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2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760570

ABSTRACT

Compared to young adults, it is difficult for the older people with relatively low health literacy to perform proper bowel preparation for a colonoscopy. This study aims to identify the relationship between knowledge, compliance with bowel preparation, and bowel cleanliness with health literacy in older patients undergoing colonoscopy. The participants were 110 older people undergoing colonoscopy, recruited from an endoscopy hospital in G metropolitan city, South Korea. Data obtained from a structured questionnaire that included items on health literacy and knowledge of and compliance with bowel preparation, and the Aronchick bowel cleanliness scale. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ-test, Pearson's correlation, t-test, and ANCOVA. Participants who were younger and those with a higher education level and better economic status had a statistically significantly higher health literacy level. Older people with a health literacy level of 7 points and above had a higher knowledge level and bowel cleanliness index, a showed better compliance with bowel preparation. The results highlight the need for developing a customized education intervention program that can improve health literacy for successful bowel preparation and examination of the older population undergoing colonoscopy.


Subject(s)
Health Literacy , Aged , Cathartics , Colonoscopy , Humans , Patient Compliance , Preoperative Care/methods
3.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 48(6): 1189-1197, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670448

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prehabilitation is a promising method to enhance postoperative recovery, especially in patients suffering from cancer. Particularly during times of social distancing, providing home-based programmes may have become a suitable solution to increase compliance and effectiveness. METHODS: In line with the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review was conducted including trials that investigated the effect of home-based prehabilitation (HBP) in patients undergoing surgery for cancer. The primary outcome was postoperative functional capacity (6 min walk test, 6MWT). Secondary outcomes were postoperative complications and compliance. RESULTS: Five randomized controlled trials were included with 351 patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer, oesophagogastric cancer, bladder cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Three studies presented results of significant progress after eight weeks. The meta-analysis showed a significant improvement of the 6MWT in the prehabilitation group compared to the control group preoperatively (MD 35.06; 95% CI 11.58 to 58.54; p = .003) and eight weeks postoperatively (MD 44.91; 95% CI 6.04 to 83.79; p = .02) compared to baseline. Compliance rate varied from 63% to 83% with no significant difference between prehabilitation and control groups. These data must be interpreted with caution because of a high amount of heterogeneity and small sample sizes. DISCUSSION: In conclusion, HBP may enhance overall functional capacity of patients receiving oncological surgery compared to standard of care. This could be a promising alternative to hospital-based prehabilitation regarding the current pandemic and further digitalization in the future. In order to increase accessibility and effectiveness of prehabilitation, home-based solutions should be further investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Colorectal Neoplasms , Lung Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Preoperative Care/methods
4.
Transplant Proc ; 53(4): 1126-1131, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525970

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 drastically impacted solid organ transplantation. Lacking scientific evidence, a very stringent but safer policy was imposed on liver transplantation (LT) early in the pandemic. Restrictive transplant guidelines must be reevaluated and adjusted as data become available. Before LT, the prevailing policy requires a negative severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of donors and recipients. Unfortunately, prolonged viral RNA shedding frequently hinders transplantation. Recent data reveal that positive test results for viral genome are frequently due to noninfectious and prolonged convalescent shedding of viral genome. Moreover, studies demonstrated that the cycle threshold of quantitative RT-PCR could be leveraged to inform clinical transplant decision-making. We present an evidence-adjusted and significantly less restrictive policy for LT, where risk tolerance is tiered to recipient acuity. In addition, we delineate the pretransplant clinical decision-making, intra- and postoperative management, and early outcome of 2 recipients of a liver graft performed while their RT-PCR of airway swabs remained positive. Convalescent positive RT-PCR results are common in the transplant arena, and the proposed policy permits reasonably safe LT in many circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Policy , Liver Transplantation/legislation & jurisprudence , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Female , Humans , Infection Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Infection Control/methods , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/virology , Preoperative Care/legislation & jurisprudence , Preoperative Care/methods , Reference Values , Tissue Donors , Virus Shedding
5.
Minerva Pediatr (Torino) ; 73(5): 460-466, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513377

