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1.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 955, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, chronic low back pain (CLBP) is the leading cause of disability associated with economic costs. However, it has received little attention in low-and-middle-income countries. This study estimated the prevalence and risk factors of CLBP among adults presenting at selected hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal. METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional study was conducted among adults aged ≥18 years who attended the selected hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal during the study period. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic, work-related factors, and information about CLBP. The SPSS version 24.0 (IBM SPSS Inc) was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics were used for demographic characteristics of participants. CLBP risk factors were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. A p-value of ≤0.05 was deemed statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 678 adults participated in this study. The overall prevalence of CLBP was 18.1% (95% CI: 15.3 - 21.3) with females having a higher prevalence than males, 19.8% (95% CI: 16.0 - 24.1) and 15.85% (95% CI: 11.8 - 20.6), respectively. Using multivariate regression analysis, the following risk factors were identified: overweight (aOR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.1 - 12.3, p = 0.032), no formal education (aOR: 6.1, 95% CI: 2.1 - 18.1, p = 0.001), lack of regular physical exercises (aOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.0 - 4.8, p = 0.044), smoking 1 to 10 (aOR: 4.5, 95% CI: 2.0 - 10.2, p < 0.001) and more than 11 cigarettes per day (aOR: 25.3, 95% CI: 10.4 - 61.2, p < 0.001), occasional and frequent consumption of alcohol, aOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1 - 5.9, p < 0.001 and aOR: 11.3, 95% CI: 4.9 - 25.8, p < 0.001, respectively, a sedentary lifestyle (aOR: 31.8, 95% CI: 11.2 - 90.2, p < 0.001), manual work (aOR: 26.2, 95% CI: 10.1 - 68.4, p < 0.001) and a stooped sitting posture (aOR: 6.0, 95% CI: 2.0 - 17.6, p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study concluded that the prevalence of CLBP in KwaZulu-Natal is higher than in other regions, and that it is predicted by a lack of formal education, overweight, lack of regular physical exercises, smoking, alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle, manual work, and a stooped posture.


Subject(s)
Low Back Pain , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Low Back Pain/diagnosis , Low Back Pain/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors , South Africa/epidemiology
2.
J Affect Disord ; 292: 242-254, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global pandemic of COVID-19 has brought huge changes to people's lifestyles, college students have also been affected seriously. Evidence about these significant changes indicated that college students were more prone to feel anxious and depressed. To derive a precise assessment of the prevalence of anxiety symptom and depressive symptom among college students worldwide, we conducted this meta-analysis. METHODS: Based on the guidance of PRISMA, literature was searched in Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, and PsycArticles (last search November 6, 2020). These articles after the screening were analyzed by a random-effects model to estimate the pooled prevalence of anxiety symptom and depressive symptom. Also, subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias were performed in this meta-analysis. RESULTS: The results showed that the pooled anxiety symptom prevalence was 31% (95% CI: 23-39%), pooled depressive symptom prevalence was 34% (95% CI: 27-41%). Subgroup analysis showed that the prevalence of anxiety symptom and depressive symptom among different countries' college students were different, and the pooled depressive symptom prevalence of females was higher compared with males. LIMITATIONS: The prevalence of anxiety symptom and depressive symptom in worldwide college students could be better assessed by a standard and reliable questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the prevalence of anxiety symptom and depressive symptom during the COVID-19 pandemic is relatively high. Except for interventions that should be taken to control the pandemic urgently, mental health services are also needed to decrease the risk of anxiety and depression among college students.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Depression , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Students
3.
Clin Immunol ; 230: 108821, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Information regarding inborn error of immunity (IEI) as a risk factor for severe COVID-19 is scarce. We aimed to determine if paediatric patients with moderate/severe IEI got COVID-19 at the same level as the general population, and to describe COVID-19 expression. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included patients with moderate/severe IEI aged 0-21 years old: cross-sectional study (June2020) to determine the prevalence of COVID-19; prospective study (January2020-January2021) including IEI patients with COVID-19. Assays used: nasopharyngeal swab SARS-CoV-2 PCR and SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulins. RESULTS: Seven from sixty-five patients tested positive (prevalence: 10.7% (7%-13%)) after the first SARS-COV-2 wave and 13/15 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 had an asymptomatic/mild course. CONCLUSIONS: In our area, prevalence of COVID-19 in moderate/severe IEI paediatric patients after the first wave was slightly higher than in the general population. The majority of patients presented a benign course, suggesting a possible protective factor related with age despite IEI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Prevalence , Young Adult
4.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(2): 284-285, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518754
5.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(2): 284, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518753
6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 572, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518263

