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1.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 290: 503-507, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879412

ABSTRACT

Telehealth is an alternative care delivery model to in-person care. It uses electronic information and telecommunication technologies to provide remote clinical care to patients, especially those living in rural areas that lack sufficient access to health care services. Like other areas of care affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, the prevalence of telehealth has increased in prenatal care. This study reports on telehealth use in prenatal care at a large academic medical center in Middle Tennessee, USA. We examine the electronic health records of over 2500 women to characterize 1) the volume of prenatal visits participating in telehealth, 2) disparities in obstetric patients using telehealth, and 3) the impact of telehealth use on obstetric outcomes, including duration of intrapartum hospital stays, preterm birth, Cesarean rate, and newborn birthweight. Our results show that telehealth mainly was used in the second and third trimesters, especially for consulting services. In addition, we found that certain demographics correlated with lower telehealth utilization, including patients who were under 26 years old, were Black and/or Hispanic, were on a state-sponsored health insurance program, and those who lived in urban areas. Furthermore, no significant differences were found on preterm birth and Cesarean between the patients who used telehealth in their prenatal care and those who did not.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , Telemedicine , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/therapy , Prenatal Care/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods
2.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(5)2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879128

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There are concerns about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the continuation of essential health services in sub-Saharan Africa. Through the Countdown to 2030 for Women's, Children's and Adolescents' Health country collaborations, analysts from country and global public health institutions and ministries of health assessed the trends in selected services for maternal, newborn and child health, general service utilisation. METHODS: Monthly routine health facility data by district for the period 2017-2020 were compiled by 12 country teams and adjusted after extensive quality assessments. Mixed effects linear regressions were used to estimate the size of any change in service utilisation for each month from March to December 2020 and for the whole COVID-19 period in 2020. RESULTS: The completeness of reporting of health facilities was high in 2020 (median of 12 countries, 96% national and 91% of districts ≥90%), higher than in the preceding years and extreme outliers were few. The country median reduction in utilisation of nine health services for the whole period March-December 2020 was 3.9% (range: -8.2 to 2.4). The greatest reductions were observed for inpatient admissions (median=-17.0%) and outpatient admissions (median=-7.1%), while antenatal, delivery care and immunisation services generally had smaller reductions (median from -2% to -6%). Eastern African countries had greater reductions than those in West Africa, and rural districts were slightly more affected than urban districts. The greatest drop in services was observed for March-June 2020 for general services, when the response was strongest as measured by a stringency index. CONCLUSION: The district health facility reports provide a solid basis for trend assessment after extensive data quality assessment and adjustment. Even the modest negative impact on service utilisation observed in most countries will require major efforts, supported by the international partners, to maintain progress towards the SDG health targets by 2030.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Health Services , Adolescent , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care
3.
J Pregnancy ; 2022: 6436200, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854486

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has uniquely impacted pregnant women. From the initial unknowns about its virulence during pregnancy, to frequent and rapidly changing hospital guidelines for prenatal care and delivery, pregnant women have felt intense uncertainty and, based on recent research, increased anxiety. This study sought to determine the impact COVID-19 had on women's birth plans. Open-ended qualitative responses from an anonymous, online survey of pregnant women in the United States, conducted on April 3-24, 2020, were analyzed using the Attride-Stirling qualitative framework. A conceptual framework for understanding the impact of COVID-19 on women's birth plans was generated. 2,320 pregnant women (mean age 32.7 years, mean weeks pregnant 24.6 weeks) responded to the open-ended prompts, reflecting the following themes: the impact(s) of COVID-19 on pregnant women (including unanticipated changes and uncertainty), the effect of COVID-19 on decision-making (including emotional reactions and subsequent questioning of the healthcare system), and how both of those things led women to either exercise or relinquish their agency related to their birth plan. These findings indicate that the changes and uncertainty surrounding COVID-19 are causing significant challenges for pregnant women, and absent more clarity and more provider-driven support, women seeking to cope are considering changes to their birth plans. Health systems and providers should heed this warning and work to provide pregnant women and their families with more information, support, and collaborative planning to ensure a positive, healthy birth experience, even during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Parturition/psychology , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Prenatal Care/psychology , United States/epidemiology
4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 412, 2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846811