ABSTRACT

Inevitably, along with other healthcare specializations, pediatric surgery was affected by the Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. Children were reported to manifest mild to moderate symptoms and mortality was primarily observed in patients aged <1 year and having underlying comorbidities. Most of the cases were asymptomatic in children, hence, posing a challenge for pediatric surgery centers to take drastic measures to reduce the virus transmission. Telemedicine was introduced and out-patient consultations were conducted online as out-patient clinics were closed. Elective surgeries were postponed with delayed appointments while the healthcare sector was diverted towards tackling COVID-19. Case urgency was classified and triaged, leading to limited surgeries being performed only in COVID-19 negative patients following an extensive screening process. The screening process consisted of online history taking and RT-PCR tests. Newer practices such as mouth rinse, video laryngoscopy, and anesthesia were introduced to restrict patients from crying, coughing, and sneezing, as an attempt to avoid aerosolization of viral particles and safely conduct pediatric surgeries during the pandemic. Surgical trainees were also affected as the smaller number of surgeries conducted reduced the clinical experience available to medical enthusiasts. There is still room for advanced practices to be introduced in pediatric surgery and restore all kinds of surgeries to improve the quality of life of the patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pediatrics , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Child , Child, Preschool , Elective Surgical Procedures , General Surgery/education , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Patient Selection , Pediatrics/education , Preoperative Care/methods , Surgical Procedures, Operative/education , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Triage
6.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376921

ABSTRACT

Bariatric surgery is the most efficacious treatment for obesity, though it is not free from complications. Preoperative conditioning has proved beneficial in various clinical contexts, but the evidence is scarce on the role of prehabilitation in bariatric surgery. We describe the protocol and pilot study of a randomized (ratio 1:1), parallel, controlled trial assessing the effect of a physical conditioning and respiratory muscle training programme, added to a standard 8-week group intervention based on therapeutical education and cognitive-behavioural therapy, in patients awaiting bariatric surgery. The primary outcome is preoperative weight-loss. Secondary outcomes include associated comorbidity, eating behaviour, physical activity, quality of life, and short-term postoperative complications. A pilot sample of 15 participants has been randomized to the intervention or control groups and their baseline features and results are described. Only 5 patients completed the group programme and returned for assessment. Measures to improve adherence will be implemented and once the COVID-19 pandemic allows, the clinical trial will start. This is the first randomized, clinical trial assessing the effect of physical and respiratory prehabilitation, added to standard group education and cognitive-behavioural intervention in obese patients on the waiting list for bariatric surgery. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT0404636.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Preoperative Care/methods , Preoperative Exercise , Adult , Breathing Exercises/methods , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Education as Topic , Pilot Projects , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Weight Loss
7.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 148(3): 680-684, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371773

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, responsible for the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, has claimed over 2 million lives to date and brought the global economy to a halt, including elective surgery. As the authors emerge from lockdown, new protocols must be implemented to minimize risk by means of appropriate screening of their patients, surgical adjustments to reduce viral transmission in case of undiagnosed infection, and the development of accurate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 tests while awaiting the distribution of an effective vaccine. Many serology and molecular tests have received emergency use authorization from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, but they have not yet been independently verified. There are three main types of diagnostic tests available: (1) imaging studies, (2) molecular tests, and (3) serology tests. Imaging studies reveal bilateral lower lobe pneumonia and ground-glass opacities that are suggestive of disease. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction identifies specific segments of viral RNA, indicating the active presence of the virus in the test subject, which is most useful for elective surgery screening. Finally, serology studies detect the presence of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies to the virus, indicating a current or past infection. Each test offers its own benefits and limitations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Preoperative Care/methods , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Surgeons
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5554500, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263956