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has posed significant threats to both the physical and psychological health of healthcare workers working in the front-line combating COVID-19. However, studies regarding the medium to long term impact of COVID-19 on mental health among healthcare workers are limited. Therefore, we conducted this cross-sectional survey to investigate the prevalence, factors and impact of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in healthcare workers exposed to COVID-19 8 months after the end of the outbreak in Wuhan, China. METHODS: A web-based questionnaire was delivered as a link via the communication application WeChat to those healthcare workers who worked at several COVID-19 units during the outbreak (from December 2019 to April 2020) in Wuhan, China. The questionnaire included questions on social-demographic data, the post-traumatic stress disorder checklist-5 (PCL-5), the family care index questionnaire (Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection and Resolve, APGAR), and the quality-of-life scale (QOL). The prevalence, risk and protective factors, and impact of PTSD on healthcare workers were subsequently analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 659 participants, 90 healthcare workers were still suffering from PTSD 8 months after the end of the outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan, in which avoidance and negative impact were the most affected dimensions. Suffering from chronic disease, experiencing social isolation, and job dissatisfaction came up as independent risk factors for PTSD, while obtaining COVID-19 related information at an appropriate frequency, good family function, and working in well-prepared mobile cabin hospitals served as protective factors. The impact of PTSD on COVID-19 exposed healthcare workers was apparent by shortened sleeping time, feeling of loneliness, poorer quality of life and intention to resign. CONCLUSIONS: Eight months after the end of the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, the level of PTSD in healthcare workers exposed to COVID-19 was still high. Apart from the commonly recognized risk factors, comorbid chronic disease was identified as a new independent risk factor for developing PTSD. For countries where the pandemic is still ongoing or in case of future outbreaks of new communicable diseases, this study may contribute to preventing cases of PTSD in healthcare workers exposed to infectious diseases under such circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
7.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(11)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515293

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: As of 26 March 2021, the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention had reported 4 159 055 cases of COVID-19 and 111 357 deaths among the 55 African Union member states; however, no country has published a nationally representative serosurvey as of October 2021. Such data are vital for understanding the pandemic's progression on the continent, evaluating containment measures, and policy planning. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, nationally representative, age-stratified serosurvey in Sierra Leone in March 2021 by randomly selecting 120 Enumeration Areas throughout the country and 10 randomly selected households in each of these. One to two persons per selected household were interviewed to collect information on sociodemographics, symptoms suggestive of COVID-19, exposure history to laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases, and history of COVID-19 illness. Capillary blood was collected by fingerstick, and blood samples were tested using the Hangzhou Biotest Biotech RightSign COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test Cassette. Total seroprevalence was estimated after applying sampling weights. RESULTS: The overall weighted seroprevalence was 2.6% (95% CI 1.9% to 3.4%). This was 43 times higher than the reported number of cases. Rural seropositivity was 1.8% (95% CI 1.0% to 2.5%), and urban seropositivity was 4.2% (95% CI 2.6% to 5.7%). DISCUSSION: Overall seroprevalence was low compared with countries in Europe and the Americas (suggesting relatively successful containment in Sierra Leone). This has ramifications for the country's third wave (which started in June 2021), during which the average number of daily reported cases was 87 by the end of the month:this could potentially be on the order of 3700 actual infections per day, calling for stronger containment measures in a country with only 0.2% of people fully vaccinated. It may also reflect significant under-reporting of incidence and mortality across the continent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Sierra Leone/epidemiology
8.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(4): 6724, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513370

