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1.
BJOG ; 129(2): 282-290, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831885

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess associations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and pregnancy outcomes considering testing policy and test-positivity-to-delivery interval. DESIGN: Nationwide cohort study. SETTING: Sweden. POPULATION: From the Pregnancy-Register we identified 88 593 singleton births, 11 March 2020-31 January 2021, linked to data on SARS-CoV-2-positivity from the Public Health Agency, and information on neonatal care admission from the Neonatal Quality Register. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were estimated stratified by testing-policy and test-positivity-to-delivery interval. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Five-minute Apgar score, neonatal care admission, stillbirth and preterm birth. RESULTS: During pregnancy, SARS-CoV-2 test-positivity was 5.4% (794/14 665) under universal testing and 1.9% (1402/73 928) under non-universal testing. There were generally lower risks associated with SARS-CoV-2 under universal than non-universal testing. In women testing positive >10 days from delivery, generally no significant differences in risk were observed under either testing policy. Neonatal care admission was more common (15.3% versus 8.0%; aOR 2.24, 95% CI 1.62-3.11) in women testing positive ≤10 days before delivery under universal testing. There was no significant association with 5-minute Apgar score below 7 (1.0% versus 1.7%; aOR 0.64, 95% CI 0.24-1.72) or stillbirth (0.3% versus 0.4%; aOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.10-5.20). Compared with term births (2.1%), test-positivity was higher in medically indicated preterm birth (5.7%; aOR 2.70, 95% CI 1.60-4.58) but not significantly increased in spontaneous preterm birth (2.3%; aOR 1.12, 95% CI 0.62-2.02). CONCLUSIONS: Testing policy and timing of test-positivity impact associations between SARS-CoV-2-positivity and pregnancy outcomes. Under non-universal testing, women with complications near delivery are more likely to be tested than women without complications, thereby inflating any association with adverse pregnancy outcomes compared with findings under universal testing. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Testing policy and time from SARS-CoV-2 infection to delivery influence the association with pregnancy outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Apgar Score , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Prenatal Care/methods , Prenatal Care/standards , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Sweden/epidemiology
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 761, 2021 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770504

