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2.
J Infect Dis ; 225(5): 759-767, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been associated with increased risk of adverse perinatal health outcomes, few large-scale, community-based epidemiological studies have been conducted. METHODS: We conducted a national cohort study using deidentified administrative claims data for 78 283 pregnancies with estimated conception before 30 April 2020 and pregnancy end after 11 March 2020. We identified SARS-CoV-2 infections using diagnostic and laboratory testing data, and compared the risk of pregnancy outcomes using Cox proportional hazard models treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a time-varying exposure and adjusting for baseline covariates. RESULTS: Of the pregnancies, 2655 (3.4%) had a documented SARS-CoV-2 infection. COVID-19 during pregnancy was not associated with risk of miscarriage, antepartum hemorrhage, or stillbirth, but was associated with 2-3 fold higher risk of induced abortion (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-5.78), cesarean delivery (aHR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.71-2.31), clinician-initiated preterm birth (aHR, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.93-4.30), spontaneous preterm birth (aHR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.37-2.34), and fetal growth restriction (aHR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.72-2.43). CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Prevention could have fetal health benefits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/virology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 801, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is dearth of information on COVID-19's impact on pregnant women. However, literature reported trends of COVID-19 differ, depending on the presence of clinical features upon presentation. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to assess differences in risk factors, management, complications, and pregnancy and perinatal outcomes in symptomatic vs. asymptomatic pregnant women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: A search was run on electronic databases to identify studies reporting COVID-19 in pregnancy. Meta-analysis was performed and odds ratios and mean difference with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Review Manager 5.4. Review Prospero registration number CRD42020204662. RESULTS: We included ten articles reporting data from 3158 pregnancies; with 1900 symptomatic and 1258 asymptomatic pregnant women. There was no significant difference in the mean age, gestational age, and body mass index between the two groups. The meta-analysis suggested that pregnant women who were obese (OR:1.37;95%CI:1.15 to 1.62), hypertensive (OR:2.07;95%CI:1.38 to 3.10) or had a respiratory disorder (OR:1.64;95%CI:1.25 to 2.16), were more likely to be symptomatic when infected with SARS-CoV-2. Pregnant women with Black (OR:1.48;95%CI:1.19 to 1.85) or Asian (OR:1.64;95%CI:1.23 to 2.18) ethnicity were more likely to be symptomatic while those with White ethnicity (OR:0.63;95%CI:0.52 to 0.76) were more likely to be asymptomatic. Cesarean-section delivery (OR:1.40;95%CI:1.17 to 1.67) was more likely amongst symptomatic pregnant women. The mean birthweight(g) (MD:240.51;95%CI:188.42 to 293.51), was significantly lower, while the odds of low birthweight (OR:1.85;95%CI:1.06 to 3.24) and preterm birth (< 37 weeks) (OR:2.10;95%CI:1.04 to 4.23) was higher amongst symptomatic pregnant women. Symptomatic pregnant women had a greater requirement for maternal ICU admission (OR:13.25;95%CI:5.60 to 31.34) and mechanical ventilation (OR:15.56;95%CI:2.96 to 81.70) while their neonates had a higher likelihood for Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admission (OR:1.96;95%CI:1.59 to 2.43). The management strategies in the included studies were poorly discussed, hence could not be analyzed. CONCLUSION: The evidence suggests that the presence of risk factors (co-morbidities and ethnicity) increased the likelihood of pregnant women being symptomatic. Higher odds of complications were also observed amongst symptomatic pregnant women. However, more adequately conducted studies with adjusted analysis and parallel comparison groups are required to reach conclusive findings.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Delivery, Obstetric/adverse effects , Female , Fetal Death , Gestational Age , Global Health , Humans , Infant, Premature , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/ethnology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnant Women , Premature Birth/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5505-5514, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363687

