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1.
BJOG ; 129(2): 282-290, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831885

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess associations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and pregnancy outcomes considering testing policy and test-positivity-to-delivery interval. DESIGN: Nationwide cohort study. SETTING: Sweden. POPULATION: From the Pregnancy-Register we identified 88 593 singleton births, 11 March 2020-31 January 2021, linked to data on SARS-CoV-2-positivity from the Public Health Agency, and information on neonatal care admission from the Neonatal Quality Register. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were estimated stratified by testing-policy and test-positivity-to-delivery interval. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Five-minute Apgar score, neonatal care admission, stillbirth and preterm birth. RESULTS: During pregnancy, SARS-CoV-2 test-positivity was 5.4% (794/14 665) under universal testing and 1.9% (1402/73 928) under non-universal testing. There were generally lower risks associated with SARS-CoV-2 under universal than non-universal testing. In women testing positive >10 days from delivery, generally no significant differences in risk were observed under either testing policy. Neonatal care admission was more common (15.3% versus 8.0%; aOR 2.24, 95% CI 1.62-3.11) in women testing positive ≤10 days before delivery under universal testing. There was no significant association with 5-minute Apgar score below 7 (1.0% versus 1.7%; aOR 0.64, 95% CI 0.24-1.72) or stillbirth (0.3% versus 0.4%; aOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.10-5.20). Compared with term births (2.1%), test-positivity was higher in medically indicated preterm birth (5.7%; aOR 2.70, 95% CI 1.60-4.58) but not significantly increased in spontaneous preterm birth (2.3%; aOR 1.12, 95% CI 0.62-2.02). CONCLUSIONS: Testing policy and timing of test-positivity impact associations between SARS-CoV-2-positivity and pregnancy outcomes. Under non-universal testing, women with complications near delivery are more likely to be tested than women without complications, thereby inflating any association with adverse pregnancy outcomes compared with findings under universal testing. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Testing policy and time from SARS-CoV-2 infection to delivery influence the association with pregnancy outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Apgar Score , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Prenatal Care/methods , Prenatal Care/standards , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Sweden/epidemiology
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 315, 2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789106

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is significantly associated with negative outcomes for both mother and child. Current evidence indicates an association between low levels of social support and IPV, however there is less evidence from low-and-middle income countries (LMIC) than high-income countries. Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has radically altered how women can access social support. Hence since 2020, studies investigating IPV and pregnancy have occurred within the changing social context of the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This scoping review summarizes the evidence from LMICs about the effects of IPV during pregnancy on maternal and child health. The review includes the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on social support as mentioned in studies conducted since 2020. DESIGN: Library databases were used to identify papers from 2016 to 2021. These studies reported the maternal and child health outcomes of IPV during pregnancy, and described how social support during pregnancy, and the COVID-19 pandemic, were associated with rates of IPV during pregnancy. Observational study designs, qualitative and mixed methods studies were included. RESULTS: Twenty - six studies from 13 LMICs were included. Half (n = 13) were cross sectional studies which only collected data at one time-point. IPV during pregnancy was significantly associated with higher odds of postpartum depression, low birth weight, preterm birth and less breastfeeding in the year after birth. Lower levels of social support increased the odds of experiencing IPV during pregnancy, whilst higher levels of social support reduced antenatal anxiety and depression in women experiencing IPV during pregnancy. Of the four studies that investigated IPV during pregnancy throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, only one compared prevalence before and after the pandemic and unexpectedly reported a lower prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Further research on the impact of IPV during pregnancy on maternal and child outcomes in LMICs is required, especially evidence from longitudinal studies investigating a wider range of outcomes. To date, there is limited evidence on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on IPV during pregnancy in LMICs, and this should be prioritized as the pandemic continues to affect women's access to social support globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Premature Birth , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child Health , Developing Countries , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Pregnancy
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e059701, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779382

