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1.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 55, 2021 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181128

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Poor mental health status and associated risk factors of public health workers have been overlooked during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study used the effort-reward imbalance model to investigate the association between work-stress characteristics (effort, over-commitment, reward) and mental health problems (anxiety and depression) among front-line public health workers during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. METHODS: A total of 4850 valid online questionnaires were collected through a self- constructed sociodemographic questionnaire, the adapted ERI questionnaire, the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the 7-item General Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate the association between ERI factors and mental health problems (i.e., depression and anxiety), with reward treated as a potential moderator in such associations. RESULTS: The data showed that effort and over-commitment were positively associated with depression and anxiety, while reward was negatively associated with depression and anxiety. Development and job acceptance were the two dimensions of reward buffered the harmful effect of effort/over-commitment on depression and anxiety, whereas esteem was non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed the harmful effects of effort and over-commitment on mental health among public health workers during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Such effects could be alleviated through an appropriate reward system, especially the development and job acceptance dimensions of such a system. These findings highlight the importance of establishing an emergency reward system, comprising reasonable work-allocation mechanism, bonuses and honorary titles, a continuous education system and better career-development opportunities.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Prevalence , Public Health , Reward , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 37(4): 232-236, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180679

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were to describe the clinical characteristics of febrile infants younger than 90 days with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, to investigate the prevalence of serious bacterial infections (SBIs) in these infants, and to compare the risk of SBI in SARS-CoV-2-positive febrile infants with sex- and age-matched SARS-CoV- 2-negative febrile infants. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted from March to November 2020 in a tertiary children's hospital. Patients were identified by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes and included if age was younger than 90 days, a SARS-CoV-2 test was performed, and at least 1 bacterial culture was collected. Positive cases of SARS-CoV-2 were age- and sex-matched to negative controls for analysis. Serious bacterial infection was defined as a urinary tract infection, bacterial enteritis, bacteremia, and/or bacterial meningitis. RESULTS: Fifty-three SARS-CoV-2-positive infants were identified with a higher rate of respiratory symptoms and lower white blood cell and C-reactive protein values than their SARS-CoV-2 matched controls. The rate of SBI in the SARS-CoV-2-positive infants was 8% compared with 34% in the controls; the most common infections were urinary tract infections (6% vs 23%). There were no cases of bacteremia or bacterial meningitis in the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) infants and 2 (4%) cases of bacteremia in the controls. The relative risk of any SBI between the 2 groups was 0.22 (95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.6; P ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that febrile infants younger than 90 days with COVID-19 have lower rates of SBI than their matched SARS-CoV-2-negative controls. These data are consistent with previous studies describing lower risks of SBI in febrile infants with concomitant viral respiratory tract infections.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/etiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment/methods , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , United States
4.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e19831, 2020 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172930

ABSTRACT

Before the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), 1 in 3 women and girls, globally, were victimized by an abusive partner in intimate relationships. However, the current pandemic has amplified cases of domestic violence (DV) against women and girls, with up to thrice the prevalence in DV cases compared to the same time last year. Evidence of the adverse effects of the pandemic on DV is still emerging, even as violence prevention strategies are iteratively being refined by service providers, advocacy agencies, and survivors to meet stay-at-home mandates. Emotional and material support for survivors is a critical resource increasingly delivered using digital and technology-based modalities, which offer several advantages and challenges. This paper rapidly describes current DV mitigation approaches using digital solutions, signaling emerging best practices to support survivors, their children, and abusers during stay-at-home advisories. Some examples of technology-based strategies and solutions are presented. An immediate priority is mapping out current digital solutions in response to COVID-19-related DV and outlining issues with uptake, coverage, and meaningful use of digital solutions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Domestic Violence/prevention & control , Intimate Partner Violence/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Telemedicine/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Female , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prevalence , Social Support , Survivors/psychology
5.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1007836, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962642

ABSTRACT

Early warning signals (EWS) identify systems approaching a critical transition, where the system undergoes a sudden change in state. For example, monitoring changes in variance or autocorrelation offers a computationally inexpensive method which can be used in real-time to assess when an infectious disease transitions to elimination. EWS have a promising potential to not only be used to monitor infectious diseases, but also to inform control policies to aid disease elimination. Previously, potential EWS have been identified for prevalence data, however the prevalence of a disease is often not known directly. In this work we identify EWS for incidence data, the standard data type collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) or World Health Organization (WHO). We show, through several examples, that EWS calculated on simulated incidence time series data exhibit vastly different behaviours to those previously studied on prevalence data. In particular, the variance displays a decreasing trend on the approach to disease elimination, contrary to that expected from critical slowing down theory; this could lead to unreliable indicators of elimination when calculated on real-world data. We derive analytical predictions which can be generalised for many epidemiological systems, and we support our theory with simulated studies of disease incidence. Additionally, we explore EWS calculated on the rate of incidence over time, a property which can be extracted directly from incidence data. We find that although incidence might not exhibit typical critical slowing down properties before a critical transition, the rate of incidence does, presenting a promising new data type for the application of statistical indicators.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Computational Biology/methods , Models, Statistical , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Incidence , Prevalence
6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(4): 915-916, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-746220
7.
Saudi Med J ; 42(4): 384-390, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168260