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand the use of online antenatal education classes accessed via the Mother and Child Health Handbook app during the COVID-19 pandemic in order to provide a basis and suggestions for optimizing Internet education during pregnancy under public health emergencies. METHODS: We compared and analyzed the use of online antenatal education classes via the Mother and Child Health Handbook app in Hangzhou in 2019 and 2020 (during the COVID-19 pandemic). RESULTS: Between January 1, 2019, and December 31, 2020, a total of 229,794 pregnant women created files and registered for the app, including 124,273 women in 2019 and 105,521 women in 2020. More pregnant women participated in online antenatal education learning (n = 36,379/34.5% vs. 29,226/23.5%, p = 0.000) in 2020 than in 2019. The proportion of pregnant women in the 18-34-year-old group who participated in online learning was higher than that in the advanced age group, and the difference was statistically significant (2019: 24.3% vs. 18.8%, p = 0.000) (2020: 35.7% vs. 27.4%, p = 0.000). More pregnant women accessed online antenatal education during early pregnancy (n = 13,463/37.0% vs. 9088/31.1%, p = 0.000) in 2020 than in 2019. Similar percentages of pregnant women participated in online antenatal education during mid-pregnancy (n = 15,426/52.8% vs. 19,269/53.0%, p = 0.639) in 2019 and 2020. Fewer pregnant women accessed online antenatal education during late pregnancy (n = 10,246/28.2% vs. 9476/32.4%, p = 0.000) in 2020 than in 2019. Fewer pregnant women choose to take 'Puerperal Health' courses in 2020 than in 2019 (early pregnancy: 36.20% vs. 42.79%, p = 0.000; mid-pregnancy: 41.65% vs. 48.19%, p = 0.000; late pregnancy: 55.31% vs. 58.41%, p = 0.000). Fewer pregnant women choose to take 'Psychological Adjustment' courses in 2020 than in 2019 (early pregnancy: 21.59% vs. 29.60%, p = 0.000; mid-pregnancy: 26.20% vs. 40.50%, p = 0.000; late pregnancy: 12.79% vs. 42.53%, p = 0.000). More pregnant women choose to study 'Nutrition and Exercise' in 2020 than in 2019 (early pregnancy: 44.48% vs. 25.95%, p = 0.000; mid-pregnancy: 47.77% vs. 40.75%, p = 0.000; late pregnancy: 55.94% vs. 42.99%, p = 0.000). "Pregnancy Care and Fetal Development" was the most selected course by pregnant women in early pregnancy (2019: 67.50%; 2020: 71.39%) and middle pregnancy (2019: 67.01%; 2020: 82.05%), and the proportion in 2020 was higher than it was in 2019. "Baby care" was the most selected course by pregnant women in late pregnancy, and the proportion in 2020 was higher than it was in 2019 (78.31% vs. 72.85%). CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, online antenatal education was well-used by pregnant women. More women participated in the online antenatal education modules during the COVID-19 pandemic than during 2019.The proportion of choosing different courses for pregnant women before and after the COVID-19 epidemic varied, and the learning course needs of pregnant women in different trimesters were different.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Mobile Applications , Prenatal Education , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Prenatal Care , Young Adult
5.
BJOG ; 129(2): 282-290, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831885