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the difficulties faced by the pregnant women in seeking appropriate antenatal care due to the restrictions imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic; assess the difficulties encountered during delivery and postpartum period; the suitability of the teleconsultation services offered; effect of COVID-19 infection on pregnancy outcomes and the effect of restrictions on the nutrition profile of the pregnant women. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We included 1374 pregnant women from the rural areas of three districts of Punjab, India registered at government health centres before the implementation of lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic on 24 March 2020. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the difficulties faced by the women during their pregnancies due to restrictions imposed during the lockdown. The secondary outcomes included the effect of COVID-19 infections on pregnancy outcomes, satisfaction from the telemedicine services and restrictions on the nutrition profile of the pregnant women. RESULTS: One-third of the women (38.4%) considered their last pregnancy unplanned. Women faced difficulties due to the restrictions in getting adequate nutrition (76.5%), accessing transportation facilities (35.4%), consultations from doctors (22.4%) or getting an ultrasonography scan (48.7%). One-fifth (21.9%) of women could not access safe abortion services. Only 3.6% of respondents ever took any teleconsultation services offered by the government. Most of them felt unsatisfied compared with routine visits (77.5%). COVID-19-infected women were primarily asymptomatic (76.1%), but there was a high incidence of preterm birth (42.8%). Frontline workers could visit 64.3% of the women in the postpartum period despite restrictions. CONCLUSIONS: Lockdown compromised the antenatal care in our study area while the frontline workers attempted to minimise the inconvenience. Telemedicine services did not prove to be of many benefits to pregnant women and should only work as a supplement to the existing protocols of antenatal care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care
5.
J Immunol ; 208(8): 1857-1872, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776405

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women are at increased risk of adverse outcomes, including preeclampsia and preterm birth, that may result from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Pregnancy imprints specific maternal immune responses that can modulate host susceptibility to microbial infection; therefore, recent studies have focused on the humoral response against SARS-CoV-2 in pregnant women. However, the pregnancy-specific cellular immune responses triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection are poorly understood. In this study, we undertook an extensive in vitro investigation to determine the cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 particles and proteins/peptides in pregnant women. First, we show that SARS-CoV-2 particles do not alter the pregnancy-specific oxidative burst of neutrophils and monocytes. Yet, SARS-CoV-2 particles/proteins shift monocyte activation from the classical to intermediate states in pregnant, but not in nonpregnant, women. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 proteins, but not particles or peptide pools, mildly enhance T cell activation during pregnancy. As expected, B cell phenotypes are heavily modulated by SARS-CoV-2 particles in all women; yet, pregnancy itself further modified such responses in these adaptive immune cells. Lastly, we report that pregnancy itself governs cytokine responses in the maternal circulation, of which IFN-ß and IL-8 were diminished upon SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Collectively, these findings highlight the differential in vitro responses to SARS-CoV-2 in pregnant and nonpregnant women and shed light on the immune mechanisms implicated in coronavirus disease 2019 during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 761, 2021 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770504