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To measure the Saudi population's sleep quality during the lockdown of COVID-19. METHODS: An internet-based questionnaire that was performed during the lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic among the Saudi population over 2 weeks from April 1 to April 15, 2020. We used the instant messaging application WhatsApp and Twitter to reach the targeted population. Saudi citizens and non-Saudi residents who can read and understand the questionnaire were recruited. Data were analyzed using Stata and SPSS. RESULTS: A total of 790 responses were included. The majority of participants were the Saudi population 735 (92.9%). The prevalence of insomnia and poor sleep quality were 54.4% and 55.5%, respectively. Saudi citizenship was associated with longer sleep duration (p=0.031). Female gender and being married were associated with worse global PSQI, sleep quality, sleep distribution, sleep latency, and daytime dysfunction. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that during the COVID-19 pandemic, the Saudi population had a high prevalence of insomnia and poor sleep quality. Routine monitoring of the psychological impact of life-threatening outbreaks and the adoption of effective early mental health actions should be considered.


Subject(s)
Disorders of Excessive Somnolence/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Male , Marital Status/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Public Policy , Risk Factors , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Sleep Latency , Surveys and Questionnaires , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data
8.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249550, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167120

ABSTRACT

Data on the prevalence of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody in healthcare workers (HCWs) is scarce, especially in pediatric settings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 IgG-positivity among HCWs of a tertiary pediatric hospital. In addition, follow-up of the serological response in the subgroup of seropositive HCWs was analysed, to gain some insight on the persistence of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. We performed a retrospective analysis of voluntary SARS-CoV-2 IgG testing, which was made available free of charge to HCWs of the Children's Memorial Health Institute in Warsaw (Poland). Plasma samples were collected between July 1 and August 9, 2020, and tested using the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay. Of 2,282 eligible participants, 1,879 (82.3%) HCWs volunteered to undergo testing. Sixteen HCWs tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG, corresponding to a seroprevalence of 0.85%. Among seropositive HCWs, three HCWs had confirmed COVID-19. Nine (56.3%) of the seropositive HCWs reported neither symptoms nor unprotected contact with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases in the previous months. A decline in the IgG index was observed at a median time of 86.5 days (range:84‒128 days) after symptom onset or RT-PCR testing. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the duration of persistence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, as well as the correlation between seropositivity and protective immunity against reinfection. Regardless of the persistence of antibodies and their protective properties, such low prevalence indicates that this population is vulnerable to a second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Immunoglobulin G/blood , /immunology , Adult , /immunology , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Poland , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243883, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167013

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of disability and anxiety in Covid-19 survivors at discharge from hospital and analyze relative risk by exposures. DESIGN: Multi-center retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Twenty-eight hospitals located in eight provinces of China. METHODS: A total of 432 survivors with laboratory-confirmed SARS CoV-2 infection participated in this study. At discharge, we assessed instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) with Lawton's IADL scale, dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) with the Barthel Index, and anxiety with Zung's self-reported anxiety scale. Exposures included comorbidity, smoking, setting (Hubei vs. others), disease severity, symptoms, and length of hospital stay. Other risk factors considered were age, gender, and ethnicity (Han vs. Tibetan). RESULTS: Prevalence of at least one IADL problem was 36.81% (95% CI: 32.39-41.46). ADL dependence was present in 16.44% (95% CI: 13.23-20.23) and 28.70% (95% CI: 24.63-33.15) were screened positive for clinical anxiety. Adjusted risk ratio (RR) of IADL limitations (RR 2.48, 95% CI: 1.80-3.40), ADL dependence (RR 2.07, 95% CI 1.15-3.76), and probable clinical anxiety (RR 2.53, 95% CI 1.69-3.79) were consistently elevated in survivors with severe Covid-19. Age was an additional independent risk factor for IADL limitations and ADL dependence; and setting (Hubei) for IADL limitations and anxiety. Tibetan ethnicity was a protective factor for anxiety but a risk factor for IADL limitations. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of Covid-19 survivors had disability and anxiety at discharge from hospital. Health systems need to be prepared for an additional burden resulting from rehabilitation needs of Covid-19 survivors.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders , Disabled Persons , Survivors , Activities of Daily Living , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , /psychology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
10.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166562