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing spread coronavirus disease worldwide has caused major disruptions and led to lockdowns. Everyday lifestyle changes and antenatal care inaccessibility during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have variable results that affect pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to assess the alterations in stillbirth, neonatal-perinatal mortality, preterm birth, and birth weight during the COVID-19 national lockdown. METHODS: We used the data from the Jordan stillbirths and neonatal death surveillance system to compare pregnancy outcomes (gestational age, birth weight, small for gestational age, stillbirth, neonatal death, and perinatal death) between two studied periods (11 months before the pandemic (May 2019 to March 2020) vs. 9 months during the pandemic (April 2020 to March 1st 2020). Separate multinomial logistic and binary logistic regression models were used to compare the studied outcomes between the two studied periods after adjusting for the effects of mother's age, income, education, occupation, nationality, health sector, and multiplicity. RESULTS: There were 31106 registered babies during the study period; among them, 15311 (49.2%) and 15795 (50.8%) births occurred before and during the COVID-19 lockdown, respectively. We found no significant differences in preterm birth and stillbirth rates, neonatal mortality, or perinatal mortality before and during the COVID-19 lockdown. Our findings report a significantly lower incidence of extreme low birth weight (ELBW) infants (<1kg) during the COVID-19 lockdown period than that before the lockdown (adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.3-0.5: P value <0.001) CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 lockdown period, the number of infants born with extreme low birth weight (ELBW) decreased significantly. More research is needed to determine the impact of cumulative socio-environmental and maternal behavioral changes that occurred during the pandemic on the factors that contribute to ELBW infants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Jordan , Perinatal Mortality , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Stillbirth/epidemiology
4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 658, 2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whilst the impact of Covid-19 infection in pregnant women has been examined, there is a scarcity of data on pregnant women in the Middle East. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the impact of Covid-19 infection on pregnant women in the United Arab Emirates population. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out to compare the clinical course and outcome of pregnancy in 79 pregnant women with Covid-19 and 85 non-pregnant women with Covid-19 admitted to Latifa Hospital in Dubai between March and June 2020. RESULTS: Although Pregnant women presented with fewer symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and shortness of breath compared to non-pregnant women; yet they ran a much more severe course of illness. On admission, 12/79 (15.2%) Vs 2/85 (2.4%) had a chest radiograph score [on a scale 1-6] of ≥3 (p-value = 0.0039). On discharge, 6/79 (7.6%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) had a score ≥3 (p-value = 0.0438). They also had much higher levels of laboratory indicators of severity with values above reference ranges for C-Reactive Protein [(28 (38.3%) Vs 13 (17.6%)] with p < 0.004; and for D-dimer [32 (50.8%) Vs 3(6%)]; with p < 0.001. They required more ICU admissions: 10/79 (12.6%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) with p=0.0036; and suffered more complications: 9/79 (11.4%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) with p=0.0066; of Covid-19 infection, particularly in late pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women presented with fewer Covid-19 symptoms but ran a much more severe course of illness compared to non-pregnant women with the disease. They had worse chest radiograph scores and much higher levels of laboratory indicators of disease severity. They had more ICU admissions and suffered more complications of Covid-19 infection, such as risk for miscarriage and preterm deliveries. Pregnancy with Covid-19 infection, could, therefore, be categorised as high-risk pregnancy and requires management by an obstetric and medical multidisciplinary team.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Radiography, Thoracic , Symptom Assessment , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/etiology , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Radiography, Thoracic/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology
5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 272, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antenatal anxiety has been linked to adverse obstetric outcomes, including miscarriage and preterm birth. However, most studies investigating anxiety during pregnancy, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic, have focused on symptoms during the second and third trimester. This study aims to describe the prevalence of anxiety symptoms early in pregnancy and identify predictors of early pregnancy anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We assessed baseline moderate-to-severe anxiety symptoms after enrollment in the UCSF ASPIRE (Assessing the Safety of Pregnancy in the Coronavirus Pandemic) Prospective Cohort from May 2020 through February 2021. Pregnant persons < 10 weeks' gestation completed questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, obstetric/medical history, and pandemic-related experiences. Univariate and multivariate hierarchical logistic regression analyses determined predictors of moderate or severe anxiety symptoms (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire score ≥ 10). All analyses performed with Statistical Analysis Software (SAS®) version 9.4. RESULTS: A total of 4,303 persons completed the questionnaire. The mean age of this nationwide sample was 33 years of age and 25.7% of participants received care through a fertility clinic. Over twelve percent of pregnant persons reported moderate-to-severe anxiety symptoms. In univariate analysis, less than a college education (p < 0.0001), a pre-existing history of anxiety (p < 0.0001), and a history of prior miscarriage (p = 0.0143) were strong predictors of moderate-to-severe anxiety symptoms. Conversely, having received care at a fertility center was protective (26.6% vs. 25.7%, p = 0.0009). COVID-19 related stressors including job loss, reduced work hours during the pandemic, inability to pay rent, very or extreme worry about COVID-19, and perceived stress were strongly predictive of anxiety in pregnancy (p < 0.0001). In the hierarchical logistic regression model, pre-existing history of anxiety remained associated with anxiety during pregnancy, while the significance of the effect of education was attenuated. CONCLUSION(S): Pre-existing history of anxiety and socioeconomic factors likely exacerbated the impact of pandemic-related stressors on early pregnancy anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite on-going limitations for in-person prenatal care administration, continued emotional health support should remain an important focus for providers, particularly when caring for less privileged pregnant persons or those with a pre-existing history of anxiety.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications , Premature Birth , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
6.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 157(1): 115-120, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756602

