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1.
Lancet ; 396(10250): 535-544, 2020 08 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spain is one of the European countries most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Serological surveys are a valuable tool to assess the extent of the epidemic, given the existence of asymptomatic cases and little access to diagnostic tests. This nationwide population-based study aims to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Spain at national and regional level. METHODS: 35 883 households were selected from municipal rolls using two-stage random sampling stratified by province and municipality size, with all residents invited to participate. From April 27 to May 11, 2020, 61 075 participants (75·1% of all contacted individuals within selected households) answered a questionnaire on history of symptoms compatible with COVID-19 and risk factors, received a point-of-care antibody test, and, if agreed, donated a blood sample for additional testing with a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Prevalences of IgG antibodies were adjusted using sampling weights and post-stratification to allow for differences in non-response rates based on age group, sex, and census-tract income. Using results for both tests, we calculated a seroprevalence range maximising either specificity (positive for both tests) or sensitivity (positive for either test). FINDINGS: Seroprevalence was 5·0% (95% CI 4·7-5·4) by the point-of-care test and 4·6% (4·3-5·0) by immunoassay, with a specificity-sensitivity range of 3·7% (3·3-4·0; both tests positive) to 6·2% (5·8-6·6; either test positive), with no differences by sex and lower seroprevalence in children younger than 10 years (<3·1% by the point-of-care test). There was substantial geographical variability, with higher prevalence around Madrid (>10%) and lower in coastal areas (<3%). Seroprevalence among 195 participants with positive PCR more than 14 days before the study visit ranged from 87·6% (81·1-92·1; both tests positive) to 91·8% (86·3-95·3; either test positive). In 7273 individuals with anosmia or at least three symptoms, seroprevalence ranged from 15·3% (13·8-16·8) to 19·3% (17·7-21·0). Around a third of seropositive participants were asymptomatic, ranging from 21·9% (19·1-24·9) to 35·8% (33·1-38·5). Only 19·5% (16·3-23·2) of symptomatic participants who were seropositive by both the point-of-care test and immunoassay reported a previous PCR test. INTERPRETATION: The majority of the Spanish population is seronegative to SARS-CoV-2 infection, even in hotspot areas. Most PCR-confirmed cases have detectable antibodies, but a substantial proportion of people with symptoms compatible with COVID-19 did not have a PCR test and at least a third of infections determined by serology were asymptomatic. These results emphasise the need for maintaining public health measures to avoid a new epidemic wave. FUNDING: Spanish Ministry of Health, Institute of Health Carlos III, and Spanish National Health System.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Testing , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 499-504, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pandemics are direct antecedent of distinctive physical, psychological, social and financial impacts. A large number of researches are being conducted regarding previous epidemics and pandemics and lot more is currently in progress vis-?-vis COVID-19. The current research is an attempt to explore psychological impacts of COVID-19 specifically to find out the existence, intensity and dynamics of COVID-19 fear in non-clinical educated population. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross sectional online study was conducted with non-clinical educated Pakistani citizens. Self-structured questionnaire comprising close and open ended questions was used for data collection from different cities of Pakistan. N=317 participants (men=121, women=196) were the sample for this study. Demographic information was also sought. The age range of sample was 18 to 50+ years. Most of the participants fall in the category of age group 23-28 of sample. All the participants were educated from Intermediate till PhD but majority of participants had 16 years of education. SPSS 22 was used for quantitative data analysis. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis and content analysis. RESULTS: Results yield significant age wise and profession wise difference in existence of COVID fear. Nine major themes were extracted regarding nature of fear i.e. Corona Fear, Loss, fear of isolation or quarantine, religion related fear, death, consequences of COVID-19, Under developed country, Psychological component of fear and empathy. Those who denied fear were asked the reasons and six major themes were extracted here i.e Religion, Inevitability of death, Precautions, Belief in self, Myths or misinterpretation of disease and Avoidant approach. CONCLUSIONS: Age and profession significantly influenced fear of COVID-19. Gender-wise exploration of themes yields interesting insights. Participants reflected positivity and empathy in crisis situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
3.
Eur Respir Rev ; 31(166)2022 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098297

