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2.
Wounds ; 34(9): 220-222, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2058423

ABSTRACT

Responsibilities placed on nurses increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Hospital-acquired PI monitoring was deferred in favor of more critical patient needs. It was hypothesized that a counterintuitive dip in HAPI reporting would be observed despite maximum hospital capacity across much of the United States. The electronic medical records of patients treated in the YNHH System between December 2017 and February 2021 were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with HAPIs, defined as PIs not documented upon admission but subsequently present during the patient's hospital stay. Paired t test revealed a significantly lower number of reported incidents mid-pandemic than during the prepandemic baseline months (P <.0001). The data in this report show interdisciplinary clinician-led teams must continue to monitor for HAPIs and congruous conditions to minimize reporting gaps and progression in PI severity despite COVID-19 pandemic-related conditions and additional related responsibilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pressure Ulcer , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Iatrogenic Disease , Pandemics , Pressure Ulcer/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
3.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3397, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2054525

ABSTRACT

Objective: to describe scientific evidence regarding the use of prone positioning in the care provided to patients with acute respiratory failure caused by COVID-19. Method: this is a scoping review. PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews was used to support the writing of this study. The search was conducted in seven databases and resulted in 2,441 studies, 12 of which compose the sample. Descriptive statistics, such as relative and absolute frequencies, was used to analyze data. Results: prone positioning was mainly adopted in Intensive Care Units, lasted from a minimum of 12 up to 16 hours, and its prescription was based on specific criteria, such as PaO2/FiO2 ratio, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate. The most prevalent complications were: accidental extubation, pressure ulcer, and facial edema. Decreased hypoxemia and mortality rates were the main outcomes reported. Conclusion: positive outcomes outweighed complications. Various cycles of prone positioning are needed, which may cause potential work overload for the health staff. Therefore, an appropriate number of trained workers is necessary, in addition to specific institutional protocols to ensure patient safety in this context.


Objetivo: descrever as evidências científicas acerca da utilização da posição prona na assistência ao paciente com insuficiência respiratória aguda provocada por COVID-19. Método: trata-se de uma scoping review. O instrumento PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews foi utilizado para a redação do estudo. As buscas foram realizadas em sete bases de dados, resultando em 2.441 estudos dos quais 12 compõem a amostra. Uma análise descritiva dos dados foi realizada empregando frequências relativas e absolutas. Resultados: a utilização da posição prona ocorreu principalmente em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva, com duração mínima de 12 a 16 horas, e teve como fundamentos de indicação critérios específicos, tais como a relação PaO2/FiO2, a saturação de oxigênio e a frequência respiratória. As complicações mais prevalentes da sua utilização foram: extubação acidental, lesão por pressão e edema facial. Identificou-se a redução da hipoxemia e da mortalidade como principais desfechos evidenciados na amostra. Conclusão: os desfechos positivos sobressaíram-se face às complicações. São necessários vários ciclos de pronação do paciente, fator causador de possível sobrecarga de trabalho da equipe de saúde. Portanto, são importantes um adequado dimensionamento dos profissionais, uma equipe treinada e protocolos institucionais específicos a fim de se garantir a segurança do paciente nesse contexto.


Objetivo: describir las evidencias científicas acerca de la utilización de la posición prona en la atención al paciente con insuficiencia respiratoria aguda provocada por COVID-19. Método: se trata de una revisión de escopo. El instrumento PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews fue utilizado para la redacción del estudio. Las búsquedas fueron realizadas en siete bases de datos, resultando en 2.441 estudios de los cuales 12 integran la muestra. Un análisis descriptivo de los datos fue desarrollado empleando frecuencias relativas y absolutas. Resultados: la utilización de la posición prona ocurrió principalmente en Unidades de Terapia Intensiva, con duración mínima de 12 a 16 horas, y tuvo como fundamentos de indicación criterios específicos, tales como la relación PaO2/FiO2, la saturación de oxígeno y la frecuencia respiratoria. Las complicaciones más frecuentes de su uso fueron: desintubación accidental, lesión por presión y edema facial. Se identificó la reducción de la hipoxemia y de la mortalidad como principales resultados evidenciados en la muestra. Conclusión: los resultados positivos se destacaran ante las complicaciones. Son necesarios varios ciclos de pronación del paciente, factor causante de una posible sobrecarga de trabajo del equipo de salud. Por lo tanto, son importantes un adecuado dimensionamiento de los profesionales, un equipo capacitado y protocolos institucionales específicos a fin de garantizar la seguridad del paciente en ese contexto.