ABSTRACT

The impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women and their neonates is an area of research interest nowadays. To date, there is limited knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 prevalence, maternal and perinatal outcomes of pregnant women at term in middle- and low-income countries. In the present retro-prospective study, medical records of pregnant women admitted for delivery were reviewed from the largest Covid-19 dedicated Shri Maharaja Gulab Singh (SMGS) maternity hospital. The SARS-CoV-2 screening was carried out for all pregnant women admitted for delivery using RT-PCR. All neonates born from SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers were isolated and tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Most of the pregnant women (90.6%) were asymptomatic at the time of admission with a low prevalence (3.4%) of SARS-CoV-2. A higher rate of asymptomatic prevalence (86.1%) was found among SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnant women. On the basis of the RT-PCR result (negative vs. positive), statistically significant differences were found for maternal characteristics, such as mean gestational age (37.5 ± 2.2 vs. 36.6 ± 3.3), medical comorbidity (2.9% vs. 7.4%), and maternal outcomes like the C-section rate (29.8% vs. 58.3%), preterm delivery (14.6% vs. 28.3), and neonatal outcomes like mean birth weight (2840 ± 450 vs. 2600 ± 600), low Apgar score (2.7% vs. 6.48%), and fetal distress (10.9% vs. 22.2%) among SARS-CoV-2 negative and positive cases, respectively. No neonate from SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnant women was found to be positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fetal Distress/epidemiology , Fetal Distress/virology , Gestational Age , Hospitals, Maternity , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/virology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
6.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254875, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344151

ABSTRACT

Evidence for the real impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on preterm birth is unclear, as available series report composite pregnancy outcomes and/or do not stratify patients according to disease severity. The purpose of the research was to determine the real impact of asymptomatic/mild SARS-CoV-2 infection on preterm birth not due to maternal respiratory failure. This case-control study involved women admitted to Sant Anna Hospital, Turin, for delivery between 20 September 2020 and 9 January 2021. The cumulative incidence of Coronavirus disease-19 was compared between preterm birth (case group, n = 102) and full-term delivery (control group, n = 127). Only women with spontaneous or medically-indicated preterm birth because of placental vascular malperfusion (pregnancy-related hypertension and its complications) were included. Current or past SARS-CoV-2 infection was determined by nasopharyngeal swab testing and detection of IgM/IgG antibodies in blood samples. A significant difference in the cumulative incidence of Coronavirus disease-19 between the case (21/102, 20.5%) and the control group (32/127, 25.1%) (P= 0.50) was not observed, although the case group was burdened by a higher prevalence of three known risk factors (body mass index > 24.9, asthma, chronic hypertension) for severe Coronavirus disease-19. Logistic regression analysis showed that asymptomatic/mild SARS-CoV-2 infection was not an independent predictor of spontaneous and medically-indicated preterm birth due to pregnancy-related hypertension and its complications (0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-1.43). Pregnant patients without comorbidities need to be reassured that asymptomatic/mild SARS-CoV-2 infection does not increase the risk of preterm delivery. Preterm birth and severe Coronavirus disease-19 share common risk factors (i.e., body mass index > 24.9, asthma, chronic hypertension), which may explain the high rate of indicated preterm birth due to maternal conditions reported in the literature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Carrier State/immunology , Premature Birth/immunology , Abortion, Spontaneous , Adult , Carrier State/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Placenta/physiopathology , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
7.
Placenta ; 112: 97-104, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333705

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Pregnant women with covid-19 are more likely to experience preterm birth. The virus seems to be associated with a wide range of placental lesions, none of them specific. METHOD: We collected cases of Covid-19 maternal infection during pregnancy associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, for which we received the placenta. We studied clinical data and described pathological findings of placenta and post-mortem examination of fetuses. We performed an immunohistochemical study and RT-PCR of SARS-Cov-2 on placenta samples. RESULTS: We report 5 cases of poor fetal outcome, 3 fetal deaths and 2 extreme premature neonates, one with growth restriction, without clinical and biological sign of SARS-Cov-2 infection. All placenta presented massive perivillous fibrin deposition and large intervillous thrombi associated with strong SARS-Cov-2 expression in trophoblast and SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity in amniotic fluid or on placenta samples. Chronic histiocytic intervillositis was present in 4/5 cases. Placental ultrasound was abnormal and the sFLT1-PIGF ratio was increased in one case. Timing between mothers' infection and the poor fetal outcome was ≤10 days in 4 cases. The massive placental damage are directly induced by the virus whose receptors are expressed on trophoblast, leading to trophoblast necrosis and massive inflammation in villous chamber, in a similar way it occurs in diffuse alveolar damage in adults infected by SARS-Cov-2. DISCUSSION: SARS-Cov-2 can be associated to a rare set of placental lesions which can lead to fetal demise, preterm birth, or growth restriction. Stronger surveillance of mothers infected by SARS-Cov-2 is required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Placenta Diseases/etiology , Premature Birth/etiology , Stillbirth , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Fetal Death/etiology , France , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Perinatal Death/etiology , Placenta/pathology , Placenta/virology , Placenta Diseases/diagnosis , Placenta Diseases/pathology , Placenta Diseases/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/pathology , Premature Birth/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Trophoblasts/pathology , Trophoblasts/virology
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13898, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298848