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess associations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and pregnancy outcomes considering testing policy and test-positivity-to-delivery interval. DESIGN: Nationwide cohort study. SETTING: Sweden. POPULATION: From the Pregnancy-Register we identified 88 593 singleton births, 11 March 2020-31 January 2021, linked to data on SARS-CoV-2-positivity from the Public Health Agency, and information on neonatal care admission from the Neonatal Quality Register. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were estimated stratified by testing-policy and test-positivity-to-delivery interval. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Five-minute Apgar score, neonatal care admission, stillbirth and preterm birth. RESULTS: During pregnancy, SARS-CoV-2 test-positivity was 5.4% (794/14 665) under universal testing and 1.9% (1402/73 928) under non-universal testing. There were generally lower risks associated with SARS-CoV-2 under universal than non-universal testing. In women testing positive >10 days from delivery, generally no significant differences in risk were observed under either testing policy. Neonatal care admission was more common (15.3% versus 8.0%; aOR 2.24, 95% CI 1.62-3.11) in women testing positive ≤10 days before delivery under universal testing. There was no significant association with 5-minute Apgar score below 7 (1.0% versus 1.7%; aOR 0.64, 95% CI 0.24-1.72) or stillbirth (0.3% versus 0.4%; aOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.10-5.20). Compared with term births (2.1%), test-positivity was higher in medically indicated preterm birth (5.7%; aOR 2.70, 95% CI 1.60-4.58) but not significantly increased in spontaneous preterm birth (2.3%; aOR 1.12, 95% CI 0.62-2.02). CONCLUSIONS: Testing policy and timing of test-positivity impact associations between SARS-CoV-2-positivity and pregnancy outcomes. Under non-universal testing, women with complications near delivery are more likely to be tested than women without complications, thereby inflating any association with adverse pregnancy outcomes compared with findings under universal testing. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Testing policy and time from SARS-CoV-2 infection to delivery influence the association with pregnancy outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Apgar Score , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Prenatal Care/methods , Prenatal Care/standards , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Sweden/epidemiology
6.
Neoreviews ; 23(5): e345-e353, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833764
7.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268196, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822297

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: All women require access to high-quality care during pregnancy, labor, and after childbirth. The occurrence of delay at any stage is one of the major causes of maternal mortality. There is, however, a scarcity of data on women's access to maternal health services during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the goal of this study was to assess the magnitude of delays in maternal health service utilization and its associated factors among pregnant women in the Ilubabor zone during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 402 pregnant women selected by systematic random sampling. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 26. Descriptive and summary statistics were used to describe the study population. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the outcome variables. Adjusted odds ratio with respective 95% CI was used to report significant covariates. RESULTS: A total of 402 pregnant women participated in this study. The median age of the respondents was 25 years (IQR = 8). On average, a woman stays 1.76 hours (SD = 1.2) to make a decision to seek care. The prevalence of first, second and third delay were 51%, 48%, and 33.3%, respectively. Being unmarried [AOR (95% CI)], [0.145 (0.046-0.452)], being unemployed [AOR (95% CI)], [4.824 (1.685-13.814)], age [AOR (95% CI)], [0.227 (0.089-0.0579)], fear of COVID-19 [AOR (95% CI)], [1.112 (1.036-1.193)], urban residence [AOR (95% CI)], [0.517 (0.295-0.909)], and lack of birth preparedness [AOR (95% CI)], [6.526 (1.954-21.789)] were significantly associated with first delay. Being unmarried [AOR (95% CI)], [5.984 (2.930-12.223)], being unemployed [AOR (95% CI)], [26.978 (3.477-209.308)], and age [AOR (95% CI)], [0.438 (0.226-0.848)] were significantly associated with second delay. Having lengthy admission [AOR (95% CI)], [7.5 (4.053-13.878)] and non-spontaneous vaginal delivery [AOR (95% CI)], [1.471 (1.018-1.999)] were significantly associated with third delay. CONCLUSION: This study identified a significant proportion of mothers experiencing delays, although there were no data to suggest exacerbated delays in utilizing maternal health services due to fear of the COVID-19 pandemic. The proportion of maternal delay varies with different factors. Improving the decision-making capacity of women is, therefore, essential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Maternal Health Services , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery, Obstetric , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Parturition , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prenatal Care
8.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261874, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817466