Subject(s)
Patient Care Team , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Respiratory Tract Infections , Prone Position , Coronavirus Infections , Pressure Ulcer , Edema , Alkalies , Equipment and Supplies , Airway Extubation , Critical Care Nursing , Intensive Care Units , Hypoxia
4.
Healthc Policy ; 17(SP): 107-121, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955026

ABSTRACT

Neglect of vulnerable adults living in long-term care (LTC) homes has been well documented. It often presents first in the physical symptoms of decubitus ulcers, dehydration and urinary tract infections (UTIs). A retrospective cohort study was conducted to examine the relationship between neglect and 90-day mortality among LTC residents in Ontario. An index of neglect was created. Of 106,765 residents, more than one-quarter were found to have at least one indicator of neglect: 13.1% had decubitus ulcers, 13.5% had dehydration, 6.2% had a UTI. Residents who exhibited clinical signs of neglect had higher risks of death within 90 days, both before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pressure Ulcer , Adult , Dehydration , Humans , Long-Term Care , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
6.
J Adv Nurs ; 78(12): 4042-4053, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886682

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate the impact of family visit restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic on deliriums, falls, pneumonia, pressure ulcers and readmissions among surgical inpatients with gastrointestinal (oncologic) diseases. DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: This study was conducted among adult inpatients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery in two academic hospitals. During the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020, over a 10-week period, one cohort was subjected to family visit restrictions. Per patient, one person per day was allowed to visit for a maximum of 30 min. This cohort was compared with another cohort in which patients were not subjected to such restrictions during a 10-week period in 2019. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the impact of the restrictions on deliriums, falls, pneumonia, pressure ulcers and readmissions. RESULTS: In total, 287 patients were included in the 2020 cohort and 243 in the 2019 cohort. No differences were observed in the cohorts with respect to baseline characteristics. Logistic regression analyses showed no significant differences in deliriums, falls, pneumonia, pressure ulcers and readmissions between the cohorts. CONCLUSION: We cautiously conclude that the family visit restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic did not contribute to deliriums, falls, pneumonia, pressure ulcers or readmissions in surgical patients with gastrointestinal (oncologic) diseases. IMPACT: COVID-19 influenced family-centred care due to family visit restrictions. Nurses need to continue monitoring outcomes known to be sensitive to family-centred care to gain insight into the effects of visit restrictions and share the results in order to include nurses' perspectives in COVID-19-decision-making. Re-implementing of family visit restrictions should be carefully considered in policy-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Pressure Ulcer , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Pressure Ulcer/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Policy
7.
AACN Adv Crit Care ; 33(2): 173-185, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients critically ill with COVID-19 are at risk for hospital-acquired pressure injury, including device-related pressure injury. METHODS: Braden Scale predictive validity was compared between patients with and without COVID-19, and a logistic regression model was developed to identify risk factors for device-related pressure injury. RESULTS: A total of 1920 patients were included in the study sample, including 407 with COVID-19. Among the latter group, at least 1 hospital-acquired pressure injury developed in each of 120 patients (29%); of those, device-related pressure injury developed in 55 patients (46%). The Braden Scale score area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.72 in patients without COVID-19 and 0.71 in patients with COVID-19, indicating fair to poor discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: Fragile skin and prone positioning during mechanical ventilatory support were risk factors for device-related pressure injury. Clinicians may consider incorporating factors not included in the Braden Scale (eg, oxygenation and perfusion) in routine risk assessment and should maintain vigilance in their efforts to protect patients with COVID-19 from device-related pressure injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pressure Ulcer , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Predictive Value of Tests , Pressure Ulcer/etiology , Pressure Ulcer/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
8.
Wound Repair Regen ; 30(2): 190-197, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854206