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women may be at higher risk of severe complications associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which may lead to obstetrical complications. We performed a case control study comparing pregnant women with severe coronavirus disease 19 (cases) to pregnant women with a milder form (controls) enrolled in the COVI-Preg international registry cohort between March 24 and July 26, 2020. Risk factors for severity, obstetrical and immediate neonatal outcomes were assessed. A total of 926 pregnant women with a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 were included, among which 92 (9.9%) presented with severe COVID-19 disease. Risk factors for severe maternal outcomes were pulmonary comorbidities [aOR 4.3, 95% CI 1.9-9.5], hypertensive disorders [aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0-7.0] and diabetes [aOR2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.5]. Pregnant women with severe maternal outcomes were at higher risk of caesarean section [70.7% (n = 53/75)], preterm delivery [62.7% (n = 32/51)] and newborns requiring admission to the neonatal intensive care unit [41.3% (n = 31/75)]. In this study, several risk factors for developing severe complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection among pregnant women were identified including pulmonary comorbidities, hypertensive disorders and diabetes. Obstetrical and neonatal outcomes appear to be influenced by the severity of maternal disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/virology , Risk Factors
10.
J Glob Health ; 11: 05018, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We determined the clinical presentation, risk factors, and pregnancy and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19 and identified if these are different based on COVID-19 severity. METHODS: We included all observational studies on pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19 reporting clinical presentation, risk factors, and pregnancy and perinatal outcomes. We included all studies published between Dec/2019-Feb/2021 in Medline, Embase, the WHO COVID-19 databases, and clinicaltrials.gov. The methodological quality of cohort and case-series was assessed using NHLBI criteria. RESULTS: 31 016 pregnant women from 62 studies were included. Women were an average of 30.9 years of age, most (77.7%) were in the third trimester, and 16.4% developed severe COVID-19. Nearly half were asymptomatic, while the most commonly reported symptoms were cough, fever, fatigue, and anosmia/ageusia. About 7% were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), 8% required mechanical ventilation, and 2% of the women died. Almost 80% of women delivered; 48.4% had cesarean births. Among newborns, 23.4% were preterm (<37 weeks), 16.6% were low birth weight, and 23.7% were admitted to neonatal ICU. A total of 21 stillbirths (1.6%) and 24 neonatal deaths (1.6%) were recorded, while 50 babies (3.5%) were COVID-19 positive. Studies comparing pregnant women with severe and non-severe COVID-19 showed that women with severe COVID-19 were 3.7 years older and the risk of severe COVID-19 was 1.5 times higher among women >35 years. The risk of severe COVID-19 was significantly higher among women who were obese, had smoked, diabetic, and had pre-eclampsia. The risk of preterm birth was almost 2.4 folds among women with severe COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Our review suggests a heightened risk of COVID-19 severity and adverse pregnancy and perinatal outcomes among women with certain demographic and health profiles. These findings can inform the formation of current guidelines; however, these should be constantly updated as the global COVID-19 scenario unfolds. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO: CRD42020182048.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Premature Birth/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , Premature Birth/epidemiology
11.
CMAJ ; 193(22): E813-E822, 2021 05 31.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249582