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of mood disorders (MD) during pregnancy is challenging and may bring negative consequences to the maternal-fetal binomial. The long waitlist for specialized psychiatric evaluation in Brazil contributes to the treatment omission. Almost 20.0% of women treated with antidepressants have a positive screening for bipolar disorder. Therefore, it has been recommended the investigation of depressive and bipolar disorder during prenatal care. Unfortunately, the screening for mood disorders is not a reality in Brazil and many childbearing women remain undiagnosed. The objective of this study is to observe the frequency of MD and the effectiveness of screening scales for routine use by health professionals during prenatal care in high-risk pregnancies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This cross-sectional study included 61 childbearing women in their second trimester who were interviewed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ). The cut-off point was EPDS ≥ 13 and MDQ ≥ 7 and the SCID-5 was the gold standard diagnosis. MD were diagnosed in 24.6% of the high-risk pregnancies. EDPS was positive in 19.7% and the frequency of major depression was 8.2%. 16.4% of the childbearing women were diagnosed with bipolar disorder, while MDQ was positive in 36.1%. 11.5% of the women had EPDS and MDQ positive. EPDS sensitivity was 80.0% and specificity 92.1%, whereas MDQ presented a sensitivity of 70.0% and specificity of 70.6%. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a high prevalence of MD in high-risk pregnancies. The routine use of EPDS simultaneously to MDQ during antenatal care is effective and plays an important role in early diagnosis, counselling, and promotion of perinatal mental health.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder/complications , Bipolar Disorder/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications/diagnosis , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Adult , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/complications , Depression/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Mania/complications , Mania/diagnosis , Mass Screening/methods , Predictive Value of Tests , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Prenatal Care , Prevalence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 363, 2022 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Women with high-risk pregnancies are among the most vulnerable groups that require additional precautionary measures against the spread of COVID-19 plus receiving prenatal care. Yet, there is limited information on the status of prenatal care in women with high-risk pregnancies. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of women with high-risk pregnancies who were receiving prenatal care during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The present qualitative study was conducted on mothers with high-risk pregnancies from September 2020 to March 2021. Purposeful sampling continued until achieving data saturation. Ghaem, Ommolbanin, and Imam Reza in Mashhad, Iran served as the research environment. Face-to-face and semi-structured interviews were effective data collection methods. Each interview lasted between 20 to 45 min (on average 30). The total number of participants was 31. Data analysis was carried out simultaneously with data collection using the qualitative content analysis method developed by Granheim and Landman (2004). RESULTS: Following the reduction and analysis of data from women in high-risk pregnancies, as well as their perceptions and experiences with health services during the COVID-19 pandemic, eight subcategories and three main categories were identified, including 1) "Negative psychology responses," 2) "Adoption behavior," and 3) "Adjustment of health services in mutual protection." Fear, anxiety, stress, feelings of loneliness, sadness, depression, guilt, doubt and conflict in receiving services were examples of negative psychological responses. The adaptive behaviors' category reflected the behaviors of women with high-risk pregnancies in the context of the COVID COVID-19 pandemic. The Adjustment of health services in mutual protection indicated that health workers took preventive and protective measures against COVID-19, which, in addition to protecting themselves and their clients against COVID-19, gave women a sense of security. CONCLUSION: Receiving prenatal care during the COVID-19 pandemic presents challenges for women with high-risk pregnancies, negatively impacting their psychological state and health-seeking behavior. Supportive and preventive care can ensure that women with high-risk pregnancies receive optimal prenatal care that focuses on COVID-19 prevention. We recommend implementing screening, psychological counseling, and education for women with high-risk pregnancies, as well as ensuring that they have access to women-centered health care services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prenatal Care , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prenatal Care/methods , Qualitative Research
10.
J Perinat Neonatal Nurs ; 36(2): 161-172, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816315

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women experienced disruptions in their prenatal care during the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. While there is emerging research about the impact of COVID-19 on experiences of pregnancy, the majority of studies that have reported on prenatal care and birth during COVID-19 have not incorporated the first-person accounts of Black women. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore the perspectives of Black women on prenatal care, labor, and birth during the pandemic. A total of 33 participants completed questionnaires. Fourteen of these 33 women and an additional 2 participated in qualitative interviews. Descriptive statistics and a mixed-methods analysis were employed. Participants expressed disappointment about disruptions in their experiences of pregnancy including the way their prenatal care was experienced, cancellation of planned "rites of passage," and visitor policy restrictions during and after the birth. Forty-five percent of participants reported being worried about getting COVID-19 and (61%) about their infant getting COVID-19. Many participants experienced a sense of loss that may permeate through other aspects of their lives. Providing extra support and points of contact can help lessen feelings of isolation during the pandemic and can also offer more explanation for rapidly changing policies and procedures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Parturition , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prenatal Care/methods
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 4284146, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807688