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite UN recommendations to monitor food insecurity using the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES), to date there are no published reports of its validity for The Bahamas, nor have prevalence rates of moderate or severe food insecurity been reported for the remote island nation. At the same time, food security is a deep concern, with increasing incidence of natural disasters and health concerns related to diet-related disease and dietary quality plaguing the nation and its food system. This article aims to examine the validity of the FIES for use in The Bahamas, the prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity, and the sociodemographic factors that contribute to increased food insecurity. METHODS: The FIES survey was administered by randomized and weighted landline telephone survey in Nassau in The Bahamas to 1000 participants in June and July 2017. The Rasch modelling procedure was applied to examine tool validity and prevalence of food insecurity. Equating procedures calibrated this study's results to the global FIES reference scale and computed internationally comparable prevalence rates of both moderate and severe food insecurity. A regression analysis assessed the relationship between household variables and food security. RESULTS: The FIES met benchmarks for fit statistics for all eight items and the overall Rasch reliability is 0.7. As of 2017, Bahamians' prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity was 21%, and the prevalence of severe food insecurity was 10%. Statistically significant variables that contribute to food insecurity included education, age, gender, and presence of diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease. Results also indicated that Bahamians experience food insecurity differently than populations across the globe, likely due in large part to the workings of an isolated food system heavily dependent on foreign imports. Responses showed that by the time a Bahamian worries they will not have enough food to eat, they have already restricted their meals to a few kinds of foods and begun to limit their intake of vegetables and fruits. CONCLUSION: This study, which is among the first to comprehensively measure food security in The Bahamas, provides a baseline for further research and evaluation of practices aimed at mitigating food insecurity in small island developing states. Further, this study provides a benchmark for future research, which may seek to understand the impacts of Hurricane Dorian and COVID-19, disasters further isolating the remote island nation. Post-disaster food security data are needed to further understand the extent to which food security is impacted by natural disasters and identify which sectors and stakeholders are most vital in restructuring the agricultural sector and improving food availability following catastrophic events.


Subject(s)
Food Insecurity , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Hunger , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Bahamas , Humans , Prevalence , Reproducibility of Results , Socioeconomic Factors
9.
Saudi Med J ; 42(7): 742-749, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513260

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify the prevalence of COVID-19 antibodies among operating room and critical care staff. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 319 Healthcare workers employed in the operation theater and intensive care unit of King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), a tertiary teaching hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between August 9, 2020 and November 2, 2020. All participants completed a 20-item questionnaire on demographic data and COVID-19 risk factors and provided blood samples. Antibody testing was performed using an in-house enzyme immunoassay and microneutralization test. RESULTS: Of the 319 participants, 39 had detectable COVID-19 antibodies. Five of them had never experienced any symptoms suggestive of COVID-19, and only 19 were previously diagnosed with COVID-19. The odds of developing COVID-19 or having corresponding antibodies increased if participants experienced COVID-19 symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-7.5) or reported contact with an infected family member (OR, 5.3; 95% CI, 2.5-11.2). Disease acquisition was not associated with employment in the ICU and involvement in the intubation of or close contact with COVID-19 patients. Of the 19 previously diagnosed participants, 6 did not possess any detectable COVID-19 antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare workers may have undiagnosed COVID-19, and those previously infected may not have long-lasting immunity. Therefore, hospitals must continue to uphold strict infection control during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Male , Middle Aged , Operating Rooms , Pandemics , Prevalence , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
10.
Saudi Med J ; 42(4): 384-390, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513255

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To measure the Saudi population's sleep quality during the lockdown of COVID-19. METHODS: An internet-based questionnaire that was performed during the lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic among the Saudi population over 2 weeks from April 1 to April 15, 2020. We used the instant messaging application WhatsApp and Twitter to reach the targeted population. Saudi citizens and non-Saudi residents who can read and understand the questionnaire were recruited. Data were analyzed using Stata and SPSS. RESULTS: A total of 790 responses were included. The majority of participants were the Saudi population 735 (92.9%). The prevalence of insomnia and poor sleep quality were 54.4% and 55.5%, respectively. Saudi citizenship was associated with longer sleep duration (p=0.031). Female gender and being married were associated with worse global PSQI, sleep quality, sleep distribution, sleep latency, and daytime dysfunction. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that during the COVID-19 pandemic, the Saudi population had a high prevalence of insomnia and poor sleep quality. Routine monitoring of the psychological impact of life-threatening outbreaks and the adoption of effective early mental health actions should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Male , Marital Status/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Public Policy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Sleep Latency , Surveys and Questionnaires , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data
11.
Intern Med ; 60(19): 3087-3092, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511911