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTE: La nature exacte des répercussions de la maladie à coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) sur la santé maternelle et néonatale reste à préciser. Nous avons cherché à évaluer l'association entre l'infection par le coronavirus du syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère 2 (SRAS-CoV-2) pendant la grossesse et les issues défavorables de la grossesse. MÉTHODES: Nous avons réalisé une revue systématique et une méta-analyse d'études observationnelles fournissant des données comparatives sur l'infection par le SRAS-CoV-2 et la gravité de la COVID-19 pendant la grossesse. Nous avons sélectionné les études admissibles à partir des bases de données MEDLINE, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, medRxiv et Cochrane au 29 janvier 2021, en utilisant les Medical Subject Headings (vedettes matière en médecine) et les expressions clés « severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 OR SARS-CoV-2 OR coronavirus disease 2019 OR COVID-19 ¼ (coronavirus du syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère 2 ou SRAS-CoV-2 ou maladie à coronavirus 2019 ou COVID-19) AND « pregnancy ¼ (grossesse). Nous avons ensuite évalué la qualité méthodologique de toutes les études retenues avec l'échelle de Newcastle­Ottawa. Les issues primaires étaient la prééclampsie et la naissance prématurée. Les issues secondaires incluaient la mortinaissance et le diabète gestationnel, ainsi que d'autres issues de grossesse. Nous avons calculé des rapports de cotes (RC) sommaires ou des différences moyennes pondérées avec des intervalles de confiance (IC) à 95 % par méta-analyse à effets aléatoires. RÉSULTATS: Nous avons retenu 42 études portant sur 438 548 personnes enceintes. Comparativement à une absence d'infection par le SRAS-CoV-2 pendant la grossesse, le diagnostic de COVID-19 a été associé à la prééclampsie (RC 1,33; IC à 95 % 1,03­1,73), à la naissance prématurée (RC 1,82; IC à 95 % 1,38­2,39) et à la mortinaissance (RC 2,11; IC à 95 % 1,14­3,90). Par rapport à la COVID-19 légère, la COVID-19 grave était fortement associée à la prééclampsie (RC 4,16; IC à 95 % 1,55­11,15), à la naissance prématurée (RC 4,29; IC à 95 % 2,41­7,63), au diabète gestationnel (RC 1,99; IC à 95 % 1,09­3,64) et au faible poids à la naissance (RC 1,89; IC à 95 % 1,14­3,12). INTERPRÉTATION: La COVID-19 pourrait être associée à un risque accru de prééclampsie, de naissance prématurée et d'autres issues défavorables de la grossesse.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Diabetes, Gestational/virology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Pre-Eclampsia/diagnosis , Pre-Eclampsia/virology , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/diagnosis , Premature Birth/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Stillbirth
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5505-5514, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222643

ABSTRACT

The impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women and their neonates is an area of research interest nowadays. To date, there is limited knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 prevalence, maternal and perinatal outcomes of pregnant women at term in middle- and low-income countries. In the present retro-prospective study, medical records of pregnant women admitted for delivery were reviewed from the largest Covid-19 dedicated Shri Maharaja Gulab Singh (SMGS) maternity hospital. The SARS-CoV-2 screening was carried out for all pregnant women admitted for delivery using RT-PCR. All neonates born from SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers were isolated and tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Most of the pregnant women (90.6%) were asymptomatic at the time of admission with a low prevalence (3.4%) of SARS-CoV-2. A higher rate of asymptomatic prevalence (86.1%) was found among SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnant women. On the basis of the RT-PCR result (negative vs. positive), statistically significant differences were found for maternal characteristics, such as mean gestational age (37.5 ± 2.2 vs. 36.6 ± 3.3), medical comorbidity (2.9% vs. 7.4%), and maternal outcomes like the C-section rate (29.8% vs. 58.3%), preterm delivery (14.6% vs. 28.3), and neonatal outcomes like mean birth weight (2840 ± 450 vs. 2600 ± 600), low Apgar score (2.7% vs. 6.48%), and fetal distress (10.9% vs. 22.2%) among SARS-CoV-2 negative and positive cases, respectively. No neonate from SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnant women was found to be positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fetal Distress/epidemiology , Fetal Distress/virology , Gestational Age , Hospitals, Maternity , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/virology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
13.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 60(3): 458-462, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208620