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) and iatrogenic preterm birth (IPTB) rates during both waves of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the PregCovid registry of pregnant women with COVID-19 was performed at a dedicated COVID-19 hospital in Mumbai, India. The data of 1630 women were analyzed for this study between April 4, 2020 and July 4, 2021. Prepandemic data were analyzed and compared with pandemic data. Main outcome measure was spontaneous preterm birth rate. RESULTS: Preterm deliveries were higher during the second wave (46/329; 14%) compared with the first wave (82/807; 10.2%) of the COVID-19 pandemic (P = 0.065). Higher SPTBs were reported during the second wave than the first wave (12.5% versus 8.3%) (P = 0.03) as well as the prepandemic period (12.5% versus 10.5%) (P = 0.286). IPTBs were significantly lower in the pandemic period than in the prepandemic period (1.8 versus 3.3) (P = 0.012). CONCLUSION: In Mumbai, India, we found an unusual change in SPTBs during the 6 months of the second wave of COVID-19 compared with the previous 10 months of the first wave of pandemic and 1 year of prepandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2145808, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718195
8.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 166, 2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714652

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes for mother and fetus. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has significantly reduced the risk of symptomatic disease. Several small studies have reported the safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination during pregnancy, with no adverse effect on obstetric outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between SARS-CoV-2 vaccination during pregnancy and maternal and neonatal outcomes in a large cohort study. Furthermore, to evaluate if timing of vaccination during pregnancy is related to adverse outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of women who delivered between December 2020 and July 2021 at a large tertiary medical center. Excluded were women with multiple pregnancy, vaccination prior to pregnancy, COVID-19 infection during or before pregnancy, or unknown timing of vaccination. Primary outcomes were the incidence of preterm labor and of small for gestational age. Secondary outcomes were other maternal and neonatal complications. A secondary analysis investigating the association between time of vaccination and outcomes was also performed. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to adjust for potential confounders. RESULTS: There were 5618 women who met the inclusion criteria: 2,305 (41%) women were vaccinated and 3,313 (59%) were unvaccinated. There were no differences between vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients with respect to primary outcomes. The rate of preterm birth was 5.5% in the vaccinated group compared to 6.2% in the unvaccinated group (p = 0.31). Likewise, the rates of small for gestational age were comparable between the two groups (6.2% vs. 7.0% respectively, p = 0.2). In a secondary analysis focusing on time of vaccination and its relationship with outcomes, patients vaccinated in the second trimester (n = 964) and in the third trimester (n = 1329) were independently compared to their unvaccinated counterparts. Women who were vaccinated in the second trimester were more likely to have a preterm birth (8.1% vs. 6.2%, p < 0.001). This association persisted after adjusting for potential confounders (adjusted odds ratio 1.49, 95%CI 1.11, 2.01). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 vaccine appears to be safe during pregnancy with no increase in incidence of preterm labor and small for gestational age compared to unvaccinated women. However, in women vaccinated during the second trimester there may be an increase in the rate of preterm birth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Patient Safety , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Vaccination , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Trimesters , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Time Factors
9.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 101(4): 461-470, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714124