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing spread coronavirus disease worldwide has caused major disruptions and led to lockdowns. Everyday lifestyle changes and antenatal care inaccessibility during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have variable results that affect pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to assess the alterations in stillbirth, neonatal-perinatal mortality, preterm birth, and birth weight during the COVID-19 national lockdown. METHODS: We used the data from the Jordan stillbirths and neonatal death surveillance system to compare pregnancy outcomes (gestational age, birth weight, small for gestational age, stillbirth, neonatal death, and perinatal death) between two studied periods (11 months before the pandemic (May 2019 to March 2020) vs. 9 months during the pandemic (April 2020 to March 1st 2020). Separate multinomial logistic and binary logistic regression models were used to compare the studied outcomes between the two studied periods after adjusting for the effects of mother's age, income, education, occupation, nationality, health sector, and multiplicity. RESULTS: There were 31106 registered babies during the study period; among them, 15311 (49.2%) and 15795 (50.8%) births occurred before and during the COVID-19 lockdown, respectively. We found no significant differences in preterm birth and stillbirth rates, neonatal mortality, or perinatal mortality before and during the COVID-19 lockdown. Our findings report a significantly lower incidence of extreme low birth weight (ELBW) infants (<1kg) during the COVID-19 lockdown period than that before the lockdown (adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.3-0.5: P value <0.001) CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 lockdown period, the number of infants born with extreme low birth weight (ELBW) decreased significantly. More research is needed to determine the impact of cumulative socio-environmental and maternal behavioral changes that occurred during the pandemic on the factors that contribute to ELBW infants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Jordan , Perinatal Mortality , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Stillbirth/epidemiology
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 658, 2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whilst the impact of Covid-19 infection in pregnant women has been examined, there is a scarcity of data on pregnant women in the Middle East. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the impact of Covid-19 infection on pregnant women in the United Arab Emirates population. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out to compare the clinical course and outcome of pregnancy in 79 pregnant women with Covid-19 and 85 non-pregnant women with Covid-19 admitted to Latifa Hospital in Dubai between March and June 2020. RESULTS: Although Pregnant women presented with fewer symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and shortness of breath compared to non-pregnant women; yet they ran a much more severe course of illness. On admission, 12/79 (15.2%) Vs 2/85 (2.4%) had a chest radiograph score [on a scale 1-6] of ≥3 (p-value = 0.0039). On discharge, 6/79 (7.6%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) had a score ≥3 (p-value = 0.0438). They also had much higher levels of laboratory indicators of severity with values above reference ranges for C-Reactive Protein [(28 (38.3%) Vs 13 (17.6%)] with p < 0.004; and for D-dimer [32 (50.8%) Vs 3(6%)]; with p < 0.001. They required more ICU admissions: 10/79 (12.6%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) with p=0.0036; and suffered more complications: 9/79 (11.4%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) with p=0.0066; of Covid-19 infection, particularly in late pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women presented with fewer Covid-19 symptoms but ran a much more severe course of illness compared to non-pregnant women with the disease. They had worse chest radiograph scores and much higher levels of laboratory indicators of disease severity. They had more ICU admissions and suffered more complications of Covid-19 infection, such as risk for miscarriage and preterm deliveries. Pregnancy with Covid-19 infection, could, therefore, be categorised as high-risk pregnancy and requires management by an obstetric and medical multidisciplinary team.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Radiography, Thoracic , Symptom Assessment , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/etiology , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Radiography, Thoracic/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology
8.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 272, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antenatal anxiety has been linked to adverse obstetric outcomes, including miscarriage and preterm birth. However, most studies investigating anxiety during pregnancy, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic, have focused on symptoms during the second and third trimester. This study aims to describe the prevalence of anxiety symptoms early in pregnancy and identify predictors of early pregnancy anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We assessed baseline moderate-to-severe anxiety symptoms after enrollment in the UCSF ASPIRE (Assessing the Safety of Pregnancy in the Coronavirus Pandemic) Prospective Cohort from May 2020 through February 2021. Pregnant persons < 10 weeks' gestation completed questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, obstetric/medical history, and pandemic-related experiences. Univariate and multivariate hierarchical logistic regression analyses determined predictors of moderate or severe anxiety symptoms (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire score ≥ 10). All analyses performed with Statistical Analysis Software (SAS®) version 9.4. RESULTS: A total of 4,303 persons completed the questionnaire. The mean age of this nationwide sample was 33 years of age and 25.7% of participants received care through a fertility clinic. Over twelve percent of pregnant persons reported moderate-to-severe anxiety symptoms. In univariate analysis, less than a college education (p < 0.0001), a pre-existing history of anxiety (p < 0.0001), and a history of prior miscarriage (p = 0.0143) were strong predictors of moderate-to-severe anxiety symptoms. Conversely, having received care at a fertility center was protective (26.6% vs. 25.7%, p = 0.0009). COVID-19 related stressors including job loss, reduced work hours during the pandemic, inability to pay rent, very or extreme worry about COVID-19, and perceived stress were strongly predictive of anxiety in pregnancy (p < 0.0001). In the hierarchical logistic regression model, pre-existing history of anxiety remained associated with anxiety during pregnancy, while the significance of the effect of education was attenuated. CONCLUSION(S): Pre-existing history of anxiety and socioeconomic factors likely exacerbated the impact of pandemic-related stressors on early pregnancy anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite on-going limitations for in-person prenatal care administration, continued emotional health support should remain an important focus for providers, particularly when caring for less privileged pregnant persons or those with a pre-existing history of anxiety.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications , Premature Birth , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
9.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 157(1): 115-120, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756602