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of pregnant women with Covid-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This case series study was performed to investigate demographic, clinical and obstetric characteristics of 26 pregnant women with COVID-19 referring to a university hospital of Kashan during the epidemic of COVID-19 (March to May 2020). RESULTS: The mean gestational age of the patients at admission and delivery was 31.8 ± 5.2 and 36.3 ± 3.4 weeks, respectively. The most common symptoms were fever (96.2%) followed by dyspnea and cough (30.8%). The findings of lung CT scan showed abnormalities confirming the pneumonia in 22 patients (84.6%). Cesarean section was performed in 69.2% of the mothers. The most common maternal-fetal outcome was preterm delivery (38%). Two mothers were transferred to the ICU due to deterioration in clinical condition and they underwent mechanical ventilation without any maternal death. The most common neonatal outcomes were prematurity (38%) and low birth weight (34.6%). No cases of confirmed COVID-19 were observed in the neonates. CONCLUSION: Clinical manifestations and laboratory and radiographic findings in pregnant women with COVID-19 are similar to the general population. Common outcomes of pregnancy and delivery in mothers included increased rate of preterm delivery and cesarean section. The most prevalent neonatal outcomes included prematurity and LBW. Careful monitoring of pregnant women with COVID-19 is recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/virology
14.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 150(1): 41-46, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196384

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few case reports and clinical series exist on pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 who delivered. OBJECTIVE: To review the available information on mode of delivery, vertical/peripartum transmission, and neonatal outcome in pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2. SEARCH STRATEGY: Combination of the following key words: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, and pregnancy in Embase and PubMed databases. SELECTION CRITERIA: Papers reporting cases of women infected with SARS-CoV-2 who delivered. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The following was extracted: author; country; number of women; study design; gestational age at delivery; selected clinical maternal data; mode of delivery; selected neonatal outcomes. MAIN RESULTS: In the 13 studies included, vaginal delivery was reported in 6 cases (9.4%; 95% CI, 3.5-19.3). Indication for cesarean delivery was worsening of maternal conditions in 31 cases (48.4%; 95% CI, 35.8-61.3). Two newborns testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time RT-PCR assay were reported. In three neonates, SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM levels were elevated but the RT-PCR test was negative. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of vertical or peripartum transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is low, if any, for cesarean delivery; no data are available for vaginal delivery. Low frequency of spontaneous preterm birth and general favorable immediate neonatal outcome are reassuring.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , COVID-19 , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/virology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(7): 747-752, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182901

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A majority of studies evaluating the risk of vertical transmission and adverse outcomes in pregnancies with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are mostly based on third-trimester infections. There is limited data available on pregnancy sequelae of maternal infection in the first or second trimester. STUDY DESIGN: We present a patient with monochorionic-diamniotic twins that develops coronavirus disease 2019 infection at 15 weeks of gestation. The pregnancy is further complicated by stage II twin-twin transfusion syndrome. She undergoes laser ablation, which is complicated by development of a subchorionic hematoma. The patient then develops Escherichia coli bacteremia, resulting in septic shock and preterm labor followed by previable delivery at 21 weeks of gestation. Amniotic fluid and placenta were negative for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time polymerase chain reaction. CONCLUSION: This case of SARS-CoV-2 argues against transplacental transmission after a second-trimester infection but brings attention to the possible downstream complications that may arise following early infection. KEY POINTS: · Vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is not evident after a second-trimester infection.. · Antepartum coronavirus disease 2019 may cause vascular placental changes and placental insufficiency.. · SARS-CoV-2 is associated with a maternal hypercoagulable state with adverse perinatal outcomes..