ABSTRACT

Objective Due to the lack of specific clinical manifestations and symptoms, it is difficult to distinguish COVID-19 from mimics. A common pitfall is to rush to make a diagnosis when encountering a patient with COVID-19-like symptoms. The present study describes a series of COVID-19 mimics using an outpatient database collected from a designated COVID-19 healthcare facility in Tokyo, Japan. Methods We established an emergency room (ER) tailored specifically for patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 called the "COVID-ER." In this single-center retrospective cohort study, we enrolled patients who visited the COVID-ER from February 1 to September 5, 2020. The outcomes included the prevalence of COVID-19, admission, potentially fatal diseases and final diagnosis. Results We identified 2,555 eligible patients. The median age was 38 (interquartile range, 26-57) years old. During the study period, the prevalence of COVID-19 was 17.9% (457/2,555). Non-COVID-19 diagnoses accounted for 82.1% of all cases. The common cold had the highest prevalence and accounted for 33.0% of all final diagnoses, followed by gastroenteritis (9.4%), urinary tract infections (3.8%), tonsillitis (2.9%), heat stroke (2.6%) and bacterial pneumonia (2.1%). The prevalence of potentially fatal diseases was 14.2% (298/2,098) among non-COVID-19 patients. Conclusion Several potentially fatal diseases remain masked among the wave of COVID-19 mimics. It is imperative that a thorough differential diagnostic panel be considered prior to the rendering of a COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Sex Transm Dis ; 48(12): 939-944, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511100

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reported cases of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections are increasing among Canadian men. Estimates of community-based CT/NG prevalence are lacking among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM). METHODS: Respondent driven sampling was used to recruit GBM in Montréal, Canada between February 2017 and June 2018. Specimens provided from urogenital, rectal, and pharyngeal sites were analyzed using nucleic acid amplification test to detect CT/NG. Prevalence estimates of CT/NG, overall and by anatomical site were calculated. All estimates are respondent-driven sampling-adjusted. RESULTS: Among 1177 GBM, the prevalence of rectal, urogenital, pharyngeal and overall were respectively 2.4%, 0.4%, 0.4%, and 2.8% for CT infections, and 3.1%, 0.4%, 3.5%, and 5.6% for NG infections. If testing had been limited to the urogenital site, 80% and 94% of CT and NG infections, respectively, would have been missed. CONCLUSIONS: This community-based study among GBM shows that the CT prevalence was about half of that observed for NG. A large part of CT/NG infections involves only the extragenital sites, highlighting the need for systematic multisite screening regardless of symptoms. In the mist of the COVID-19 pandemic and the limited CT/NG screening capacity due to test kits shortage, it might be considered to prioritize rectal and pharyngeal CT/NG testing over urogenital testing in asymptomatic GBM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlamydia Infections , Gonorrhea , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Canada/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Chlamydia trachomatis/genetics , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genetics , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(43): e294, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Korea, the first community outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Daegu on February 18, 2020. This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in healthcare workers (HCWs) at 6 major hospitals in Daegu. METHODS: Blood specimens of 2,935 HCWs at 6 major hospitals in Daegu from January 2021 to February 2021 were collected. Every specimen was tested for antibody against SARS-CoV-2 using both Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (Roche Diagnostics, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) and R-FIND COVID-19 IgG/M/A enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (SG medical Inc., Seoul, Korea) as screening tests. If 1 or more of these screening test results was positive, 2 additional antibody tests were performed using Abbott Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay (Abbott, Abbott Park, IL, USA) and cPass SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody Detection Kit (GenScript USA Inc., Piscataway, NJ, USA). If 2 or more of the total 4 test results were positive, it was determined as positive for the antibody against SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: According to the criteria of SARS-CoV-2 antibody positivity determination, 12 subjects were determined as positive. The overall positive rate of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody was 0.41% (12/2,935). Of the 12 subjects determined as positive, 7 were diagnosed with COVID-19, and the remaining 5 were nondiagnosed cases of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: In early 2021, the overall seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody among HCW located in Daegu was 0.41%, and 0.17% excluding COVID-19 confirmed subjects. These results were not particularly high compared with the general public and were much lower than HCWs in other countries.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibody Specificity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 248, 2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506030