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the advantages of preoperative digital design of skin flaps to repair fingertip defects during the COVID-19 pandemic. We combined digital design with a 3D-printed model of the affected finger for preoperative communication with fingertip defect patients under observation in a buffer ward. METHODS: From December 2019 to January 2021, we obtained data from 25 cases of 30 fingertip defects in 15 males and 10 females, aged 20-65 years old (mean 35 ± 5 years). All cases were treated by digitally designing preoperative fingertip defect flaps combined with a 3D-printed model. Preoperative 3D Systems Sense scanning was routinely performed, 3-matic 12.0 was used to measure the fingertip defect area ranging from 1.5 cm × 3.5 cm to 2.0 cm × 5.0 cm, and the skin flap was designed. The flap area was 1.6 cm × 3.6 cm to 2.1 cm × 5.1 cm. CURA 15.02.1 was used to set parameters, and the 3D model of the affected finger was printed prior to the operation. Full-thickness skin grafts were taken from donor areas for repair. RESULTS: No vascular crises occurred in any of the 25 cases, and all flaps survived. The postoperative follow-up occurred over 3-12 months. All patients were evaluated 3 months after operation according to the trial standard of hand function evaluation of the Chinese Hand Surgery Society. The results showed that 20 cases had excellent outcomes (80%), four cases had good outcomes (16%), and one case had a fair outcome (4%). The excellent and good rate was 96%. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 epidemic, fingertip defects were treated with preoperative digital design of fingertip defect flaps combined with 3D printing. Precision design saves surgery time and improves the success rate of surgery and the survival rates of skin flaps. In addition, 3D model simulations improve preoperative communication efficiency, and the personalized design improves patient satisfaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Finger Injuries/surgery , Fingers/surgery , Pandemics , Preoperative Care/methods , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Skin Transplantation/methods , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/psychology , China/epidemiology , Female , Graft Survival , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Anatomic , Printing, Three-Dimensional/instrumentation , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Skin Transplantation/psychology , Surgical Flaps/blood supply , Surgical Flaps/innervation , Treatment Outcome , Wound Healing/physiology
11.
Minerva Pediatr (Torino) ; 73(5): 460-466, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181860

ABSTRACT

Inevitably, along with other healthcare specializations, pediatric surgery was affected by the Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. Children were reported to manifest mild to moderate symptoms and mortality was primarily observed in patients aged <1 year and having underlying comorbidities. Most of the cases were asymptomatic in children, hence, posing a challenge for pediatric surgery centers to take drastic measures to reduce the virus transmission. Telemedicine was introduced and out-patient consultations were conducted online as out-patient clinics were closed. Elective surgeries were postponed with delayed appointments while the healthcare sector was diverted towards tackling COVID-19. Case urgency was classified and triaged, leading to limited surgeries being performed only in COVID-19 negative patients following an extensive screening process. The screening process consisted of online history taking and RT-PCR tests. Newer practices such as mouth rinse, video laryngoscopy, and anesthesia were introduced to restrict patients from crying, coughing, and sneezing, as an attempt to avoid aerosolization of viral particles and safely conduct pediatric surgeries during the pandemic. Surgical trainees were also affected as the smaller number of surgeries conducted reduced the clinical experience available to medical enthusiasts. There is still room for advanced practices to be introduced in pediatric surgery and restore all kinds of surgeries to improve the quality of life of the patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pediatrics , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Child , Child, Preschool , Elective Surgical Procedures , General Surgery/education , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Patient Selection , Pediatrics/education , Preoperative Care/methods , Surgical Procedures, Operative/education , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Triage
12.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 46(6): 478-481, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148173

