North America , Pandemics , Prejudice/psychology , Return to Sport/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Team Sports
6.
J Soc Psychol ; 161(4): 435-451, 2021 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305390

ABSTRACT

The research presented here examined the relationship between the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, social group identity, intergroup contact, and prejudice. Utilizing a common ingroup identity approach, two datasets, which were composed of data from university students collected via online questionnaires before and after the onset of COVID-19, were combined (N = 511). Participants identified as either one of two subordinate student identities: domestic (i.e. U.S. citizen or permanent resident) or international (i.e. non-U.S. citizen or foreign resident), then reported on the strength of their subordinate and superordinate identity (university identity). Participants also reported on their contact experiences with outgroup members, outgroup stereotypes, and completed a novel intergroup bias task. Results indicated that after the onset of the pandemic, participants more strongly identified with the superordinate group, which predicted greater perceived intergroup contact and lower intergroup bias. Theoretical implications and future directions are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Interpersonal Relations , Prejudice/psychology , Social Identification , Students/psychology , Adult , Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology , Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prejudice/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
7.
J Soc Psychol ; 161(4): 477-491, 2021 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1205474

ABSTRACT

What mitigates prejudice against migrants in situations of uncertainty? Addressing this question, we explored how individuals with greater COVID-19 concern perceive migrants as a greater threat and show prejudice against them, indirectly through the mechanism of need for cognitive closure and binding moral foundations.This study was conducted in two European countries: Malta and Italy. Six hundred and seventy-six individuals participated in this quantitative study (Malta: N = 204; Italy N = 472). Results from this study showed that the need for cognitive closure and binding moral foundations mediate the relationship between COVID-19 concern and prejudice against migrants in both countries. When testing the three binding moral foundations (loyalty, authority, and purity), the authority foundation seems to be the most consistent predictor.The implications of the findings contribute to theories about how situational uncertainty caused by COVID-19, together with the need for epistemic certainty and binding morality, contribute to increased prejudiced attitudes against migrants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Morals , Prejudice/psychology , Transients and Migrants/psychology , Uncertainty , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cognition , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Malta , Middle Aged , Prejudice/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Transients and Migrants/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 467, 2021 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic. Many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, Uganda inclusive, implemented lockdowns, curfew, banning of both private and public transport systems, and mass gatherings to minimize spread. Social control measures for COVID-19 are reported to increase violence and discrimination globally, including in Uganda as some may be difficult to implement resulting in the heavy deployment of law enforcement. Media reports indicated that cases of violence and discrimination had increased in Uganda's communities following the lockdown. We estimated the incidence and factors associated with experiencing violence and discrimination among Ugandans during the COVID-19 lockdown to inform control and prevention measures. METHODS: In April 2020, we conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data under the International Citizen Project (ICP) to assess adherence to public health measures and their impact on the COVID-19 outbreak in Uganda. We analyzed data on violence and discrimination from the ICP study. We performed descriptive statistics for all the participants' characteristics and created a binary outcome variable called experiencing violence and/or discrimination. We performed logistic regression analysis to identify the factors associated with experiencing violence and discrimination. RESULTS: Of the 1726 ICP study participants, 1051 (58.8%) were males, 841 (48.7%) were currently living with a spouse or partner, and 376 (21.8%) had physically attended work for more than 3 days in the past week. Overall, 145 (8.4%) experienced any form of violence and/or discrimination by any perpetrator, and 46 (31.7%) of the 145 reported that it was perpetrated by a law enforcement officer. Factors associated with experiencing violence or discrimination were: being male (AOR = 1.60 CI:1.10-2.33), having attended work physically for more than 3 days in the past week (AOR = 1.52 CI:1.03-2.23), and inability to access social or essential health services since the epidemic started (AOR = 3.10 CI:2.14-4.50). CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of Ugandan residents experienced violence and/or discrimination during the COVID-19 lockdown, mostly perpetrated by law enforcement officers. We recommend mitigation of the collateral impact of lockdowns with interventions that focus on improving policing quality, ensuring continuity of essential services, and strengthening support systems for vulnerable groups including males.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Prejudice/psychology , Violence/psychology , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prejudice/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Uganda/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
Front Public Health ; 8: 577018, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079619