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is a lack of population level data on risk factors and impact of severe COVID-19 in pregnancy. The aims of this study were to determine the characteristics, and maternal and perinatal outcomes associated with severe COVID-19 in pregnancy compared with those with mild and moderate COVID-19 and to explore the impact of timing of birth. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a national, prospective cohort study. All pregnant women admitted to hospital in the UK with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 from March 1, 2020 to October 31, 2021 were included. The severity of maternal infection (need for high flow or invasive ventilation, intensive care admission or died), pregnancy and perinatal outcomes, and the impact of timing of birth were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 4436 pregnant women, 13.9% (n = 616) had severe infection. Women with severe infection were more likely to be aged ≥30 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] aged 30-39 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-1.83), be overweight or obese (aOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.34-2.25 and aOR 2.52 95% CI 1.97-3.23, respectively), be of mixed ethnicity (aOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.17-3.21) or have gestational diabetes (aOR 1.43, 95% CI 1.09-1.87) compared with those with mild or moderate infection. Women with severe infection were more likely to have a pre-labor cesarean birth (aOR 8.84, 95% CI 6.61-11.83), a very or extreme preterm birth (28-31+ weeks' gestation, aOR 18.97, 95% CI 7.78-14.85; <28 weeks' gestation, aOR 12.35, 95% CI 6.34-24.05) and their babies were more likely to be stillborn (aOR 2.51, 95% CI 1.35-4.66) or admitted to a neonatal unit (aOR 11.61, 95% CI 9.28-14.52). Of 112 women with severe infection who were discharged and gave birth at a later admission, the majority gave birth ≥36 weeks (85.7%), noting that three women in this group (2.7%) had a stillbirth. CONCLUSIONS: Severe COVID-19 in pregnancy increases the risk of adverse outcomes. Information to promote uptake of vaccination should specifically target those at greatest risk of severe outcomes. Decisions about timing of birth should be informed by multidisciplinary team discussion; however, our data suggest that women with severe infection who do not require early delivery have mostly good outcomes but that those with severe infection at term may warrant rapid delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
10.
Anaesthesia ; 77(4): 389-397, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714113

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, few studies have reported anaesthetic outcomes in parturients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We reviewed the labour analgesic and anaesthetic interventions utilised in symptomatic and asymptomatic parturients who had a confirmed positive test for SARS-CoV-2 across 10 hospitals in the north-west of England between 1 April 2020 and 31 May 2021. Primary outcomes analysed included the analgesic/anaesthetic technique utilised for labour and caesarean birth. Secondary outcomes included a comparison of maternal characteristics, caesarean birth rate, maternal critical care admission rate along with adverse composite neonatal outcomes. A positive SARS-CoV-2 test was recorded in 836 parturients with 263 (31.4%) reported to have symptoms of COVID-19. Neuraxial labour analgesia was utilised in 104 (20.4%) of the 509 parturients who went on to have a vaginal birth. No differences in epidural analgesia rates were observed between symptomatic and asymptomatic parturients (OR 1.03, 95%CI 0.64-1.67; p = 0.90). The neuraxial anaesthesia rate in 310 parturients who underwent caesarean delivery was 94.2% (95%CI 90.6-96.0%). The rates of general anaesthesia were similar in symptomatic and asymptomatic parturients (6% vs. 5.7%; p = 0.52). Symptomatic parturients were more likely to be multiparous (OR 1.64, 95%CI 1.19-2.22; p = 0.002); of Asian ethnicity (OR 1.54, 1.04-2.28; p = 0.03); to deliver prematurely (OR 2.16, 95%CI 1.47-3.19; p = 0.001); have a higher caesarean birth rate (44.5% vs. 33.7%; OR 1.57, 95%CI 1.16-2.12; p = 0.008); and a higher critical care utilisation rate both pre- (8% vs. 0%, p = 0.001) and post-delivery (11% vs. 3.5%; OR 3.43, 95%CI 1.83-6.52; p = 0.001). Eight neonates tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 while no differences in adverse composite neonatal outcomes were observed between those born to symptomatic and asymptomatic mothers (25.8% vs. 23.8%; OR 1.11, 95%CI 0.78-1.57; p = 0.55). In women with COVID-19, non-neuraxial analgesic regimens were commonly utilised for labour while neuraxial anaesthesia was employed for the majority of caesarean births. Symptomatic women with COVID-19 are at increased risk of significant maternal morbidity including preterm birth, caesarean birth and peripartum critical care admission.