ABSTRACT

Persistent breathlessness >28 days after acute COVID-19 infection has been identified as a highly debilitating post-COVID symptom. However, the prevalence, risk factors, mechanisms and treatments for post-COVID breathlessness remain poorly understood. We systematically searched PubMed and Embase for relevant studies published from 1 January 2020 to 1 November 2021 (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021285733) and included 119 eligible papers. Random-effects meta-analysis of 42 872 patients with COVID-19 reported in 102 papers found an overall prevalence of post-COVID breathlessness of 26% (95% CI 23-29) when measuring the presence/absence of the symptom, and 41% (95% CI 34-48) when using Medical Research Council (MRC)/modified MRC dyspnoea scale. The pooled prevalence decreased significantly from 1-6 months to 7-12 months post-infection. Post-COVID breathlessness was more common in those with severe/critical acute infection, those who were hospitalised and females, and was less likely to be reported by patients in Asia than those in Europe or North America. Multiple pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed (including deconditioning, restrictive/obstructive airflow limitation, systemic inflammation, impaired mental health), but the body of evidence remains inconclusive. Seven cohort studies and one randomised controlled trial suggested rehabilitation exercises may reduce post-COVID breathlessness. There is an urgent need for mechanistic research and development of interventions for the prevention and treatment of post-COVID breathlessness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Prevalence , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/therapy , Risk Factors , Exercise Therapy
4.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 56(11-12): 1532-1542, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097701

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is a poorly understood vomiting disorder associated with chronic cannabis use. AIMS: To characterise patients experiencing CHS in North America and to obtain a population-based estimate of CHS treatment prevalence in Canada before and during the Covid-19 pandemic METHODS: Internet survey of 157 CHS sufferers in Canada and the United States. Administrative health databases for the province of Alberta (population 5 million) were accessed to measure emergency department (ED) visits for vomiting, with a concurrent diagnostic code for cannabis use. Three time periods of 1 year were assessed: prior to recreational cannabis legalisation (2017-2018), after recreational legalisation (2018-2019) and during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic (2020-2021). RESULTS: Problematic cannabis use (defined as a CUDIT-R score ≥8) was universal among the survey cohort, and 59% and 68% screening for moderate or worse anxiety or depression, respectively. The overall treatment prevalence of CHS across all ages increased from 15 ED visits per 100,000 population (95% CI, 14-17) prior to legalisation, to 21 (95% CI, 20-23) after legalisation, to 32 (95% CI, 31-35) during the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic (p < 0.001). Treatment prevalence among chronic cannabis users was as high as 6 per 1000 in the 16-24 age group. CONCLUSION: Survey data suggest patients with CHS almost universally suffer from a cannabis use disorder, which has significant treatment implications. Treatment prevalence in the ED has increased substantially over a very short time period, with the highest rates seen during the Covid-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabinoids , Humans , Cannabinoids/adverse effects , Prevalence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Vomiting/chemically induced , Vomiting/epidemiology , Syndrome , North America
5.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 34(4): 407-413, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097521

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we discuss new medical and surgical options for the treatment of children and adolescents with obesity. We review the impact of COVID-19 on this vulnerable population. We also discuss the recent availability of screening tests for rare genetic causes of obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: COVID-19 increased the prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents. This population is at increased risk for severe disease. The field of pediatric obesity has benefited from the approval of two new antiobesity medications: liraglutide and setmelanotide. We discuss indications for their use. New guidelines for surgical options for the treatment of children and adolescents with obesity are reviewed. These options are increasingly used as part of the comprehensive care for these children. SUMMARY: The epidemic of childhood obesity continues. COVID-19 and the associated isolation contributed to the problem. However, promising new medical and surgical therapies and screening tests for rare genetic causes of obesity are available. These new diagnostic and therapeutic options bring renewed enthusiasm to the treatment of children and adolescents with obesity and increased recognition that obesity is a chronic disease starting in childhood deserving intervention to prevent consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Humans , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Pediatric Obesity/diagnosis , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence
13.
Croat Med J ; 63(5): 482-489, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2092746

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate the prevalence of burnout syndrome among health care workers in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in May and June 2021 using an online survey based on Copenhagen Burnout Inventory. The questionnaire underwent forward and backward translation, preliminary pilot testing, and was assessed for reliability and validity. Personal burnout, work-related burnout, and patient-related burnout were assessed. The survey was sent to the members of the Union of Physicians and Dentists in FBIH, who were asked to forward the link to their medical technicians and nurses. RESULTS: A total of 77% of participants experienced some form of burnout. As many as 32% experienced all three forms of burnout. Those actively involved in tackling the COVID-19 pandemic more often experienced burnout. In personal and work-related burnout domains, higher level of burnout was reported among female respondents. Higher work-related and patient-related burnout was reported by physicians compared with medical technicians/nurses. Higher level of patient-related burnout was reported in health care workers aged 30-39 and 50-59 years, among respondents working in primary care, and among physicians. CONCLUSION: The majority of health care workers showed moderate or high levels of personal and work-related burnout, with a lower level of patient-related burnout. There is a need for further research into the causes of burnout, as well as for the implementation of organizational interventions aimed to minimize workplace burnout.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Female , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prevalence , Bosnia and Herzegovina/epidemiology , Reproducibility of Results , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Rev Colomb Obstet Ginecol ; 73(2): 194-202, 2022 06 30.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091184