ABSTRACT

Background: It is of vital importance to determine the safety of drugs. Pregnant women, as a special group, need to evaluate the effects of drugs on pregnant women as well as the fetus. The use of drugs during pregnancy may be subject to fetal toxicity, thus affecting the development of the fetus or even leading to stillbirth. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a toxicity rating for drugs used during pregnancy in 1979. These toxicity ratings are denoted by the letters A, B, C, D, and X. However, the query of drug pregnancy category has yet to be well established as electronic service. Results: Here, we presented PregTox, a publicly accessible resource for pregnancy category information of 1114 drugs. The PregTox database also included chemical structures, important physico-chemical properties, protein targets, and relevant signaling pathways. An advantage of the database is multiple search options which allow systematic analyses. In a case study, we demonstrated that a set of chemical descriptors could effectively discriminate high-risk drugs from others (area under ROC curve reached 0.81). Conclusions: PregTox can serve as a unique drug safety data source for drug development and pharmacological research.


Subject(s)
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Female , Fetus , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Stillbirth
12.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2022: 3535700, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799198

ABSTRACT

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in major shifts in service delivery for patient care not involving COVID-19 illness. The preexisting telehealth infrastructure in Mississippi allowed the state to rapidly expand the scope of telehealth programs. Little research has been done to examine the use of telehealth during the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on the delivery of care during pregnancy and outcomes associated with pregnancy. The objectives of this study are to (1) describe prenatal care practices during the height of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, compared to the immediate prepandemic time period, and (2) explore maternal and birth outcomes during these time periods. Methods: This study was conducted as a retrospective historical cohort study from medical records at one Maternal Care Level IV (Regional Perinatal Health Care Center) in Mississippi and its affiliated centers. The participant cohort was inclusive of women who received prenatal care prior to a single birth delivery between May 1, 2020, and January 31, 2021. The pandemic cohort was defined through the timeframe of the included participants' end-term prenatal care, with reference to the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. The prepandemic cohort received a majority of their prenatal care prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: There were 1,894 women included. Among them, 620 (32.77%) completed the majority of their end-term pregnancy in the pre-COVID-19 time period and 1,272 (67.23%) completed the end-term pregnancy during the pandemic. The odds ratio for patients from the pandemic cohort of scheduling telehealth visits compared to not scheduling telehealth visits is 8.19 (95% CI: 3.98, 16.86) times the odds ratio for patients from the prepandemic cohort. The pandemic exposure as well as infant's gestational age and very low birth weight (VLBW) show significant effects on the infant's living status in the univariate logistic regression. However, after controlling for the infant's gestational age and VLBW, we did not detect a significant effect of pandemic exposure. Conclusion: This study demonstrated a very small reliance of telehealth for the medical supervision of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. This is likely because of the essential physical examinations that occur in women who are considered to be at high risk for poor maternal and birth outcomes. Additional studies on the impact of COVID-19 infection on maternal and infant outcomes are also needed as there may be important risk factors not yet identified for poor maternal or birth outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Mississippi/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods
14.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e060185, 2022 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788969

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of COVID-19 on antenatal care (ANC) utilisation in Kenya, including women's reports of COVID-related barriers to ANC and correlates at the individual and household levels. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Six public and private health facilities and associated catchment areas in Nairobi and Kiambu Counties in Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Data were collected from 1729 women, including 1189 women who delivered in healthcare facilities before the COVID-19 pandemic (from September 2019-January 2020) and 540 women who delivered during the pandemic (from July through November 2020). Women who delivered during COVID-19 were sampled from the same catchment areas as the original sample of women who delivered before to compare ANC utilisation. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Timing of ANC initiation, number of ANC visits and adequate ANC utilisation were primary outcome measures. Among only women who delivered during COVID-19 only, we explored women's reports of the pandemic having affected their ability to access or attend ANC as a secondary outcome of interest. RESULTS: Women who delivered during COVID-19 had significantly higher odds of delayed ANC initiation (ie, beginning ANC during the second vs first trimester) than women who delivered before (aOR 1.72, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.37), although no significant differences were detected in the odds of attending 4-7 or ≥8 ANC visits versus <4 ANC visits, respectively (aOR 1.12, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.44 and aOR 1.46, 95% CI 0.74 to 2.86). Nearly half (n=255/540; 47%) of women who delivered during COVID-19 reported that the pandemic affected their ability to access ANC. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies are needed to mitigate disruptions to ANC among pregnant women during pandemics and other public health, environmental, or political emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prenatal Care , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Pregnancy
15.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e059701, 2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779382