Subject(s)
Analgesia, Obstetrical , COVID-19 , Labor, Obstetric , Premature Birth , Analgesia, Obstetrical/methods , Anesthesia, General , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3024, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707237

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women with COVID-19 require special attention and care, since the infection does not only affect the mother, but also her neonate and adversely affects pregnancy outcomes. The main goal of this retrospective cohort study is to investigate association between the maternal COVID-19 severity and risk of developing adverse neonatal outcomes. Patients were stratified into asymptomatic/mild and moderate to severe COVID-19. The following neonatal outcomes were assessed: gestational age at the time of delivery, birth weight, neonatal infection, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. The average age of patients was 28.5 ± 1.4 years old and majority were multigravida (74.0%, n = 148). Of total 200 pregnant women with COVID-19, 26.5% (n = 53) had moderate/severe disease and presented with higher incidence of preterm delivery and low birth weight (88.7%, n = 47; p < 0.001). In addition, more than half of the newborns delivered by mothers with severe disease were infected by SARS-COV-2 (58.5%, n = 31) and majority were admitted to the NICU (95.0%, n = 52). Based on the multivariate logistic regression analysis, pregnant women with moderate to severe COVID-19 were at much higher risk of preterm delivery, lower birth weight, neonatal infection, as well as neonatal ICU admission (p < 0.001). In addition, multigravida women were at higher risk for preterm delivery and lower birth weight (p = 0.017 and p = 0.02; respectively). Appropriate protective measures and early detection of suspected COVID-19 should be addressed for more favorable obstetric outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Patient Acuity , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Retrospective Studies
12.
J Pediatr ; 242: 238-241.e1, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1679677

ABSTRACT

In this retrospective cohort analysis of Colorado birth certificate records from April to December 2015-2020, we demonstrate that Colorado birthing individuals experienced lower adjusted odds of preterm birth after issuance of coronavirus-19 "stay-at-home" orders. However, this positive birth outcome was experienced only by non-Hispanic white and Hispanic mothers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Quarantine , Adult , Cohort Studies , Colorado/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2145800, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669324

ABSTRACT

Importance: Preterm birth, particularly extremely preterm birth, has been associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Research during SARS-CoV-2-related lockdowns revealed reductions in the more severe subtypes of preterm birth in some countries, suggesting the presence of preventable risk factors, such as infectious diseases or social behavior. Seasonality may provide a similar means of assessing natural changes in the daily life of pregnant individuals that were similar to those experienced during the COVID-19 lockdown period. Objective: To evaluate the association between seasonality and extremely preterm birth. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide cohort study included 1 136 143 pregnancies in Denmark with onset between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2016, in which the fetuses survived 21 completed weeks of gestation. Pregnancies were followed up until preterm birth, fetal death, or 37 completed weeks of gestation. Data were analyzed from September 2020 to September 2021. Exposures: Season during gestation (primary exposure) and season of pregnancy onset. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome of extremely preterm birth was defined as a live birth occurring between 22 weeks, 0 days' gestation and 27 weeks, 6 days' gestation. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for season during gestation and season of pregnancy onset, with adjustment for socioeconomic and demographic factors. Results: Among 662 338 pregnant individuals, the median age at pregnancy onset was 30.0 years (IQR, 6.0 years). Of 1 136 143 pregnancies, 2009 extremely preterm births (cumulative incidence, 0.18%) were identified during follow-up. Season during gestation was associated with extremely preterm birth, with cumulative incidences of 0.17% (95% CI, 0.16%-0.19%) in spring, 0.18% (95% CI, 0.17%-0.20%) in summer, 0.20% (95% CI, 0.18%-0.21%) in autumn, and 0.16% (95% CI, 0.14%-0.17%) in winter. Compared with winter, the adjusted HRs (AHRs) for the risk of extremely preterm birth were 1.11 (95% CI, 0.97-1.26) for spring, 1.15 (95% CI, 1.02-1.31) for summer, and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.10-1.42) for autumn. The number of extremely preterm births associated with the increased risk in the spring, summer, and autumn was 56.1 (95% CI, 18.2-99.7), representing 2.8% (95% CI, 0.9%-5.0%) of all extremely preterm births in the study. Season of pregnancy onset was not associated with the risk of extremely preterm birth in spring (AHR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95-1.01) or summer (AHR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.96-1.03) compared with winter, but a slight increase in risk was observed in autumn (AHR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.09) compared with winter. Conclusions and Relevance: In this large, national cohort study, seasonality was associated with 2.8% of all extremely preterm births. Season during gestation was associated with the rate of extremely preterm birth, suggesting the presence of potential risk factors associated with season that may be preventable. Further research to identify risk factors for extremely preterm birth associated with seasonality is warranted.