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) and iatrogenic preterm birth (IPTB) rates during both waves of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the PregCovid registry of pregnant women with COVID-19 was performed at a dedicated COVID-19 hospital in Mumbai, India. The data of 1630 women were analyzed for this study between April 4, 2020 and July 4, 2021. Prepandemic data were analyzed and compared with pandemic data. Main outcome measure was spontaneous preterm birth rate. RESULTS: Preterm deliveries were higher during the second wave (46/329; 14%) compared with the first wave (82/807; 10.2%) of the COVID-19 pandemic (P = 0.065). Higher SPTBs were reported during the second wave than the first wave (12.5% versus 8.3%) (P = 0.03) as well as the prepandemic period (12.5% versus 10.5%) (P = 0.286). IPTBs were significantly lower in the pandemic period than in the prepandemic period (1.8 versus 3.3) (P = 0.012). CONCLUSION: In Mumbai, India, we found an unusual change in SPTBs during the 6 months of the second wave of COVID-19 compared with the previous 10 months of the first wave of pandemic and 1 year of prepandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2145808, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718195
11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 166, 2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714652

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes for mother and fetus. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has significantly reduced the risk of symptomatic disease. Several small studies have reported the safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination during pregnancy, with no adverse effect on obstetric outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between SARS-CoV-2 vaccination during pregnancy and maternal and neonatal outcomes in a large cohort study. Furthermore, to evaluate if timing of vaccination during pregnancy is related to adverse outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of women who delivered between December 2020 and July 2021 at a large tertiary medical center. Excluded were women with multiple pregnancy, vaccination prior to pregnancy, COVID-19 infection during or before pregnancy, or unknown timing of vaccination. Primary outcomes were the incidence of preterm labor and of small for gestational age. Secondary outcomes were other maternal and neonatal complications. A secondary analysis investigating the association between time of vaccination and outcomes was also performed. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to adjust for potential confounders. RESULTS: There were 5618 women who met the inclusion criteria: 2,305 (41%) women were vaccinated and 3,313 (59%) were unvaccinated. There were no differences between vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients with respect to primary outcomes. The rate of preterm birth was 5.5% in the vaccinated group compared to 6.2% in the unvaccinated group (p = 0.31). Likewise, the rates of small for gestational age were comparable between the two groups (6.2% vs. 7.0% respectively, p = 0.2). In a secondary analysis focusing on time of vaccination and its relationship with outcomes, patients vaccinated in the second trimester (n = 964) and in the third trimester (n = 1329) were independently compared to their unvaccinated counterparts. Women who were vaccinated in the second trimester were more likely to have a preterm birth (8.1% vs. 6.2%, p < 0.001). This association persisted after adjusting for potential confounders (adjusted odds ratio 1.49, 95%CI 1.11, 2.01). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 vaccine appears to be safe during pregnancy with no increase in incidence of preterm labor and small for gestational age compared to unvaccinated women. However, in women vaccinated during the second trimester there may be an increase in the rate of preterm birth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Patient Safety , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Vaccination , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Trimesters , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Time Factors
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715385