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been instrumental in creating a dramatic shift from people's need to live in mutual association toward a desire to stigmatize distinctive others. Pandemic seems to be causing othering. Stated simply, stigmatization is a social process set to exclude those who are perceived to be a potential source of disease and may pose threat to the effective social living in the society. Based on the secondary evidence collected from news published online or in print, the present article delves into stigma associated with the COVID-19 pandemic among different social groups in the Indian society and the mounting cases of prejudice based on race, class, and religion. It also presents insights into the varied manifestations, and the deleterious consequences of COVID-19 inspired othering brought to its potential targets in India.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prejudice , Stereotyping , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , India , Prejudice/psychology , Racism , Religion , Social Stigma
12.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12196, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064309

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Maternity harassment, known in English as pregnancy discrimination, remains prevalent in developed countries. However, research examining the mental health effects of maternity harassment is lacking. We aimed to examine the association between maternity harassment and depression during pregnancy in Japan. METHODS: A cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted on 359 pregnant employees (including women who were working at the time their pregnancy was confirmed) from May 22 to May 31, 2020, during which time a COVID-19 state of emergency was declared. Maternity harassment was defined as being subjected to any of the 16 adverse treatments prohibited by national guidelines. Depression was defined as a score of ≥9 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (Japanese version). Logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: Overall, 24.8% of the pregnant employees had experienced maternity harassment by supervisors and/or colleagues. After adjusting for demographics, pregnancy status, work status, and fear of COVID-19, pregnant employees who experienced maternity harassment were more likely to have depression than those who did not (odds ratio 2.48, 95% confidential interval 1.34-4.60). This association was not influenced by whether they were teleworking or not as a COVID-19 measure. CONCLUSIONS: One quarter of pregnant employees experienced maternity harassment and had a higher prevalence of depression than those who did not. Being physically away from the office through teleworking may not reduce the effect of maternal harassment on depression. To protect the mental health and employment of pregnant women, employers should comply with the laws and take measures to prevent maternity harassment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Depression/complications , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Pregnancy/psychology , Prejudice/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Employment/psychology , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Prejudice/statistics & numerical data , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
FEBS J ; 287(17): 3612-3632, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-960852

ABSTRACT

The newly recognised coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, causative agent of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has caused a pandemic with huge ramifications for human interactions around the globe. As expected, research efforts to understand the virus and curtail the disease are moving at a frantic pace alongside the spread of rumours, speculations and falsehoods. In this article, we aim to clarify the current scientific view behind several claims or controversies related to COVID-19. Starting with the origin of the virus, we then discuss the effect of ibuprofen and nicotine on the severity of the disease. We highlight the knowledge on fomites and SARS-CoV-2 and discuss the evidence and explications for a disproportionately stronger impact of COVID-19 on ethnic minorities, including a potential protective role for vitamin D. We further review what is known about the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children, including their role in transmission of the disease, and conclude with the science on different mortality rates between different countries and whether this hints at the existence of more pathogenic cohorts of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Evidence-Based Medicine , Female , Fomites/virology , Humans , Ibuprofen/administration & dosage , Ibuprofen/adverse effects , Male , Nicotine/adverse effects , Prejudice/psychology , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D Deficiency/ethnology , Vitamin D Deficiency/pathology
14.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(6): 873-876, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-228672

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak caused by SARS-CoV-2 has triggered global panic. We have conducted an anonymous online survey of Asian medical students in Poland to assess whether they experience any form of prejudice related to the ongoing pandemic. As demonstrated, the COVID-19 outbreak had triggered xenophobic reactions toward students of Asian-origin (n=85) before the first SARS-CoV-2 case was confirmed in Poland. Facing prejudice, including discrimination related to COVID-19, may add to feelings of isolation of students of Asian origin who study abroad, and affect career development, especially for students. We recommend that universities should proactively develop policies that support students, faculty, and staff affected by discriminatory behavior both during the current outbreak and in the future. However, preventing such behaviors should also be enforced by national authorities.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Prejudice/psychology , Students, Medical , Xenophobia/psychology , Adult , COVID-19 , Fear , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Pandemics , Poland , Prejudice/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Xenophobia/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
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