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the difficulties faced by the pregnant women in seeking appropriate antenatal care due to the restrictions imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic; assess the difficulties encountered during delivery and postpartum period; the suitability of the teleconsultation services offered; effect of COVID-19 infection on pregnancy outcomes and the effect of restrictions on the nutrition profile of the pregnant women. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We included 1374 pregnant women from the rural areas of three districts of Punjab, India registered at government health centres before the implementation of lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic on 24 March 2020. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the difficulties faced by the women during their pregnancies due to restrictions imposed during the lockdown. The secondary outcomes included the effect of COVID-19 infections on pregnancy outcomes, satisfaction from the telemedicine services and restrictions on the nutrition profile of the pregnant women. RESULTS: One-third of the women (38.4%) considered their last pregnancy unplanned. Women faced difficulties due to the restrictions in getting adequate nutrition (76.5%), accessing transportation facilities (35.4%), consultations from doctors (22.4%) or getting an ultrasonography scan (48.7%). One-fifth (21.9%) of women could not access safe abortion services. Only 3.6% of respondents ever took any teleconsultation services offered by the government. Most of them felt unsatisfied compared with routine visits (77.5%). COVID-19-infected women were primarily asymptomatic (76.1%), but there was a high incidence of preterm birth (42.8%). Frontline workers could visit 64.3% of the women in the postpartum period despite restrictions. CONCLUSIONS: Lockdown compromised the antenatal care in our study area while the frontline workers attempted to minimise the inconvenience. Telemedicine services did not prove to be of many benefits to pregnant women and should only work as a supplement to the existing protocols of antenatal care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 724562, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775840

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The burden of anemia in pregnancy is of global health importance. Tanzania is no exception. Its effects vary from one region to another due to the differing causes. Overall, it is a significant cause of maternal mortality. This study sought to assess the prevalence and factors associated with anemia among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic (ANC) in the Mkuranga district of the Pwani region of Tanzania. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted among 418 pregnant women aged 15-49 years attending the Mkuranga District Hospital and Kilimahewa Health Center. The outcome variable of interest was anemia in pregnancy defined as a hemoglobin concentration of 11 g/dl or less. Data was collected using face-to-face interviews with a standardized pretested questionnaire, and through blood samples collected for hemoglobin testing. Descriptive analysis was used to determine the prevalence of anemia while multiple logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with anemia in pregnancy. Results: Anemia was prevalent among 83.5% of pregnant women attending the two major ANCs in Mkuranga district. Categorically, the hemoglobin of 16.3% of the included women was normal, 51.9% had moderate anemia, 24.4% had mild anemia, and 7.2% had severe anemia. Factors associated with anemia included being in the third trimester (AOR = 2.87, p = 0.026), not consuming vegetables (AOR = 2.62, p = 0.008), meat (AOR = 2.71, p = 0.003), eggs (AOR = 2.98, p = 0.002), and fish (AOR = 2.38, p = 0.005). The finding of unadjusted analysis revealed that women with inadequate minimum dietary diversity were having significantly greater odds of being anemic as compared with those with adequate dietary diversity (OR = 1.94, P = 0.016). Conclusion: More than 80% of pregnant women attending ANC in Mkuranga districts were anemic. Such unprecedented burden of anemia is associated with several factors, which include poor dietary practices such as not consuming iron-rich foods, for example vegetables, meat, eggs, and fish. Women in their third trimester were also more likely to suffer from anemia. This unprecedented burden of anemia in pregnancy can be addressed if efforts to improve feeding practices and early monitoring at the ANCs are sustained.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic , Anemia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/epidemiology , Prenatal Care , Tanzania/epidemiology
17.
Midwifery ; 109: 103333, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768413