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The role of telemedicine in the evaluation and treatment of patients with spinal disorders is rapidly expanding, brought on largely by the COVID-19 pandemic. Within this context, the ability of pain specialists to accurately diagnose and plan appropriate interventional spine procedures based entirely on telemedicine visits, without an in-person evaluation, remains to be established. In this study, our primary objective was to assess the relevance of telemedicine to interventional spine procedure planning by determining whether procedure plans established solely from virtual visits changed following in-person evaluation. METHODS: We reviewed virtual and in-person clinical encounters from our academic health system's 10 interventional spine specialists. We included patients who were seen exclusively via telemedicine encounters and indicated for an interventional procedure with documented procedural plans. Virtual plans were then compared with the actual procedures performed following in-person evaluation. Demographic data as well as the type and extent of physical examination performed by the interventional spine specialist were also recorded. RESULTS: Of the 87 new patients included, the mean age was 60 years (SE 1.4 years) and the preprocedural plan established by telemedicine, primarily videoconferencing, did not change for 76 individuals (87%; 95% CI 0.79 to 0.94) following in-person evaluation. Based on the size of our sample, interventional procedures indicated solely during telemedicine encounters may be accurate in 79%-94% of cases in the broader population. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that telemedicine evaluations are a generally accurate means of preprocedural assessment and development of interventional spine procedure plans. These findings clearly demonstrate the capabilities of telemedicine for evaluating spine patients and planning interventional spine procedures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Preoperative Care/methods , Spinal Diseases/surgery , Spine/surgery , Telemedicine , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Minerva Surg ; 76(1): 57-61, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity represents a risk factor for COVID-19 infection. Therefore, in order to reduce COVID-19 related comorbidities in obese population a continuation of obesity treatment is needed. However, bariatric procedures were postponed because of COVID-19 restrictions, delaying treatment for obese patients seeking for surgery. This study aimed to test the feasibility of a telematics pre-operative psychological and nutritional assessment as an alternative tool during COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: Twenty-six patients were contacted. The pre-operative assessment consisted in 3-weekly one-to-one online sessions and a final in-person multidisciplinary session. The protocol feasibility has been evaluated on the following outcome: rejection rate (%), dropout rate (%), compliance and satisfaction's degree. RESULTS: Eighteen participants completed the whole protocol and 10% dropped-out. Seventy-two percent of participants obtained an excess weight loss ≥5%. All participants were satisfied of the telematics assessment. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 emergency has changed standard hospital procedures and this study could represent a landmark for an online pre-operative assessment method to adopt in case of new restrictions.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nutrition Assessment , Preoperative Care/methods , Psychological Tests , Social Media , Adult , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Internet-Based Intervention , Male , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Patient Dropouts/statistics & numerical data , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Weight Loss
15.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(3): 341-343, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131954

ABSTRACT

We implemented universal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing of patients undergoing surgical procedures as a means to conserve personal protective equipment (PPE). The rate of asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was <0.5%, which suggests that early local public health interventions were successful. Although our protocol was resource intensive, it prevented exposures to healthcare team members.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Preoperative Care/methods , Surgical Procedures, Operative/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , North Carolina/epidemiology , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution
16.
Hosp Pract (1995) ; 49(3): 216-220, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109113