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To describe the prevalence of symptoms of depression and worry affecting pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and methods: Descriptive crosssectional study that included pregnant women with access to a technological device (mobile phone, computer or tablet) and Internet connection, living in Antioquia, Colombia. Women with literary and technological illiteracy were excluded. An online survey was conducted to gather information about sociodemographic and baseline clinical conditions and the main concerns caused by the pandemic. Additionally, the Edinburg Depression Scale (EPDS) was applied in order to measure the risk of depression. The Jamovi software was used for data processing and statistical analysis. Results: Overall, 345 pregnant women between 15 and 44 years of age were surveyed, with the finding of a 30.4 % prevalence of the risk of depression. Domestic violence and absence of a support network were identified in 4.9 % and 8.4 % of cases. The major sources of worry were the fear of being separated from their babies on the day of birth, the possibility of having to be alone during childbirth, and the fear of contagion due to potential effects on the fetus or the newborn. Conclusions: Depression symptoms have been frequent among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is important to inquire about stress factors and depression symptoms during prenatal visits, childbirth and the postpartum period. Additional local studies are needed to assess other mental health disorders that may have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Objetivos: describir la prevalencia de los síntomas de depresión y las preocupaciones que afectaron a las gestantes durante la pandemia por COVID-19. Materiales y métodos: estudio transversal descriptivo, se incluyeron mujeres gestantes, con acceso a un medio tecnológico (celular, computador o tableta) y conectividad a internet, residentes en Antioquia, Colombia. Se excluyeron mujeres con analfabetismo literario y tecnológico. Se encuestaron, en línea, las condiciones sociodemográficas y clínicas basales y las principales preocupaciones generadas por la pandemia, además se aplicó la Escala de Depresión de Edimburgo (EPDS) para medir el riesgo de depresión. Se usó el software Jamovi para el procesamiento y análisis estadístico. Resultados: se encuestaron 345 mujeres gestantes de 15 a 44 años, se identificó una prevalencia de riesgo de depresión en 30,4 % de las mujeres encuestadas. Se identificó violencia intrafamiliar en el 4,9 % y ausencia de red de apoyo en el 8,4 %. Se encontraron como mayores preocupaciones temor a ser separadas del bebé el día del parto, la posibilidad de no tener acompañante durante el parto, y temor al contagio por los efectos en el bebé in útero o en el recién nacido. Conclusiones: los síntomas de depresión han sido frecuentes en las mujeres gestantes durante la pandemia del COVID-19. Es importante averiguar por factores de estrés y síntomas de depresión en el control prenatal, el parto y el postparto. Se requieren nuevos estudios locales que evalúen otros trastornos de salud mental que se hayan podido incrementar durante la pandemia por COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnant Women , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Depression , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Prevalence
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090206

ABSTRACT

Endometriosis is defined as ectopic endometrial tissues dispersed outside the endometrium. This can cause disruption in hormonal and immunological processes, which may increase susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Worsening of endometriosis symptoms may occur as a result of this infection. The aim of our review was to estimate the pooled prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic in endometriosis patients. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases were searched, using the keywords: (endometriosis) AND (COVID-19 OR SARS-CoV-2). Forest plots and pooled estimates were created using the Open Meta Analyst software. After screening 474 articles, 19 studies met the eligibility criteria for the systematic review, and 15 studies were included in the meta-analyses. A total of 17,799 patients were analyzed. The pooled prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in endometriosis patients was 7.5%. Pooled estimates for the health impacts were 47.2% for decreased access to medical care, 49.3% increase in dysmenorrhea, 75% increase in anxiety, 59.4% increase in depression, and 68.9% increase in fatigue. Endometriosis patients were undeniably impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, which caused the worsening of symptoms such as dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, anxiety, depression, and fatigue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endometriosis , Female , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Endometriosis/complications , Endometriosis/epidemiology , Endometriosis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Dysmenorrhea , Prevalence , Fatigue
18.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1969, 2022 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089186