Subject(s)
Infant, Extremely Premature , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Seasons , Adult , Cohort Studies , Denmark , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Proportional Hazards Models
14.
Clin Perinatol ; 49(1): 73-92, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654219

ABSTRACT

Maternal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can present with or without symptoms at the time of birth. Symptomatic mothers are more likely be associated with preterm births. Population studies demonstrate a consistent association of SARS-CoV-2 infection and a reduction in preterm birth rate. Newborns with positive SARS-CoV-2 test results appear to have minimal burden of illness that is directly associated with a viral infection. Neonatal mortality directly related to SARS-CoV-2 is extremely rare. Maternal vaccination in pregnant women leads to maternal antibody production, and this can occur as early as 5 days after the first vaccination dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 51, 2022 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lockdowns, pregnant women's fear from hospitalization in addition to uncertainties about appropriate birthing practices at the beginning of the pandemic may have affected the health outcomes of mother-infant couples. We aimed to explore whether pregnancy outcomes including the rates of cesarean delivery (CS), preterm, and low birth weight (LBW) births have changed during the pandemic period compared with the pre-pandemic period. METHODS: We applied a population-based retrospective cohort, before-after approach in 2020 vs. similar calendar months in 2019 for five periods [Jan-Feb (pre-pandemic); March-May (1st wave and lockdown); June-August; September-October; November-December (2nd wave and lockdown)]. The data was modelled through multiple logistic regressions using key outcomes; CS, preterm, and LBW births as the dependent variables, and adjustments were made for independent variables in SPSS software. We evaluated the modification of years by periods by adding interaction term (yearXperiod) to the model. RESULTS: The rate of CS in hospital births increased from 57.7% in 2019 to 60.2% in 2020. CS rates were significantly increased during the 3rd and 4th periods. The overall preterm rate was 11%. When singleton pregnancies were considered, adjusted multivariable analyses showed a decrease in preterm proportions during all time periods with respect to the pre-pandemic period. The percentage of LBW was 7.7% during the pandemic period and was found to be significantly reduced compared to the pre-pandemic period. There was a significant reduction in LBW rates in all periods except the second lockdown period. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested significant reductions in preterm and LBW births possibly due to the indirect effects of the pandemic. Moreover, strategies need to be considered to address the increased CS rates and shifting of maternity service utilization to private facilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Adult , Cohort Studies , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Logistic Models , Pregnancy , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Turkey/epidemiology
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 942, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639062

ABSTRACT

There is conflicting evidence regarding the effect of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in pregnancy. Risk factors for COVID-19 overlap with risk factors for pregnancy complications. We aimed to assess the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection on pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective interrupted time-series and matched cohort analysis was performed. Singleton pregnancies completed between 1st January 2016 and 31st January 2021 were included. Trends in outcomes were analysed over time. Modelled COVID-19 transmission data were applied to deliveries since 1st January 2020 to assign a risk of COVID-19 to each pregnancy, and incorporated into a regression model of birthweight. Confirmed COVID-19 cases were matched to controls delivered in the pre-pandemic period, and maternal and neonatal outcomes compared. 43,802 pregnancies were included, with 8343 in the model of birthweight. There was no increase in the risk of stillbirth (p = 0.26) or neonatal death (p = 0.64) during the pandemic. There was no association between modelled COVID-19 attack rate (%) in any trimester and birthweight (first trimester p = 0.50, second p = 0.15, third p = 0.16). 214 COVID-positive women were matched to controls. Preterm birth was more common in symptomatic cases (14/62, 22.6%) compared to asymptomatic cases (9/109, 8.3%, p = 0.008) and controls (5/62, 8.1%, p = 0.025). Iatrogenic preterm birth was more common in cases (21/214, 9.8%) than controls (9/214, 4.2%, p = 0.02). All other examined outcomes were similar between groups. There was no significant impact of COVID-19 on the examined birth outcomes available. Symptomatic COVID-19 should be considered a risk factor for preterm birth, possibly due to an increase in iatrogenic deliveries for maternal indications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Models, Biological , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Stillbirth/epidemiology
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(1): 26-30, 2022 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606176