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Many hospitals have recently instituted policies mandating preoperative COVID-19 testing. However, it is uncertain whether institutions can dictate such policies based on infection rates found in the general population. Therefore, the main aims of the study were to determine (1) what proportion of preoperative patients tested positive, (2) what percentage was asymptomatic, and (3) whether variations throughout time in numbers of positive patients reflected changes observed in our state.Methods: All COVID-19 preoperative screening tests (nasopharyngeal-swab RT-PCR testing) performed in our hospital between 04/13/2020 and 08/27/2020 were retrospectively reviewed. The unit of analysis was number of patients who tested negative/positive. Medical records of positive patients were reviewed to determine the presence of COVID-19 symptoms. A curve was created showing our number of positive patients per week and another one presenting the number of positive patients per day in Florida, both figures were compared.Results: A total of 7,213 patients from all specialties were preoperatively tested, out of which 85 were positive for an overall infection rate of 1.2%. In 18% (15/85) of positive patients, it was not possible to determine symptomatology. Among remaining patients, 49% (34/70) were asymptomatic while 51% (36/70) were symptomatic for COVID-19. Peak of positive cases occurred in mid-July in both curves, and the upward and downward tendencies in positive numbers mirrored each other.Conclusion: COVID-19 infection rate among our preoperative patients was very low. Nearly 50% of positive patients were asymptomatic. Our data suggest that a tertiary hospital can promulgate COVID-19 preoperative screening policies based on infection trends observed in the general population. However, in addition to the test, patients should be encouraged to self-quarantine for 14 days before surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Preoperative Care/methods , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Healthcare , United States
18.
Curr Oncol ; 28(1): 940-949, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has invariably changed the way lung cancer surgical care is provided in Canada. Despite relevant management guidelines, the way in which cancer care has been affected has yet to be described for thoracic surgical populations. Routine lung cancer physiologic and staging assessments are unique in that they are droplet producing and aerosolizing procedures. Our objective was to quantify the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on surgical lung cancer care as perceived by practicing thoracic surgeons during the first wave of the pandemic in Canada. METHODS: An electronic survey was distributed to members of the Canadian Association of Thoracic Surgeons. The survey was designed to determine surgeon perception of lung cancer preoperative care during the Canadian pandemic-instilled period of resource reallocation compared to standard care. Planned analyses were exploratory in nature; with count and frequency distributions of responses quantified. RESULTS: Fifty-three thoracic surgeons completed the survey. Responses were collected from all Canadian provinces. Little change in access to preoperative imaging was noted. However, a significant decrease in access to lung function and bronchoscopy testing occurred. Pulmonary surgery was perceived to be lengthier with reduced operating theater availability. Despite decreased OR access, only 40% of surgeons were aware of respective institutional mitigation strategies. SUMMARY: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on standard lung cancer care preoperative workup. Further inquiry using institutional data is warranted to quantify its impact on cancer patient outcomes. Assessing the extent and effects of newly present barriers to standard lung cancer care is essential in forming appropriate mitigation strategies and planning for future pandemic waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Preoperative Care/methods , Bronchoscopy , Canada , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Operating Rooms , Operative Time , Surveys and Questionnaires , Thoracic Surgical Procedures
20.
Aust Health Rev ; 44(5): 723-727, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084111

ABSTRACT

Objective This study analysed screening for COVID-19 before surgery and outcomes of any perioperative testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection during pandemic-restricted surgery. Methods An audit was conducted with routinely collected health data before both elective and non-elective surgery at two large Melbourne hospitals during April and early May 2020. We looked for documented systematic screening for COVID-19 disease and fever (>38°C) and results of SARS-COV-2 testing, and proposed a minimum acceptable documenting rate of 85%. Results The study included 2197 consecutive patients (1279 (58%) undergoing elective surgery, 917 (42%) undergoing non-elective surgery) across most specialities. Although 926 (72%) patients undergoing elective surgery had both systematic screening and temperature documented, approximately half that percentage undergoing non-elective surgery (n=347; 38%) had both documented. However, 871 (95%) of non-elective surgery patients had temperature documented. Acknowledging limited screening, 85 (9.3%) non-elective surgery patients had positive screening, compared with 39 (3.0%) elective surgery patients. All 152 (7%) patients who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 were negative, and no cases were reported from external contact tracing. Conclusions Although 'not documented' does not necessarily equal 'not done', we found that documenting of COVID-19 screening could be improved. Better understanding of implementing screening practices in pandemics and other crises, particularly for non-elective surgery patients, is warranted. What is known about the topic? Little is known about routine screening for SARS-CoV-2 infection among surgical patients. However, it is well established that implementing effective uptake of safety and quality initiatives can be difficult. What does this paper add? We found that although most patients had documented temperature, fewer than 75% had a documented systematic questionnaire screen for COVID, particularly patients undergoing non-elective surgery. What are the implications for practitioners? Clear documenting is important in managing patients. Pandemics and other crises can require rapid changes in practice. Implementing such measures may be less complete than anticipated and may require greater use of evidence-based implementation strategies, particularly in the less predictable care of non-elective surgery patients.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Data Collection/methods , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Mass Screening/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Preoperative Care/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Australia , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
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