ABSTRACT

Preventing recurrent pressure ulcers is an important challenge in healthcare. One of the reasons for the high rate of recurrent pressure ulcers is the lack of assessment methods for their early detection. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the thermographic characteristics of the healed area and to consider the predictive validity of thermographic images for recurrent pressure ulcers within a 2-week period. This observational study was conducted at a long-term care facility in Japan between July 2017 and February 2019 among patients whose pressure ulcers had healed. Thermographic images of the healed area were recorded once a week until recurrence or until the end of the study. We enrolled 30 participants, among whom 8 developed recurrent pressure ulcers. The generalised estimation equation revealed that the thermographic finding of increased temperature at the healed area compared to that of the surrounding skin was significantly associated with recurrent pressure ulcers (odds ratio: 101.13, 95% confidence interval: 3.60-2840.77, p = .007); the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio for recurrent pressure ulcers within 2 weeks were 0.80, 0.94, 0.62, 0.97, 12.9 and 0.2, respectively. Our thermographic findings revealed that the temperature of the healed area was higher than that of the surrounding skin; this could be a useful predictor of pressure ulcer recurrence within 2 weeks, even in the absence of macroscopic changes.


Subject(s)
Pressure Ulcer , Humans , Pressure Ulcer/diagnosis , Skin , Temperature , Thermography , Wound Healing
9.
J Tissue Viability ; 31(2): 213-220, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851676

ABSTRACT

AIM: This systematic review was carried out to examine pressure ulcers in healthcare staff due to the use of protective equipment during COVID-19 pandemic and the precautions taken to prevent these injuries. METHOD: Relevant studies were retrospectively searched. Seven English keywords identified from MESH were used while searching. The search was carried out in five international databases by trying various combinations of these words during February 15-25, 2021. This systematic review was updated by rescanning databases on December 20, 2021 and a total of 611 studies were attained. RESULTS: 17 studies which met the study inclusion criteria, which were conducted mostly through online survey method in different study designs and which included a total of 24,889 healthcare professionals were examined. The incidence of PPE-related pressure ulcers was found to be between 30% and 92.8%. Grade I pressure ulcers were the most common (44.1%-82%). The incidence of skin problems except PPE-related pressure ulcers such as itching, redness and dry skin was found to be between 42.8-88.1%. Risk factors that frequently played a role in the development of PPE-related pressure ulcers and other skin problems were longer use of PPE and sweating. PPE-related pressure ulcers and other skin problems were more frequent over the nose (nasal bone/nasal bridge), ears, forehead and cheeks. PPE-related itching, redness and dry skin mostly occurred. Several dressing applications were found to be effective in the prevention of PPE-related pressure ulcers and other skin problems that might develop especially on the facial region. CONCLUSION: PPE-related pressure ulcers and other skin problems were found to be higher among healthcare professionals. Data regarding the sealing of dressing applications against viral transmission in the prevention of PPE-related pressure ulcers and other skin problems are limited. It is estimated that future studies will be performed to prevent device-related pressure ulcers in healthcare workers. It is suggested that there is a need to conduct studies with larger samples where expert researchers make observations for pressure ulcers in order to determine the prevalence and incidence of PPE-related pressure ulcers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pressure Ulcer , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Pressure Ulcer/epidemiology , Pressure Ulcer/etiology , Pressure Ulcer/prevention & control , Pruritus , Retrospective Studies
10.
rev. cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 12(3): 1-13, 20210821.
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1811628

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La posición prono (PP) es una alternativa terapéutica ampliamente recomendada e implementada en los pacientes con COVID-19. Sin embargo, aunque es un procedimiento no invasivo, es complejo y se asocia con eventos adversos como las úlceras por presión (UPP). Nuestro objetivo es proponer un plan de cuidados de enfermería basado en el lenguaje estandarizado NANDA-I, NIC, NOC para la prevención de las UPP secundarias a la PP en la enfermedad de COVID-19. Síntesis del contenido: En los pacientes con COVID-19, además de factores de riesgo propios del paciente como la edad avanzada y la presencia de comorbilidades, la PP contribuye a la presencia de los diagnósticos de enfermería de riesgo de úlcera por presión [00249], de deterioro de la integridad cutánea [00047] y tisular [00248]. Por su parte, la intervención de enfermería prevención de úlceras por presión [3540], es clave para minimizar el desarrollo de esta complicación, mejorar la calidad de la atención y el pronóstico en este tipo de pacientes. Finalmente, para determinar la efectividad del cuidado de enfermería se proponen los resultados NOC consecuencias de la inmovilidad: fisiológicas [0204] e integridad tisular: piel y membranas mucosas [1101]. Conclusión: La PP es una terapia coadyuvante recomendada para el manejo de los pacientes con COVID-19 críticamente enfermos, debido a que optimiza la función pulmonar, sin embargo está asociada a eventos adversos como las UPP. Este artículo presenta recomendaciones basadas en una revisión narrativa para facilitar la implementación de cuidados de enfermería preventivos que reduzcan su frecuencia en esta población.