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines are recommended during pregnancy to prevent severe maternal morbidity and adverse birth outcomes; however, vaccination coverage among pregnant women has been low (1). Concerns among pregnant women regarding vaccine safety are a persistent barrier to vaccine acceptance during pregnancy. Previous studies of maternal COVID-19 vaccination and birth outcomes have been limited by small sample size (2) or lack of an unvaccinated comparison group (3). In this retrospective cohort study of live births from eight Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) health care organizations, risks for preterm birth (<37 weeks' gestation) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) at birth (birthweight <10th percentile for gestational age) after COVID-19 vaccination (receipt of ≥1 COVID-19 vaccine doses) during pregnancy were evaluated. Risks for preterm and SGA at birth among vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant women were compared, accounting for time-dependent vaccine exposures and propensity to be vaccinated. Single-gestation pregnancies with estimated start or last menstrual period during May 17-October 24, 2020, were eligible for inclusion. Among 46,079 pregnant women with live births and gestational age available, 10,064 (21.8%) received ≥1 COVID-19 vaccine doses during pregnancy and during December 15, 2020-July 22, 2021; nearly all (9,892; 98.3%) were vaccinated during the second or third trimester. COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy was not associated with preterm birth (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.82-1.01). Among 40,627 live births with birthweight available, COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy was not associated with SGA at birth (aHR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.87-1.03). Results consistently showed no increased risk when stratified by mRNA COVID-19 vaccine dose, or by second or third trimester vaccination, compared with risk among unvaccinated pregnant women. Because of the small number of first-trimester exposures, aHRs for first-trimester vaccination could not be calculated. These data add to the evidence supporting the safety of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy. To reduce the risk for severe COVID-19-associated illness, CDC recommends COVID-19 vaccination for women who are pregnant, recently pregnant (including those who are lactating), who are trying to become pregnant now, or who might become pregnant in the future (4).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Infant, Premature , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
BJOG ; 129(2): 282-290, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598371

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess associations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and pregnancy outcomes considering testing policy and test-positivity-to-delivery interval. DESIGN: Nationwide cohort study. SETTING: Sweden. POPULATION: From the Pregnancy-Register we identified 88 593 singleton births, 11 March 2020-31 January 2021, linked to data on SARS-CoV-2-positivity from the Public Health Agency, and information on neonatal care admission from the Neonatal Quality Register. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were estimated stratified by testing-policy and test-positivity-to-delivery interval. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Five-minute Apgar score, neonatal care admission, stillbirth and preterm birth. RESULTS: During pregnancy, SARS-CoV-2 test-positivity was 5.4% (794/14 665) under universal testing and 1.9% (1402/73 928) under non-universal testing. There were generally lower risks associated with SARS-CoV-2 under universal than non-universal testing. In women testing positive >10 days from delivery, generally no significant differences in risk were observed under either testing policy. Neonatal care admission was more common (15.3% versus 8.0%; aOR 2.24, 95% CI 1.62-3.11) in women testing positive ≤10 days before delivery under universal testing. There was no significant association with 5-minute Apgar score below 7 (1.0% versus 1.7%; aOR 0.64, 95% CI 0.24-1.72) or stillbirth (0.3% versus 0.4%; aOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.10-5.20). Compared with term births (2.1%), test-positivity was higher in medically indicated preterm birth (5.7%; aOR 2.70, 95% CI 1.60-4.58) but not significantly increased in spontaneous preterm birth (2.3%; aOR 1.12, 95% CI 0.62-2.02). CONCLUSIONS: Testing policy and timing of test-positivity impact associations between SARS-CoV-2-positivity and pregnancy outcomes. Under non-universal testing, women with complications near delivery are more likely to be tested than women without complications, thereby inflating any association with adverse pregnancy outcomes compared with findings under universal testing. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Testing policy and time from SARS-CoV-2 infection to delivery influence the association with pregnancy outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Apgar Score , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Prenatal Care/methods , Prenatal Care/standards , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Sweden/epidemiology
19.
BJOG ; 129(2): 221-231, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592912