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify the challenges and opportunities for rolling out a bespoke model of group antenatal care called Pregnancy Circles (PC) within the National Health Service: what kind of support and training is needed and what adaptations are appropriate, including during a pandemic when face-to-face interaction is limited. DESIGN: Exploratory qualitative study (online focus group). Study co-designed with midwives. Data analysed thematically using an ecological model to synthesise. SETTING: Five maternity services within the National Health Service. PARTICIPANTS: Seven midwives who facilitated PCs. Three senior midwives with implementation experience participated in the co-design process. FINDINGS: Three themes operating across the ecological model were identified: 'Implementing innovation', 'Philosophy of care' and 'Resource management'. Tensions were identified between group care's focus on relationships and professional autonomy, and concepts of efficiency within the NHS's market model of care. Midwives found protected time, training and ongoing support essential for developing the skills and confidence needed to deliver this innovative model of care. Integrating Pregnancy Circles with continuity of carer models was seen as the most promising opportunity for long-term implementation. Midwives perceived continuity and peer support as the most effective elements of the model and there was some evidence that the model may be robust enough to withstand adaptation to online delivery. KEY CONCLUSIONS: Midwives facilitating group care enjoyed the relationships, autonomy and professional development the model offered. Harnessing this personal (micro-level) satisfaction is key to wider implementation. Group care is well aligned with current maternity policy but the challenges midwives face (temporal, practical and cultural) must be anticipated and addressed at macro and meso level for wider implementation to be sustainable. The PC model may be flexible enough to adapt to online delivery and extend continuity of care but further research is needed in these areas. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Implementation of group care in the NHS requires senior leadership and expertise in change management, protected time for training and delivery of the model, and funding for equipment. Training and ongoing support, are vital for sustainability and quality control. There is potential for online delivery and integrating group care with continuity models.


Subject(s)
Maternal Health Services , Midwifery , Obstetrics , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Qualitative Research , State Medicine
18.
Midwifery ; 109: 103316, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747679

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the lived experiences of informal caregivers for pregnant women seeking scheduled antenatal care during the early stage of China's COVID-19 lockdown and potential measures to address the challenges. DESIGN: This is a phenomenological qualitative study. SETTING: The study was carried out in a leading teaching hospital in Southwest China. PARTICIPANTS: We recruited 15 informal caregivers for healthy pregnant women on routine antenatal visits about six months after China launched the city-wide lockdown and other control measures for COVID-19, including 10 males and 5 females with diverse demographic backgrounds. MEASURES AND FINDINGS: The research team developed a demographic form and an interview outline with key questions, conducted semi-structured interviews with the informal caregivers, and analyzed the data using the Colazzie's method. Five themes of lived experiences were revealed, i.e., increased caregiving burdens, disruption of routines in family life, lack of accurate information and knowledge, active role adjustment, and positive attitudes and coping in a difficult time. Some caregivers reacted positively to the lockdown experience and saw it as an opportunity to rethink their lives and improve family relations. KEY CONCLUSIONS: The informal caregivers experienced increased physical and psychological burdens. Strategies such as adoption of a less frequent prenatal visit schedule, use of tele-medicine technologies, and provision of accurate information and knowledge may help to ease the increased informal caregiving burdens. Psychological counseling, community services and disaster response policies specially targeting pregnant women and their informal caregivers may also be valuable resources. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Attention should be drawn to the group of informal caregivers for pregnant women during a COVID-19 lockdown, including professional assistance delivered by nursing and other related professionals. Measures are called for to minimize exposure opportunities such as adoption of a new prenatal care schedule and tele-medicine technologies. Patient education with reliable information should be provided, preferably by nursing staff and physicians. Social support efforts including professional mental counseling may added and work with other resources such as community services and policy makers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caregivers , Caregivers/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prenatal Care
19.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264901, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742010