Introduction: Prone position (PP) is a therapeutic alternative widely used and recommended in patients with COVID-19. Although PP is a non-invasive procedure, it is complex and could be associated with complications such as the development of pressure ulcers (PU). We aimed to propose a standardized nursing care plan in terms of NANDA-International, NIC (Nursing Interventions Classification) and NOC (Nursing Outcomes Classification) to prevent PU secondary to the PP in people with COVID-19.Content synthesis: In patients with COVID-19, in addition to risk factors such as advanced age and the presence of comorbidities, PP contributes to the presence of pressure ulcer risk nursing diagnoses [00249], of deterioration of skin [00047] and tissue [00248] integrity. On the other hand, the nursing intervention for the prevention of pressure ulcers [3540], due to the specificity and scientific basis of its activities, is key to minimize the development of this complication, improve the quality of care and the prognosis in this type of patients. Finally, to evaluate the effectiveness of nursing care, we propose the nursing results (NOC): consequences of immobility: physiological [0204] and tissue integrity: skin and mucous membranes [1101]. Conclusion: PP is a recommended adjunctive therapy for the management of critically ill COVID-19 patients due to its benefits to improve lung function. However, it is associated with adverse effects such as PU. This article presents recommendations based on a narrative review for a better implementation of preventive nursing care that reduces the frequency of PU in this population.


Introdução: A posição prona (PP) é uma alternativa terapéutica amplamente recomendada e implementada em pacientes com COVID-19. No entanto, embora seja um procedimento não invasivo, é complexo e está associado a eventos adversos, como úlceras por pressão (UP). Nosso objetivo é propor um plano de cuidados de enfermagem baseado na linguagem padronizada NANDA-I, NIC, NOC para a prevenção de UP secundárias à PP na doença COVID-19.Síntese de conteúdo: Em pacientes com COVID-19, além dos próprios fatores de risco do paciente, como idade avançada e presença de comorbidades, a PP contribui para a presença de diagnósticos de enfermagem de risco de úlcera por pressão [00249], de deterioração da pele [00047] e do tecido Integridade. Por sua vez, a intervenção de enfermagem na prevenção de úlceras por pressão [3540] é fundamental para minimizar o desenvolvimento desta complicação, melhorar a qualidade da assistência e o prognóstico neste tipo de paciente. Por fim, para determinar a eficácia da assistência de enfermagem, são propostos os resultados da NOC, consequências da imobilidade: fisiológicas [0204] e integridade do tecido: pele e mucosas [1101]. Conclusão: PP é uma terapia adjuvante recomendada para o tratamento de pacientes graves com COVID-19, pois otimiza a função pulmonar, porém está associada a eventos adversos, como UP. Este artigo apresenta recomendações baseadas em revisão narrativa para facilitar a implementação de cuidados preventivos de enfermagem que reduzam sua frequência nesta população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Prone Position , Coronavirus Infections , Pressure Ulcer , Pandemics
11.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 30: e3551, 2022.
Article in Portuguese, English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799031

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to identify the diverse scientific evidence on the types of skin lesions caused due to the use of Personal Protective Equipment in health professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic and to verify the recommended prevention measures. METHOD: this is an integrative review carried out in the MEDLINE, CINAHL, LILACS, SCOPUS, Science Direct, Web of Science and SciELO databases. The search was conducted in a paired manner, constituting a sample of 17 studies categorized according to the types of skin lesions and preventive measures. RESULTS: the main types of skin lesions related to mask use were stage 1 pressure ulcers, acne and cutaneous depression. Regarding the use of glasses and face shields, the most frequent were stage 1 and 2 pressure ulcers. Xerosis and irritant contact dermatitis occurred due to using gloves and protective clothing, respectively. The main preventive measures recommended were using hydrocolloid or foam dressing in the pressure regions, moisturizers and emollients. CONCLUSION: a considerable number of skin lesions associated with using the equipment were noticed, and the data obtained can guide the professionals in identifying risks and promoting preventive measures to avoid their occurrence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pressure Ulcer , Skin Diseases , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Pressure Ulcer/prevention & control
12.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263900, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793523