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Swine coccidiosis, a protozoan disease caused by coccidia, can result in diarrhoea and weight loss in piglets and even economic losses in the pig industry. Here, we report the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of coccidia (including Eimeria spp. and Cystoisospora suis) in pigs in China. METHODS: Five databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wanfang, and Chongqing VIP) were searched and 50 studies (46,926 domestic pigs, 22 provinces) ultimately identified pertaining to the prevalence of coccidia infection from 1980 to 2019. We incorporated the effect size using the random-effects model in the "meta" package in R software and conducted univariate and multivariate meta-regression analyses using a mixed-effects model. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence rate of coccidia in pigs was 21.9%, including the C. suis infection rate of 9.1%. The highest prevalence of coccidia (39.6%) was found in northwest China, and this region also presented the lowest prevalence of C. suis (4.7%). In the subgroup analysis based on sampling year, the highest prevalence of coccidia was detected in 2001 or earlier (32.6%), whereas the lowest rate was found in 2012 or later (14.3%). An opposite trend was observed for C. suis (5.5% in 2000 or earlier vs 14.4% in 2000 or later). The prevalence of coccidia in extensive farming systems (29.5%) was higher than that in intensive farming systems (17.3%). In contrast, the point estimate of C. suis prevalence was lower in the extensive farming systems (5.1%) than in the intensive farming systems (10.0%), but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Among the four age categories, the highest total coccidia prevalence (26.2%) was found in finishing pigs, followed by suckling piglets (19.9%), whereas the highest prevalence of C. suis (14.9%) was observed in suckling piglets. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that coccidia infection in Chinese pigs is common, although the prevalence of C. suis in pigs does not receive sufficient attention. We recommend the rational use of anticoccidial drugs to avoid drug resistance and the development of preventive and control measures for C. suis to reduce the incidence of swine coccidiosis.


Subject(s)
Coccidiosis/epidemiology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Animals , China/epidemiology , Coccidia/classification , Coccidia/genetics , Coccidia/isolation & purification , Coccidia/physiology , Coccidiosis/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Prevalence , Swine , Swine Diseases/parasitology
15.
Acta Biomed ; 92(5): e2021474, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504914

ABSTRACT

Hyponatraemia is frequently encountered in adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is associated with poor prognosis. This review aims to describe for the first time the prevalence, aetiology, prognostic value, pathophysiology, and management of hyponatraemia in children and adolescents with COVID-19, taking into account all relevant studies published in PubMed and Cochrane Library studies until 26th September 2021. Literature search did not detect any studies evaluating the prevalence and prognostic value of sodium disorders in paediatric patients with COVID-19. A broader literature review showed a high prevalence of hyponatraemia in children with bacterial pneumonia, while some studies have reported that hyponatraemia is relatively common in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). In adults with COVID-19, an inverse association between sodium and interleukin-6 levels has been found, indicating that hyponatraemia could be used as a surrogate marker for the risk of cytokine storm and may facilitate the identification of patients who could benefit from immunomodulatory agents. Studies are urgently needed to evaluate the frequency and prognostic impact of electrolyte abnormalities in children with COVID-19. In the meantime, clinicians are urged to consider hyponatraemia in children with COVID-19 as a potential red flag, investigate the cause and administer fluids and other therapies accordingly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyponatremia , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Hyponatremia/etiology , Hyponatremia/therapy , Prevalence , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 545, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504277