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to measure the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal mental health, stratifying on pregnancy status, trimester of gestation, and pandemic period/wave. METHODS: Pregnant persons and persons who delivered in Canada during the pandemic, >18 years, were recruited, and data were collected using a web-based strategy. The current analysis includes data on persons enrolled between 06/2020-08/2021. Maternal sociodemographic indicators, mental health measures (Edinburgh Perinatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Generalized Anxiety Disorders (GAD-7), stress) were self-reported. Maternal mental health in pregnant women (stratified by trimester, and pandemic period/wave at recruitment) was compared with the mental health of women who had delivered; determinants of severe depression were identified with multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: 2574 persons were pregnant and 626 had already delivered at recruitment. Participants who had delivered had significantly higher mean depressive symptom scores compared to those pregnant at recruitment (9.1 (SD, 5.7) vs. 8.4 (SD, 5.3), p = 0.009). Maternal anxiety (aOR 1.51; 95%CI 1.44-1.59) and stress (aOR 1.35; 95%CI 1.24-1.48) were the most significant predictors of severe maternal depression (EDPS ˃ 13) in pregnancy. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on maternal depression during pregnancy and in the post-partum period. Given that gestational depression/anxiety/stress has been associated with preterm birth and childhood cognitive problems, it is essential to continue following women/children, and develop strategies to reduce COVID-19's longer-term impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 101(4): 461-470, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714124

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is a lack of population level data on risk factors and impact of severe COVID-19 in pregnancy. The aims of this study were to determine the characteristics, and maternal and perinatal outcomes associated with severe COVID-19 in pregnancy compared with those with mild and moderate COVID-19 and to explore the impact of timing of birth. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a national, prospective cohort study. All pregnant women admitted to hospital in the UK with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 from March 1, 2020 to October 31, 2021 were included. The severity of maternal infection (need for high flow or invasive ventilation, intensive care admission or died), pregnancy and perinatal outcomes, and the impact of timing of birth were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 4436 pregnant women, 13.9% (n = 616) had severe infection. Women with severe infection were more likely to be aged ≥30 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] aged 30-39 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-1.83), be overweight or obese (aOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.34-2.25 and aOR 2.52 95% CI 1.97-3.23, respectively), be of mixed ethnicity (aOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.17-3.21) or have gestational diabetes (aOR 1.43, 95% CI 1.09-1.87) compared with those with mild or moderate infection. Women with severe infection were more likely to have a pre-labor cesarean birth (aOR 8.84, 95% CI 6.61-11.83), a very or extreme preterm birth (28-31+ weeks' gestation, aOR 18.97, 95% CI 7.78-14.85; <28 weeks' gestation, aOR 12.35, 95% CI 6.34-24.05) and their babies were more likely to be stillborn (aOR 2.51, 95% CI 1.35-4.66) or admitted to a neonatal unit (aOR 11.61, 95% CI 9.28-14.52). Of 112 women with severe infection who were discharged and gave birth at a later admission, the majority gave birth ≥36 weeks (85.7%), noting that three women in this group (2.7%) had a stillbirth. CONCLUSIONS: Severe COVID-19 in pregnancy increases the risk of adverse outcomes. Information to promote uptake of vaccination should specifically target those at greatest risk of severe outcomes. Decisions about timing of birth should be informed by multidisciplinary team discussion; however, our data suggest that women with severe infection who do not require early delivery have mostly good outcomes but that those with severe infection at term may warrant rapid delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
14.
Anaesthesia ; 77(4): 389-397, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714113