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Escherichia coli Infections , Fetofetal Transfusion , Placenta , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Shock, Septic , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Escherichia coli Infections/complications , Escherichia coli Infections/diagnosis , Female , Fetofetal Transfusion/diagnosis , Fetofetal Transfusion/etiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Placenta/diagnostic imaging , Placenta/physiopathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy, Twin , Premature Birth/etiology , Premature Birth/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Septic/diagnosis , Shock, Septic/etiology , Twins, Monozygotic , Ultrasonography, Prenatal/methods
16.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 57(4): 573-581, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1162971

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Few large cohort studies have reported data on maternal, fetal, perinatal and neonatal outcomes associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in pregnancy. We report the outcome of infected pregnancies from a collaboration formed early during the pandemic between the investigators of two registries, the UK and Global Pregnancy and Neonatal outcomes in COVID-19 (PAN-COVID) study and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Section on Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine (SONPM) National Perinatal COVID-19 Registry. METHODS: This was an analysis of data from the PAN-COVID registry (1 January to 25 July 2020), which includes pregnancies with suspected or confirmed maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection at any stage in pregnancy, and the AAP-SONPM National Perinatal COVID-19 registry (4 April to 8 August 2020), which includes pregnancies with positive maternal testing for SARS-CoV-2 from 14 days before delivery to 3 days after delivery. The registries collected data on maternal, fetal, perinatal and neonatal outcomes. The PAN-COVID results are presented overall for pregnancies with suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and separately in those with confirmed infection. RESULTS: We report on 4005 pregnant women with suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (1606 from PAN-COVID and 2399 from AAP-SONPM). For obstetric outcomes, in PAN-COVID overall and in those with confirmed infection in PAN-COVID and AAP-SONPM, respectively, maternal death occurred in 0.5%, 0.5% and 0.2% of cases, early neonatal death in 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.3% of cases and stillbirth in 0.5%, 0.6% and 0.4% of cases. Delivery was preterm (< 37 weeks' gestation) in 12.0% of all women in PAN-COVID, in 16.1% of those women with confirmed infection in PAN-COVID and in 15.7% of women in AAP-SONPM. Extreme preterm delivery (< 27 weeks' gestation) occurred in 0.5% of cases in PAN-COVID and 0.3% in AAP-SONPM. Neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported in 0.9% of all deliveries in PAN-COVID overall, in 2.0% in those with confirmed infection in PAN-COVID and in 1.8% in AAP-SONPM; the proportions of neonates tested were 9.5%, 20.7% and 87.2%, respectively. The rates of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonate were 8.2% in PAN-COVID overall, 9.7% in those with confirmed infection and 9.6% in AAP-SONPM. Mean gestational-age-adjusted birth-weight Z-scores were -0.03 in PAN-COVID and -0.18 in AAP-SONPM. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from the UK and USA registries of pregnancies with SARS-CoV-2 infection were remarkably concordant. Preterm delivery affected a higher proportion of women than expected based on historical and contemporaneous national data. The proportions of pregnancies affected by stillbirth, a SGA infant or early neonatal death were comparable to those in historical and contemporaneous UK and USA data. Although maternal death was uncommon, the rate was higher than expected based on UK and USA population data, which is likely explained by underascertainment of women affected by milder or asymptomatic infection in pregnancy in the PAN-COVID study, although not in the AAP-SONPM study. The data presented support strong guidance for enhanced precautions to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy, particularly in the context of increased risks of preterm delivery and maternal mortality, and for priority vaccination of pregnant women and women planning pregnancy. Copyright © 2021 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Fetal Growth Retardation/diagnosis , Fetal Growth Retardation/epidemiology , Fetal Growth Retardation/virology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Male , Maternal Mortality , Pandemics , Perinatal Death , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Premature Birth/diagnosis , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/virology , Registries , Stillbirth/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e211816, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136895