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has rapidly spread across the whole world and brought strong psychological impact. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) in the general people of southwestern China and associated factors 1 month after the outbreak of the COVID-19. METHODS: This study was started on 4-10 Feb 2020 based on online survey. The present work was carried out in the provinces of southeastern China, including Sichuan Province, Guizhou Province, Yunnan Province, and Chongqing City.1593 respondents aged 18 years and above administered to this study. Data on whether they have experienced confirmed or suspected COVID-19 of themselves/family members/acquaintances were also collected, and based on 'yes' answers, the number of affected individuals (via COVID-19) were categorized into four exposure levels i.e., non-affected, less, moderately, or significantly affected. The civilian version of the PTSD checklist and the self-reported information about COVID-19 were used. RESULTS: The prevalence of PTSD was approximately 25.2%(n = 401/1593). The chances of developing PTSD were 6.053(OR = 6.053, 95% CI 1.394 to 26.280) or 3.673(OR = 3.673, 95% CI 1.738 to 7.765) times higher among respondents who had been significantly and moderately affected than those who had not been affected, accordingly. Male (OR = 1.484, 95% CI 1.147 to 1.920),younger age individuals (40 ~ 49 age group/<30 age group, OR = 0.395, 95% CI 0.258 to 0.606) and health care workers (OR = 1.788, 95% CI 1.155 to 2.277) were at higher risk of developing PTSD. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight that a positive correlation between the pandemic and PTSD. It is urgent to establish a screening and prevention systems for the population who are significantly exposed to COVID-19,and provide different psychological intervention strategies for different groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Male , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
17.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): 317-324, oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1502723

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los trabajadores de la salud se encuentran sometidos a una gran tensión en el desarrollo de sus actividades, lo que genera alta frecuencia de estrés, desgaste laboral e impacto psicopatológico. La pandemia de COVID-19 podría provocar un incremento de estas entidades en los médicos. El objetivo fue describir la frecuencia de estrés, síndrome de desgaste profesional (burnout), ansiedad y depresión durante la pandemia, y analizar las asociaciones con distintas variables independientes. Métodos. Estudio observacional, transversal, realizado dos meses después del inicio de la cuarentena en Argentina. Se encuestó a médicos de especialidades clínicas, quirúrgicas, solo de emergencias, y a aquellos sin contacto directo con pacientes, mediante un cuestionario sociodemográfico y tres inventarios autoadministrados: Health Professions Stress Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory y la Escala de ansiedad y depresión hospitalaria. Resultados. La prevalencia de estrés fue del 93,7 % (IC95 %: 90,33-96,2), burnout 73,5 % (IC95 %: 68,2-78,4), ansiedad 44 % (IC95 %: 38,4-49,8) y depresión 21,9 % (IC95 %: 17,3-26,9). No se observó asociación entre la frecuencia y el tipo de especialidad realizada. La frecuencia de burnout, ansiedad y depresión fue significativamente mayor en los médicos residentes y en aquellos que trabajan en emergencias. Conclusiones. Los médicos residentes y quienes trabajan en emergencias en turnos de 24 horas mostraron porcentajes significativamente más altos de burnout, ansiedad y depresión, en comparación con médicos de planta y con aquellos en posiciones de liderazgo. Estos hallazgos pueden estar asociados con una mayor carga de trabajo y una menor experiencia. Es mandatorio tomar medidas preventivas y terapéuticas para preservar a quienes hacen frente a esta pandemia.


Introduction. Health care workers experience a tremendous strain while performing their activities, very frequently leading to stress, burnout syndrome, and psychopathological impact. The COVID-19 pandemic may cause physicians to suffer these effects even to a greater extent. Our objective was to describe the frequency of stress, burnout syndrome, anxiety, and depression during the pandemic, and analyze the associations with different independent outcome measures. Methods. Observational, cross-sectional study conducted 2 months after the lockdown was established in Argentina. Clinical specialists, surgeons, emergency physicians, and those with no direct contact with patients were surveyed using a sociodemographic questionnaire and 3 self-administered inventories: Health Professions Stress Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results. The prevalence of stress was 93.7 % (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 90.33-96.2), burnout syndrome 73.5 % (95 % CI: 68.2-78.4), anxiety 44 % (95 % CI: 38.4-49.8), and depression 21.9 % (95 % CI: 17.3-26.9). No association was observed between the frequency and medical specialty. The frequency of burnout syndrome, anxiety, and depression was significantly higher among residents and physicians working in the emergency department. Conclusions. Residents and emergency physicians working 24-hour shifts showed significantly higher percentages of burnout syndrome, anxiety, and depression compared to staff and head physicians. These findings may be associated with a higher workload and less experience. It is compulsory to take preventive and therapeutic measures to protect those in the pandemic front line.