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pressure Injuries (PIs) are major worldwide public health threats within the different health-care settings. OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare epidemiological and clinical features of PIs in COVID-19 patients and patients admitted for other causes in Internal Medicine Units during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: A descriptive longitudinal retrospective study. SETTING: This study was conducted in Internal Medicine Units in Salamanca University Hospital Complex, a tertiary hospital in the Salamanca province, Spain. PARTICIPANTS: All inpatients ≥18-year-old admitted from March 1, 2020 to June 1, 2020 for more than 24 hours in the Internal Medicine Units with one or more episodes of PIs. RESULTS: A total of 101 inpatients and 171 episodes were studied. The prevalence of PI episodes was 6% and the cumulative incidence was 2.9% during the first-wave of COVID-19. Risk of acute wounds was four times higher in the COVID-19 patient group (p<0.001). Most common locations were sacrum and heels. Among hospital acquired pressure injuries a significant association was observed between arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus in patients with COVID-19 diagnosis. CONCLUSION: During the first wave of COVID-19, COVID-19 patients tend to present a higher number of acute wounds, mainly of hospital origin, compared to the profile of the non-COVID group. Diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension were identified as main associated comorbidities in patients with COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Internal Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Pressure Ulcer/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology
13.
Cells ; 11(8)2022 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785540

ABSTRACT

The risk of complications following surgical procedures is significantly increased in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the mechanisms underlying these correlations are not fully known. Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients who underwent reconstructive surgery for pressure ulcers (PUs) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic were included in this study. The patient's postoperative progression was registered, and the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (s-WAT) surrounding the ulcers was analyzed by proteomic and immunohistochemical assays to identify the molecular/cellular signatures of impaired recovery. Patients with SCI and a COVID-19-positive diagnosis showed worse recovery and severe postoperative complications, requiring reintervention. Several proteins were upregulated in the adipose tissue of these patients. Among them, CKMT2 and CKM stood out, and CKM increased for up to 60 days after the COVID-19 diagnosis. Moreover, CKMT2 and CKM were largely found in MGCs within the s-WAT of COVID patients. Some of these proteins presented post-translational modifications and were targeted by autoantibodies in the serum of COVID patients. Overall, our results indicate that CKMT2, CKM, and the presence of MGCs in the adipose tissue surrounding PUs in post-COVID patients could be predictive biomarkers of postsurgical complications. These results suggest that the inflammatory response in adipose tissue may underlie the defective repair seen after surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pressure Ulcer , Spinal Cord Injuries , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Creatine Kinase/metabolism , Creatine Kinase, Mitochondrial Form/metabolism , Humans , Pandemics , Pressure Ulcer/epidemiology , Pressure Ulcer/etiology , Pressure Ulcer/surgery , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spinal Cord Injuries/complications , Spinal Cord Injuries/surgery , Suppuration/complications , Up-Regulation
15.
J Nurs Manag ; 30(4): 1061-1068, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735960

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the completion of nursing records through scheduled audits to analyse risk outcome indicators. BACKGROUND: Nursing records support clinical decision-making and encourage continuity of care, hence the importance of auditing their completion in order to take corrective action where necessary. METHOD: This was an observational descriptive study carried out from February to November 2020 with a sample of 1131 electronic health records belonging to patients admitted to COVID-19 hospital units during three observation periods: pre-pandemic, first wave, and second wave. RESULTS: A significant reduction in nursing record completion rates was observed between pre-pandemic period and first and second waves: Braden scale 40.97%, 28.02%, and 30.99%; Downton scale: 43.74%, 22.34%, and 33.91%; Gijón scale: 40.12%, 26.23%, and 33.64% (p < 0.001). There was an increase in the number of records completed between the first and second waves following the measures adopted after the quality audit. CONCLUSIONS: The use of scheduled audits of nursing records as quality indicators facilitated the detection of areas for improvement, allowing timely corrective actions. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Support from nursing managers at health care facilities to implement quality assessment programmes encompassing audits of clinical record completion will encourage the adoption of measures for corrective action.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pressure Ulcer , Accidental Falls , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Nursing Records , Pressure Ulcer/epidemiology , Pressure Ulcer/etiology , Pressure Ulcer/prevention & control , 34658
16.
Br J Nurs ; 31(4): S22-S32, 2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1716169