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, the possible development of serious illness, and the possibility of severe obstetric outcomes highlight the importance of addressing SARS-CoV-2 infection in obstetric management. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study of pregnant women assisted in a high-risk maternity hospital in Brazil in 2020. All patients admitted for delivery or miscarriage care were tested for SARS-CoV-2 using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for immunoglobulin (I)gM, and/or IgG by immunochromatography. Clinical aspects and obstetric outcomes were analyzed. A total of 265 pregnant women were included in the study. There were 38 (14.4%) PCR positive cases during pregnancy, 12 (31.6%) on admission screening, and 71(27.2%) patients were IgM- and/or IgG-positive. Among the participants, 86 (32.4%) had at least one positive test during pregnancy. SARS-CoV-2 positive patients had greater contact with known positive patients (p = 0.005). The most frequently reported symptoms were runny nose, cough, loss of smell and taste, headache, and fever. There was also a 35% rate of asymptomatic infections and a 4.6% rate of severe or critical infections. Patients exposed or infected with SARS-CoV-2 had a higher incidence of preterm delivery, cesarean section, need for resuscitation in the delivery room, Apgar score <7 at 5 min, admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, and jaundice. Newborns with at least one positive test had a significantly greater need for phototherapy after delivery (p = 0.05). The results showed a high rate of positive tests among newborns (37.5%), which seems to be compatible with both neonatal and perinatal infection. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to further investigate SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy, including the clinical course and the possibility of adverse outcomes with impact on maternal and fetal health, regardless of the development of symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals, Maternity , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Prenatal Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Asymptomatic Infections/therapy , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e056951, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741638

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This paper presents the effect of the early phase of COVID-19 on the coverage of essential maternal and newborn health (MNH) services in a rural subdistrict of Bangladesh. DESIGN: Cross-sectional household survey with random sampling. SETTING: Baliakandi subdistrict, Rajbari district, Bangladesh. PARTICIPANTS: Data were collected from women who were on the third trimester of pregnancy during the early phase of the pandemic (111) and pre-pandemic periods (115) to measure antenatal care (ANC) service coverage. To measure birth, postnatal care (PNC) and essential newborn care (ENC), data were collected from women who had a history of delivery during the early phase of the pandemic (163) and pre-pandemic periods (166). EXPOSURE: Early phase of the pandemic included a strict national lockdown between April and June 2020, and pre-pandemic was defined as August-October 2019. OUTCOME OF INTEREST: Changes in the coverage of selected MNH services (ANC, birth, PNC, ENC) during the early phase of COVID-19 pandemic compared with the pre-pandemic period, estimated by two-sample proportion tests. FINDINGS: Among women who were on the third trimester of pregnancy during the early phase of the pandemic period, 77% (95% CI: 70% to 85%) received at least one ANC from a medically trained provider (MTP) during the third trimester, compared with 83% (95% CI: 76% to 90%) during the pre-pandemic period (p=0.33). Among women who gave birth during the early phase of the pandemic period, 72% (95% CI: 66% to 79%) were attended by an MTP, compared with 63% (95% CI: 56% to 71%) during the pre-pandemic period (p=0.08). Early initiation of breast feeding was practised among 38% (95% CI: 31% to 46%) of the babies born during the early phase of the pandemic period. It was 37% (95% CI: 29% to 44%) during the pre-pandemic period (p=0.81). The coverage of ANC, birth, PNC and ENC did not differ by months of pandemic and pre-pandemic periods; only the coverage of at least one ANC from an MTP significantly differed among the women who were 7 months pregnant during the early phase of the pandemic (35%, 95% CI: 26% to 44%) and pre-pandemic (49%, 95% CI: 39% to 58%) (p=0.04). CONCLUSION: The effect of the early phase of the pandemic including lockdown on the selected MNH service coverage was null in the study area. The nature of the lockdown, the availability and accessibility of private sector health services in that area, and the combating strategies at the rural level made it possible for the women to avail the required MNH services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Maternal Health Services , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , SARS-CoV-2
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