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this article was to describe SARS-CoV-2 infection among pregnant women during the wild-type and Alpha-variant periods in Italy. The secondary aim was to compare the impact of the virus variants on the severity of maternal and perinatal outcomes. DESIGN: National population-based prospective cohort study. SETTING: A total of 315 Italian maternity hospitals. SAMPLE: A cohort of 3306 women with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed within 7 days of hospital admission. METHODS: Cases were prospectively reported by trained clinicians for each participating maternity unit. Data were described by univariate and multivariate analyses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: COVID-19 pneumonia, ventilatory support, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mode of delivery, preterm birth, stillbirth, and maternal and neonatal mortality. RESULTS: We found that 64.3% of the cohort was asymptomatic, 12.8% developed COVID-19 pneumonia and 3.3% required ventilatory support and/or ICU admission. Maternal age of 30-34 years (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.09-1.87) and ≥35 years (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.23-2.13), citizenship of countries with high migration pressure (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.36-2.25), previous comorbidities (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.13-1.98) and obesity (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.29-2.27) were all associated with a higher occurrence of pneumonia. The preterm birth rate was 11.1%. In comparison with the pre-pandemic period, stillbirths and maternal and neonatal deaths remained stable. The need for ventilatory support and/or ICU admission among women with pneumonia increased during the Alpha-variant period compared with the wild-type period (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.99-5.28). CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with a low risk of severe COVID-19 disease among pregnant women and with rare adverse perinatal outcomes. During the Alpha-variant period there was a significant increase of severe COVID-19 illness. Further research is needed to describe the impact of different SARS-CoV-2 viral strains on maternal and perinatal outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Maternity/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Obstet Gynecol ; 138(4): 603-615, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591562

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To perform a literature review of key aspects of prenatal care delivery to inform new guidelines. DATA SOURCES: A comprehensive review of Ovid MEDLINE, Elsevier's Scopus, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: We included studies addressing components of prenatal care delivery (visit frequency, routine pregnancy assessments, and telemedicine) that assessed maternal and neonatal health outcomes, patient experience, or care utilization in pregnant individuals with and without medical conditions. Quality was assessed using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Methodology approach. Articles were independently reviewed by at least two members of the study team for inclusion and data abstraction. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Of the 4,105 published abstracts identified, 53 studies met inclusion criteria, totaling 140,150 participants. There were no differences in maternal and neonatal outcomes among patients without medical conditions with reduced visit frequency schedules. For patients at risk of preterm birth, increased visit frequency with enhanced prenatal services was inconsistently associated with improved outcomes. Home monitoring of blood pressure and weight was feasible, but home monitoring of fetal heart tones and fundal height were not assessed. More frequent weight measurement did not lower rates of excessive weight gain. Home monitoring of blood pressure for individuals with medical conditions was feasible, accurate, and associated with lower clinic utilization. There were no differences in health outcomes for patients without medical conditions who received telemedicine visits for routine prenatal care, and patients had decreased care utilization. Telemedicine was a successful strategy for consultations among individuals with medical conditions; resulted in improved outcomes for patients with depression, diabetes, and hypertension; and had inconsistent results for patients with obesity and those at risk of preterm birth. CONCLUSION: Existing evidence for many components of prenatal care delivery, including visit frequency, routine pregnancy assessments, and telemedicine, is limited.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/methods , Prenatal Care/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn , Michigan , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods
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