Subject(s)
Humans , Physicians , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics , Burnout, Psychological , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitals, Teaching
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502435

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of mental distress among university students in Jordan. METHODS: An online cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted between 12th of June and the 4th of August 2021 in Jordan to measure student mental stress using Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20). RESULTS: A total of 1063 university students participated in the study. One-third of the participating students reported that they had a history of COVID-19 infection. More than half of the participating university students (65.7%) were found to have mental distress (measured symptomatically by the SRQ-20 with a score of eight or more). The average mental distress score was 9.8 (SD: 5.5) out of 20. Female students, students from non-medical colleges, students in their last years of study, students with chronic diseases and those with low income were associated with high levels of mental distress (p < 0.05). With regards to social support, a moderate level of social support was received from three sources: persons considered as significant others, family members, and friends. The average social support score for the participating university students was 41.9 (SD: 10.3) out of 60 (equivalent to 69.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Mental distress is prevalent among university students in Jordan. There is a need for evidence-based governmental strategies and interventions that provide social support at universities such as self-help measures and professional mental health services as part of student health services that would be helpful to reduce the burden of mental distress of students and promote the mission of the integration of mental health in all university policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Universities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501268

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus and subsequent COVID-19 illness has had a major impact on all levels of society internationally. The extent of the impact of COVID-19 on prison staff and prisoners in England and Wales is unknown. Testing for COVID-19 both asymptomatic and symptomatic, as well as for antibodies, to date, has been minimal. The purpose of this paper is to explore the widespread testing of COVID-19 in prisons poses philosophical and ethical questions around trust, efficacy and ethicacy. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: This paper is both descriptive, providing an overview of the widespread testing of COVID-19 in prisoners in England and Wales, and conceptual in that it discusses and argues the issues associated with large-scale testing. This paper provides a discussion, using comparative studies, of the issues associated with large-scale testing of prisoners across the prison estate in England and Wales (120 prisons). The issues identified in this paper are contextualised through the lens of COVID-19, but they are equally transferrable to epidemiological studies of any pandemic. Given the prevalence of COVID-19 globally and the lack of information about its spread in prisons, at the time of writing this paper, there is a programme of asymptomatic testing of prisoners. However, there remains a paucity of data on the spread of COVID-19 in prisons because of the progress with the ongoing testing programme. FINDINGS: The authors argue that the widespread testing of prisoners requires careful consideration of the details regarding who is included in testing, how consent is gained and how tests are administered. This paper outlines and argues the importance of considering the complex nuance of power relationships within the prison system, among prisoner officers, medical staff and prisoners and the detrimental consequences. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The widespread testing of COVID-19 presents ethical and practical challenges. Careful planning is required when considering the ethics of who should be included in COVID-19 testing, how consent will be gained, who and how tests will be administered and very practical challenges around the recording and assigning of COVID-19 test kits inside the prison. The current system for the general population requires scanning of barcodes and registration using a mobile number; these facilities are not permitted inside a prison. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This paper looks at the issues associated with mass testing of prisoners for COVID-19. According to the authors' knowledge, there has not been any research that looks at the issues of testing either in the UK or internationally. The literature available details countries' responses to the pandemic rather and scientific papers on the development of vaccines. Therefore, this paper is an original review of some of the practicalities that need to be addressed to ensure that testing can be as successful as possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Prisoners , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing/ethics , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust , Wales/epidemiology
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27537, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501207

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, had health and economic results that profoundly affected communities worldwide. Investigating the seroprevalence of SARS-Cov-2 in blood donors is of a significant clinical and scientific value as it adds to knowledge about local herd immunity levels.To study the prevalence of SARS-Cov-2 infection among blood donors at a tertiary referral hospital in the north of Jordan.This is a prospective study that included all blood donors between September 2020 and March 2021. Donors' IgG antibodies were qualitatively immunoassayed to determine the antibody status against SARS-CoV-2. The Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 technique was utilized.One thousand samples were tested by total antibody against SARS-CoV-2. The median age was 29 years, 96.7% were males. The seroprevalence was 14.5%, and 80% of the positive participants did not report previous COVID-19 infection. The seroprevalence of COVID-19 antibodies was less among smokers and those with an O blood group and higher among donors with an AB blood group.The prevalence of COVID-19 among healthy young blood donors at a tertiary teaching health facility in the north of Jordan was 14.5%. Smokers and those with an O blood group were less likely to be seropositive, as opposed to donors with an AB blood group.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Blood Group Antigens/immunology , Female , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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