ABSTRACT

Importance: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may exacerbate existing racial/ethnic inequities in preterm birth. Objective: To assess whether racial/ethnic disparities in very preterm birth (VPTB) and preterm birth (PTB) increased during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included 8026 Black, Latina, and White women who gave birth during the study period. A difference-in-differences (DID) analysis of Black vs White disparities in VPTB or PTB in a pandemic cohort was compared with a prepandemic cohort by using electronic medical records obtained from 2 hospitals in New York City. Exposures: Women who delivered from March 28 to July 31, 2020, were considered the pandemic cohort, and women who delivered from March 28 to July 31, 2019, were considered the prepandemic cohort. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests for the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were performed using samples obtained via nasopharyngeal swab at the time of admission. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical estimates of gestational age were used to calculate VPTB (<32 weeks) and PTB (<37 weeks). Log binomial regression was performed to estimate Black vs White risk differences, pandemic cohort vs prepandemic cohort risk difference, and an interaction term representing the DID estimator. Covariate-adjusted models included age, insurance, prepregnancy body mass index, and parity. Results: Of 3834 women in the pandemic cohort, 492 (12.8%) self-identified as Black, 678 (17.7%) as Latina, 2012 (52.5%) as White, 408 (10.6%) as Asian, and 244 (6.4%) as other or unspecified race/ethnicity, with approximately half the women 25 to 34 years of age. The prepandemic cohort comprised 4192 women with similar sociodemographic characteristics. In the prepandemic cohort, VPTB risk was 4.4% (20 of 451) and PTB risk was 14.4% (65 of 451) among Black infants compared with 0.8% (17 of 2188) VPTB risk and 7.1% (156 of 2188) PTB risk among White infants. In the pandemic cohort, VPTB risk was 4.3% (21 of 491) and PTB risk was 13.2% (65 of 491) among Black infants compared with 0.5% (10 of 1994) VPTB risk and 7.0% (240 of 1994) PTB risk among White infants. The DID estimators indicated that no increase in Black vs White disparities were found (DID estimator for VPTB, 0.1 additional cases per 100 [95% CI, -2.5 to 2.8]; DID estimator for PTB, 1.1 fewer case per 100 [95% CI, -5.8 to 3.6]). The results were comparable in covariate-adjusted models when limiting the population to women who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. No change was detected in Latina vs White PTB disparities during the pandemic. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of women who gave birth in New York City during the COVID-19 pandemic, no evidence was found for increased racial/ethnic disparities in PTB, among women who tested positive or tested negative for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19 , Gestational Age , Health Status Disparities , Pandemics , Premature Birth/ethnology , Adult , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , New York City/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
J Perinat Med ; 49(2): 138-140, 2021 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076289

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To report clinical data on maternal outcome, mode of delivery and immediate neonatal outcome in women infected with COVID-19. METHODS: Retrospective data collection. RESULTS: A total of 8.6% of the total population of hospitalised SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnant women were admitted to a critical care unit. The premature birth rate for births before 34+0 weeks of gestation among pregnant women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 was 7.1%. One newborn (3.6%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 two days after birth and showed symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women with COVID-19 seem to be at higher risk of invasive ventilation, admission to a critical care unit and preterm birth, and should therefore be considered a high-risk-population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Adult , Austria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Premature Birth/virology , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e041247, 2021 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054677

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Previous novel COVID-19 pandemics, SARS and middle east respiratory syndrome observed an association of infection in pregnancy with preterm delivery, stillbirth and increased maternal mortality. COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, is the largest pandemic in living memory.Rapid accrual of robust case data on women in pregnancy and their babies affected by suspected COVID-19 or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection will inform clinical management and preventative strategies in the current pandemic and future outbreaks. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in COVID-19 (PAN-COVID) registry are an observational study collecting focused data on outcomes of pregnant mothers who have had suspected COVID-19 in pregnancy or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and their neonates via a web-portal. Among the women recruited to the PAN-COVID registry, the study will evaluate the incidence of: (1) miscarriage and pregnancy loss, (2) fetal growth restriction and stillbirth, (3) preterm delivery, (4) vertical transmission (suspected or confirmed) and early onset neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection.Data will be centre based and collected on individual women and their babies. Verbal consent will be obtained, to reduce face-to-face contact in the pandemic while allowing identifiable data collection for linkage. Statistical analysis of the data will be carried out on a pseudonymised data set by the study statistician. Regular reports will be distributed to collaborators on the study research questions. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has received research ethics approval in the UK. For international centres, evidence of appropriate local approval will be required to participate, prior to entry of data to the database. The reports will be published regularly. The outputs of the study will be regularly disseminated to participants and collaborators on the study website (https://pan-covid.org) and social media channels as well as dissemination to scientific meetings and journals. STUDY REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN68026880.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Global Health , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Maternal Mortality , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/virology , Registries , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Kingdom
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