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Many patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care undergo prone positioning. These patients are at risk of developing facial pressure ulcers (PUs). This study aimed to identify evidence-based recommendations to prevent or reduce their incidence. METHOD: A multi-case study was undertaken using secondary data published between November 2020 and April 2021 discussing facial PUs in patients with COVID-19. CINAHL and MEDLINE electronic databases were analysed. Sixteen publications met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of evidence was low. RESULT: Studies reported a high incidence of facial PUs. The evidence suggests key preventive areas are skin assessment, pressure-redistribution surfaces, eye coverings, education, medical devices and prophylactic dressings. Recommendations included skin cleaning and moisturising, eye coverings, replacing endotracheal tube holders and using hydrocolloid or film dressings. CONCLUSION: Considering the severe implications for patients and healthcare systems caused by facial PUs, ICUs should develop strategies to prevent and minimise them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pressure Ulcer , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pressure Ulcer/epidemiology , Pressure Ulcer/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Ulcer
17.
J Nurs Care Qual ; 37(2): 162-167, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 negatively impacts many organ systems including the skin. One of the most significant skin-associated adverse events related to hospitalization are pressure injuries. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine 8 risk factors that would place hospitalized patients at a higher risk for hospital-acquired pressure injuries (HAPIs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive analysis was conducted in an urban academic health science center located in the southeastern United States. RESULTS: There were 247 of 23 093 patients who had pressure injuries and 1053 patients who had a positive COVID-19 diagnosis. Based on the generalized estimating equation model, diagnosis of COVID-19, age, male gender, risk of mortality, severity of illness, and length of stay are statistically significant factors associated with the development of HAPIs. CONCLUSIONS: Further study should explore pathology of COVID-19 skin changes and what interventions are effective against HAPIs in the COVID-19 population taking into consideration current treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pressure Ulcer , COVID-19 Testing , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pressure Ulcer/epidemiology , Pressure Ulcer/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
rev. cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 12(3): 1-13, 20210821.
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1698924

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La posición prono (PP) es una alternativa terapéutica ampliamente recomendada e implementada en los pacientes con COVID-19. Sin embargo, aunque es un procedimiento no invasivo, es complejo y se asocia con eventos adversos como las úlceras por presión (UPP). Nuestro objetivo es proponer un plan de cuidados de enfermería basado en el lenguaje estandarizado NANDA-I, NIC, NOC para la prevención de las UPP secundarias a la PP en la enfermedad de COVID-19. Síntesis del contenido: En los pacientes con COVID-19, además de factores de riesgo propios del paciente como la edad avanzada y la presencia de comorbilidades, la PP contribuye a la presencia de los diagnósticos de enfermería de riesgo de úlcera por presión [00249], de deterioro de la integridad cutánea [00047] y tisular [00248]. Por su parte, la intervención de enfermería prevención de úlceras por presión [3540], es clave para minimizar el desarrollo de esta complicación, mejorar la calidad de la atención y el pronóstico en este tipo de pacientes. Finalmente, para determinar la efectividad del cuidado de enfermería se proponen los resultados NOC consecuencias de la inmovilidad: fisiológicas [0204] e integridad tisular: piel y membranas mucosas [1101]. Conclusión: La PP es una terapia coadyuvante recomendada para el manejo de los pacientes con COVID-19 críticamente enfermos, debido a que optimiza la función pulmonar, sin embargo está asociada a eventos adversos como las UPP. Este artículo presenta recomendaciones basadas en una revisión narrativa para facilitar la implementación de cuidados de enfermería preventivos que reduzcan su frecuencia en esta población.