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Handwashing is fundamentally an inexpensive means of reducing the spread of communicable diseases. In developing countries, many people die due to infectious diseases that could be prevented by proper hand hygiene. The recent coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is a threat to people who are living in resource-limited countries including sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Effective hand hygiene requires sufficient water from reliable sources, preferably accessible on premises, and access to handwashing facility (water and or soap) that enable hygiene behaviors. Therefore, this study aims to determine the prevalence of limited handwashing facility and its associated factors in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) were used, which have been conducted in 29 sub-Saharan African countries since January 1, 2010. A two-stage stratified random cluster sampling strategy was used to collect the data. This study comprised a total of 237,983 weighted samples. The mixed effect logistic regression model with a cluster-level random intercept was fitted. Meta-analysis and sub-group analysis were performed to establish the pooled prevalence. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence of limited handwashing facility was found to be 66.16% (95% CI; 59.67%-72.65%). Based on the final model, household head with age group between 35 and 60 [AOR = 0.89, 95% CI; 0.86-0.91], households with mobile type of hand washing facility [AOR = 1.73, 95% CI; 1.70-1.77], unimproved sanitation facility [AOR = 1.58, 95% CI; 1.55-1.62], water access more than 30 min round trip [AOR = 1.16, 95% CI; 1.13-1.19], urban residential area [AOR = 2.08, 95% CI; 2.04-2.13], low media exposure [AOR = 1.47, 95% CI; 1.31-1.66], low educational level [AOR = 1.30, 95% CI; 1.14-1.48], low income level [AOR = 2.41, 95% CI; 2.33-2.49] as well as lower middle-income level [AOR = 2.10, 95% CI; 2.14-2.17] and households who had more than three children [AOR = 1.25, 95% CI; 1.20-1.31] were associated with having limited handwashing facility. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: The pooled coverage of limited handwashing facility was high in sub-Saharan Africa. Raising awareness of the community and promoting access to handwashing materials particularly in poorer and rural areas will reduce its coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Disinfection , Child , Humans , Multilevel Analysis , Prevalence , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Family Characteristics , Water
19.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1962, 2022 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, affecting an estimated 260 million people. However, little evidence is available on how pandemic-related characteristics influence food security in a high-altitude population. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with food insecurity in high-altitude Peruvian cities during the second epidemic wave of COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in eight Peruvian cities over 1,500 m above sea level. An online survey measuring food security, presence of anxiety & depressive symptoms, sleep quality, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), resilience, and sociodemographic characteristics was disseminated through social networks between December 2020 and February 2021. Generalized linear models were used to identify an association between the study variables. RESULTS: Of 700 participants, the median age was 23 years, and more than half were female (56.7%). The prevalence of food insecurity was 37.1%. Anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and PTSD were present in 72.7%, 64.1%, and 15% of respondents, respectively. The prevalence of food insecurity was higher in people with fair (PR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.23-2.07) and very bad perception of their health (PR: 4.06, 95% CI: 2.63-6.26), individuals seeking mental health support (PR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.25-1.62), and in those who lost their job due to the pandemic (PR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.62-2.04). Having moderate (PR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.26-1.83) and moderate to severe depressive symptoms (PR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.11-2.27) also increased the prevalence of food insecurity. CONCLUSION: During the pandemic, the prevalence of food insecurity has increased in the Peruvian high-altitude population, revealing the need for preventive strategies. Identification of pandemic-related characteristics that influence food insecurity can guide interventions in at-risk individuals and reduce the long-term impact of this problem on overall health and quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prevalence , Peru/epidemiology , Cities , Retrospective Studies , Quality of Life , Altitude , Food Supply , Food Insecurity
20.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 41(12): 1445-1449, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085399

ABSTRACT

With the COVID-19 pandemic still ongoing, the annual season of influenza and other respiratory virus epidemics has arrived. Specimens from patients suspected of respiratory viruses infection were collected. Viral detection was performed following RNA extraction and real-time RT-PCR. During the study period, we received and tested a total of 606 specimens. Rhinovirus virus was the viral type most prevalent, detected in 186 (45.47%) specimens. The age range of patients positive for influenza A, influenza A (H1N1), and influenza B was 18 days to 13 years. With female prevalence for this viral type, cough and asthma were the main clinical manifestations presented by this viral type. Our results indicate that rhinoviruses, adenoviruses, metapneumoviruses, and influenza are among the most important agents of ARI in pediatrics. The epidemic period of respiratory infections observed in Goiânia can be useful for planning and implementing some prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Child , Humans , Female , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Prevalence , Pandemics , Viruses/genetics , Rhinovirus/genetics
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