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, few studies have reported anaesthetic outcomes in parturients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We reviewed the labour analgesic and anaesthetic interventions utilised in symptomatic and asymptomatic parturients who had a confirmed positive test for SARS-CoV-2 across 10 hospitals in the north-west of England between 1 April 2020 and 31 May 2021. Primary outcomes analysed included the analgesic/anaesthetic technique utilised for labour and caesarean birth. Secondary outcomes included a comparison of maternal characteristics, caesarean birth rate, maternal critical care admission rate along with adverse composite neonatal outcomes. A positive SARS-CoV-2 test was recorded in 836 parturients with 263 (31.4%) reported to have symptoms of COVID-19. Neuraxial labour analgesia was utilised in 104 (20.4%) of the 509 parturients who went on to have a vaginal birth. No differences in epidural analgesia rates were observed between symptomatic and asymptomatic parturients (OR 1.03, 95%CI 0.64-1.67; p = 0.90). The neuraxial anaesthesia rate in 310 parturients who underwent caesarean delivery was 94.2% (95%CI 90.6-96.0%). The rates of general anaesthesia were similar in symptomatic and asymptomatic parturients (6% vs. 5.7%; p = 0.52). Symptomatic parturients were more likely to be multiparous (OR 1.64, 95%CI 1.19-2.22; p = 0.002); of Asian ethnicity (OR 1.54, 1.04-2.28; p = 0.03); to deliver prematurely (OR 2.16, 95%CI 1.47-3.19; p = 0.001); have a higher caesarean birth rate (44.5% vs. 33.7%; OR 1.57, 95%CI 1.16-2.12; p = 0.008); and a higher critical care utilisation rate both pre- (8% vs. 0%, p = 0.001) and post-delivery (11% vs. 3.5%; OR 3.43, 95%CI 1.83-6.52; p = 0.001). Eight neonates tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 while no differences in adverse composite neonatal outcomes were observed between those born to symptomatic and asymptomatic mothers (25.8% vs. 23.8%; OR 1.11, 95%CI 0.78-1.57; p = 0.55). In women with COVID-19, non-neuraxial analgesic regimens were commonly utilised for labour while neuraxial anaesthesia was employed for the majority of caesarean births. Symptomatic women with COVID-19 are at increased risk of significant maternal morbidity including preterm birth, caesarean birth and peripartum critical care admission.


Subject(s)
Analgesia, Obstetrical , COVID-19 , Labor, Obstetric , Premature Birth , Analgesia, Obstetrical/methods , Anesthesia, General , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3024, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707237

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women with COVID-19 require special attention and care, since the infection does not only affect the mother, but also her neonate and adversely affects pregnancy outcomes. The main goal of this retrospective cohort study is to investigate association between the maternal COVID-19 severity and risk of developing adverse neonatal outcomes. Patients were stratified into asymptomatic/mild and moderate to severe COVID-19. The following neonatal outcomes were assessed: gestational age at the time of delivery, birth weight, neonatal infection, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. The average age of patients was 28.5 ± 1.4 years old and majority were multigravida (74.0%, n = 148). Of total 200 pregnant women with COVID-19, 26.5% (n = 53) had moderate/severe disease and presented with higher incidence of preterm delivery and low birth weight (88.7%, n = 47; p < 0.001). In addition, more than half of the newborns delivered by mothers with severe disease were infected by SARS-COV-2 (58.5%, n = 31) and majority were admitted to the NICU (95.0%, n = 52). Based on the multivariate logistic regression analysis, pregnant women with moderate to severe COVID-19 were at much higher risk of preterm delivery, lower birth weight, neonatal infection, as well as neonatal ICU admission (p < 0.001). In addition, multigravida women were at higher risk for preterm delivery and lower birth weight (p = 0.017 and p = 0.02; respectively). Appropriate protective measures and early detection of suspected COVID-19 should be addressed for more favorable obstetric outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Patient Acuity , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Retrospective Studies
16.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 142, 2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thrombotic microangiopathy has been invoked as one of the most important mechanisms of damage in COVID-19 patients. Protease ADAMTS13 is a marker of microangiopathy responsible for controlling von Willebrand multimers size. Von Willebrand factor/ADAMTS13 ratio has been found impaired in COVID-19 patients outside pregnancy. METHODS: We prospectively investigated 90 pregnant women admitted to two tertiary academic hospitals in Italy with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Demographic, clinical information and routine laboratory data were collected at the hospital admission and until discharge. We investigated whether vonWillebrand /ADAMTS13 axis imbalance is a predictor of adverse outcomes. Logistic regression analysis, which controlled for potential confounders, was performed to evaluate the association between laboratory parameters and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Most women (55.6%) were parae, with median gestational age at admission of 39 weeks. At hospital admission, 63.3% were asymptomatic for COVID-19 and 24.4% showed more than one sign or symptom of infection. Nulliparae with group O showed Willebrand / ADA MTS-13 ratios significantly lower than non-O, whereas in multiparae this difference was not observed. Logistic regression showed that ratio von Willebrand to ADAMTS13 was significantly and independently associated with preterm delivery (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.1-3.5). CONCLUSION: This study shows an imbalance of vonWillebrand /ADAMTS13 axis in pregnant women with COVID-19, leading to a significantly higher and independent risk of preterm delivery. Monitoring these biomarkers might support decision making process to manage and follow-up pregnancies in this setting.