Introduction: Prone position (PP) is a therapeutic alternative widely used and recommended in patients with COVID-19. Although PP is a non-invasive procedure, it is complex and could be associated with complications such as the development of pressure ulcers (PU). We aimed to propose a standardized nursing care plan in terms of NANDA-International, NIC (Nursing Interventions Classification) and NOC (Nursing Outcomes Classification) to prevent PU secondary to the PP in people with COVID-19.Content synthesis: In patients with COVID-19, in addition to risk factors such as advanced age and the presence of comorbidities, PP contributes to the presence of pressure ulcer risk nursing diagnoses [00249], of deterioration of skin [00047] and tissue [00248] integrity. On the other hand, the nursing intervention for the prevention of pressure ulcers [3540], due to the specificity and scientific basis of its activities, is key to minimize the development of this complication, improve the quality of care and the prognosis in this type of patients. Finally, to evaluate the effectiveness of nursing care, we propose the nursing results (NOC): consequences of immobility: physiological [0204] and tissue integrity: skin and mucous membranes [1101]. Conclusion: PP is a recommended adjunctive therapy for the management of critically ill COVID-19 patients due to its benefits to improve lung function. However, it is associated with adverse effects such as PU. This article presents recommendations based on a narrative review for a better implementation of preventive nursing care that reduces the frequency of PU in this population.


Introdução: A posição prona (PP) é uma alternativa terapéutica amplamente recomendada e implementada em pacientes com COVID-19. No entanto, embora seja um procedimento não invasivo, é complexo e está associado a eventos adversos, como úlceras por pressão (UP). Nosso objetivo é propor um plano de cuidados de enfermagem baseado na linguagem padronizada NANDA-I, NIC, NOC para a prevenção de UP secundárias à PP na doença COVID-19.Síntese de conteúdo: Em pacientes com COVID-19, além dos próprios fatores de risco do paciente, como idade avançada e presença de comorbidades, a PP contribui para a presença de diagnósticos de enfermagem de risco de úlcera por pressão [00249], de deterioração da pele [00047] e do tecido Integridade. Por sua vez, a intervenção de enfermagem na prevenção de úlceras por pressão [3540] é fundamental para minimizar o desenvolvimento desta complicação, melhorar a qualidade da assistência e o prognóstico neste tipo de paciente. Por fim, para determinar a eficácia da assistência de enfermagem, são propostos os resultados da NOC, consequências da imobilidade: fisiológicas [0204] e integridade do tecido: pele e mucosas [1101]. Conclusão: PP é uma terapia adjuvante recomendada para o tratamento de pacientes graves com COVID-19, pois otimiza a função pulmonar, porém está associada a eventos adversos, como UP. Este artigo apresenta recomendações baseadas em revisão narrativa para facilitar a implementação de cuidados preventivos de enfermagem que reduzam sua frequência nesta população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Prone Position , Coronavirus Infections , Pressure Ulcer , Pandemics
20.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264139, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690689

ABSTRACT

A pressure ulcer is an injury of the skin and underlying tissues adjacent to a bony eminence. Patients who suffer from this disease may have difficulty accessing medical care. Recently, the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated this situation. Automatic diagnosis based on machine learning (ML) brings promising solutions. Traditional ML requires complicated preprocessing steps for feature extraction. Its clinical applications are thus limited to particular datasets. Deep learning (DL), which extracts features from convolution layers, can embrace larger datasets that might be deliberately excluded in traditional algorithms. However, DL requires large sets of domain specific labeled data for training. Labeling various tissues of pressure ulcers is a challenge even for experienced plastic surgeons. We propose a superpixel-assisted, region-based method of labeling images for tissue classification. The boundary-based method is applied to create a dataset for wound and re-epithelialization (re-ep) segmentation. Five popular DL models (U-Net, DeeplabV3, PsPNet, FPN, and Mask R-CNN) with encoder (ResNet-101) were trained on the two datasets. A total of 2836 images of pressure ulcers were labeled for tissue classification, while 2893 images were labeled for wound and re-ep segmentation. All five models had satisfactory results. DeeplabV3 had the best performance on both tasks with a precision of 0.9915, recall of 0.9915 and accuracy of 0.9957 on the tissue classification; and a precision of 0.9888, recall of 0.9887 and accuracy of 0.9925 on the wound and re-ep segmentation task. Combining segmentation results with clinical data, our algorithm can detect the signs of wound healing, monitor the progress of healing, estimate the wound size, and suggest the need for surgical debridement.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Deep Learning , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Neural Networks, Computer , Pressure Ulcer/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Pressure Ulcer/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Taiwan/epidemiology
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