Subject(s)
ADAMTS13 Protein/blood , COVID-19/blood , Pregnancy Complications/blood , Premature Birth/blood , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism , Academic Medical Centers , Adolescent , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/etiology , Young Adult
17.
J Pediatr ; 242: 238-241.e1, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1679677

ABSTRACT

In this retrospective cohort analysis of Colorado birth certificate records from April to December 2015-2020, we demonstrate that Colorado birthing individuals experienced lower adjusted odds of preterm birth after issuance of coronavirus-19 "stay-at-home" orders. However, this positive birth outcome was experienced only by non-Hispanic white and Hispanic mothers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Quarantine , Adult , Cohort Studies , Colorado/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(5): e35, 2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been the most important global issue since December 2019. Although the clinical course of COVID-19 is known to be milder in children than in adults, associated hospitalizations among children have increased since the emergence of contagious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants and the achievement of a high vaccination rate in adults. Considering these global and domestic situations, we believe that risk stratification in children with COVID-19 is urgently needed for decision making regarding hospitalization priority in children infected with SARS-CoV-2 and vaccination priority against COVID-19. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by comprehensively searching the PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and KoreaMed databases through August 25, 2021. The criteria for enrollment were "severe COVID-19" as poor outcomes (intensive care unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and/or death) and underlying comorbidities before SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Among 872 screened studies, 17 articles were included in the systematic review, and 10 articles were included in the meta-analysis. Neonate (risk ratio [RR], 2.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.83-3.97), prematurity in young infants (RR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.63-2.46), obesity (RR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.24-1.64), diabetes (RR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.95-2.62), chronic lung disease (RR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.71-4.00), heart disease (RR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.58-2.09), neurologic disease (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05-1.33), and immunocompromised status (RR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.01-2.04) were significant risk factors for severe COVID-19 in children. In the subgroup analysis, age younger than 3 months (RR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.11-0.66), asthma (RR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.98-1.20), and neurodevelopmental disorders (RR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.75-1.04) were not risk factors for severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Children with comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes, heart disease, chronic lung diseases other than asthma, seizure disorders, and an immunocompromised status had a high prevalence of severe COVID-19. Neonate and premature infants had a high risk of severe COVID-19. Defining the high-risk group for severe COVID-19 could help to guide hospital admission and priority for vaccination against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Comorbidity , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Premature Birth , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2145800, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669324

ABSTRACT

Importance: Preterm birth, particularly extremely preterm birth, has been associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Research during SARS-CoV-2-related lockdowns revealed reductions in the more severe subtypes of preterm birth in some countries, suggesting the presence of preventable risk factors, such as infectious diseases or social behavior. Seasonality may provide a similar means of assessing natural changes in the daily life of pregnant individuals that were similar to those experienced during the COVID-19 lockdown period. Objective: To evaluate the association between seasonality and extremely preterm birth. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide cohort study included 1 136 143 pregnancies in Denmark with onset between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2016, in which the fetuses survived 21 completed weeks of gestation. Pregnancies were followed up until preterm birth, fetal death, or 37 completed weeks of gestation. Data were analyzed from September 2020 to September 2021. Exposures: Season during gestation (primary exposure) and season of pregnancy onset. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome of extremely preterm birth was defined as a live birth occurring between 22 weeks, 0 days' gestation and 27 weeks, 6 days' gestation. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for season during gestation and season of pregnancy onset, with adjustment for socioeconomic and demographic factors. Results: Among 662 338 pregnant individuals, the median age at pregnancy onset was 30.0 years (IQR, 6.0 years). Of 1 136 143 pregnancies, 2009 extremely preterm births (cumulative incidence, 0.18%) were identified during follow-up. Season during gestation was associated with extremely preterm birth, with cumulative incidences of 0.17% (95% CI, 0.16%-0.19%) in spring, 0.18% (95% CI, 0.17%-0.20%) in summer, 0.20% (95% CI, 0.18%-0.21%) in autumn, and 0.16% (95% CI, 0.14%-0.17%) in winter. Compared with winter, the adjusted HRs (AHRs) for the risk of extremely preterm birth were 1.11 (95% CI, 0.97-1.26) for spring, 1.15 (95% CI, 1.02-1.31) for summer, and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.10-1.42) for autumn. The number of extremely preterm births associated with the increased risk in the spring, summer, and autumn was 56.1 (95% CI, 18.2-99.7), representing 2.8% (95% CI, 0.9%-5.0%) of all extremely preterm births in the study. Season of pregnancy onset was not associated with the risk of extremely preterm birth in spring (AHR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95-1.01) or summer (AHR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.96-1.03) compared with winter, but a slight increase in risk was observed in autumn (AHR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.09) compared with winter. Conclusions and Relevance: In this large, national cohort study, seasonality was associated with 2.8% of all extremely preterm births. Season during gestation was associated with the rate of extremely preterm birth, suggesting the presence of potential risk factors associated with season that may be preventable. Further research to identify risk factors for extremely preterm birth associated with seasonality is warranted.


Subject(s)
Infant, Extremely Premature , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Seasons , Adult , Cohort Studies , Denmark , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Proportional Hazards Models
20.
Pediatr Res ; 91(2): 432-439, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671538

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has had a significant impact worldwide, particularly in middle- and low-income countries. While this impact has been well-recognized in certain age groups, the effects, both direct and indirect, on the neonatal population remain largely unknown. There are placental changes associated, though the contributions to maternal and fetal illness have not been fully determined. The rate of premature delivery has increased and SARS-CoV-2 infection is proportionately higher in premature neonates, which appears to be related to premature delivery for maternal reasons rather than an increase in spontaneous preterm labor. There is much room for expansion, including long-term data on outcomes for affected babies. Though uncommon, there has been evidence of adverse events in neonates, including Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children, associated with COVID-19 (MIS-C). There are recommendations for reduction of viral transmission to neonates, though more research is required to determine the role of passive immunization of the fetus via maternal vaccination. There is now considerable evidence suggesting that the severe visitation restrictions implemented early in the pandemic have negatively impacted the care of the neonate and the experiences of both parents and healthcare professionals alike. Ongoing collaboration is required to determine the full impact, and guidelines for future management. IMPACT: Comprehensive review of current available evidence related to impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on neonates, effects on their health, impact on their quality of care and indirect influences on their clinical course, including comparisons with other age groups. Reference to current evidence for maternal experience of infection and how it impacts the fetus and then neonate. Outline of the need for ongoing research, including specific areas in which there are significant gaps in knowledge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Premature Birth , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications
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