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the prevalence and outcome of occult infection with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza in patients presenting with myocardial infarction (MI) without COVID-19 symptoms. METHODS: We conducted an observational study from 28 June to 11 August 2020, enrolling patients admitted to the National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh, with ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI) or non-ST-segment elevation MI who did not meet WHO criteria for suspected COVID-19. Samples were collected by nasopharyngeal swab to test for SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. We followed up patients at 3 months (13 weeks) postadmission to record adverse cardiovascular outcomes: all-cause death, new MI, heart failure and new percutaneous coronary intervention or stent thrombosis. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: We enrolled 280 patients with MI, 79% male, mean age 54.5±11.8 years, 140 of whom were diagnosed with STEMI. We found 36 (13%) to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 and 1 with influenza. There was no significant difference between mortality rate observed among SARS-CoV-2 infected patients compared with non-infected (5 (14%) vs 26 (11%); p=0.564). A numerically shorter median time to a recurrent cardiovascular event was recorded among SARS-CoV-2 infected compared with non-infected patients (21 days, IQR: 8-46 vs 27 days, IQR: 7-44; p=0.378). CONCLUSION: We found a substantial rate of occult SARS-CoV-2 infection in the studied cohort, suggesting SARS-CoV-2 may precipitate MI. Asymptomatic patients with COVID-19 admitted with MI may contribute to disease transmission and warrants widespread testing of hospital admissions.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Undiagnosed Diseases , Adult , Aged , Bangladesh/epidemiology , /mortality , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Time Factors
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160500

ABSTRACT

Given the large number of mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 cases, only population-based studies can provide reliable estimates of the magnitude of the pandemic. We therefore aimed to assess the sero-prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the Munich general population after the first wave of the pandemic. For this purpose, we drew a representative sample of 2994 private households and invited household members 14 years and older to complete questionnaires and to provide blood samples. SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was defined as Roche N pan-Ig ≥ 0.4218. We adjusted the prevalence for the sampling design, sensitivity, and specificity. We investigated risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and geospatial transmission patterns by generalized linear mixed models and permutation tests. Seropositivity for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies was 1.82% (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-2.37%) as compared to 0.46% PCR-positive cases officially registered in Munich. Loss of the sense of smell or taste was associated with seropositivity (odds ratio (OR) 47.4; 95% CI 7.2-307.0) and infections clustered within households. By this first population-based study on SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in a large German municipality not affected by a superspreading event, we could show that at least one in four cases in private households was reported and known to the health authorities. These results will help authorities to estimate the true burden of disease in the population and to take evidence-based decisions on public health measures.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Humans , Prevalence , Risk Factors
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1303: 107-127, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159748

ABSTRACT

In addition to studies focused on estrogen mediation of sex-different regulation of systemic circulations, there is now increasing clinical relevance and research interests in the pulmonary circulation, in terms of sex differences in the morbidity and mortality of lung diseases such as inherent-, allergic- and inflammatory-based events. Thus, female predisposition to pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is an inevitable topic. To better understand the nature of sexual differentiation in the pulmonary circulation, and how heritable factors, in vivo- and/or in vitro-altered estrogen circumstances and changes in the live environment work in concert to discern the sex bias, this chapter reviews pulmonary events characterized by sex-different features, concomitant with exploration of how alterations of genetic expression and estrogen metabolisms trigger the female-predominant pathological signaling. We address the following: PAH (Sect.7.2) is characterized as an estrogenic promotion of its incidence (Sect. 7.2.2), as a function of specific germline mutations, and as an estrogen-elicited protection of its prognosis (Sect.7.2.1). More detail is provided to introduce a less recognized gene of Ephx2 that encodes soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to degrade epoxyeicosatrienic acids (EETs). As a susceptible target of estrogen, Ephx2/sEH expression is downregulated by an estrogen-dependent epigenetic mechanism. Increases in pulmonary EETs then evoke a potentiation of PAH generation, but mitigation of its progression, a phenomenon similar to the estrogen-paradox regulation of PAH. Additionally, the female susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (Sect. 7.3) and asthma (Sect.7.4), but less preference to COVID-19 (Sect. 7.5), and roles of estrogen in their pathogeneses are briefly discussed.


Subject(s)
Hypertension, Pulmonary , Lung Diseases , Estrogens , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/genetics , Male , Prevalence , Sexism
13.
Tuberk Toraks ; 68(4): 407-418, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154731

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) started in December 2019 and has affected millions of lives worldwide, while many aspects of the illness are still unknown. Current data show that many hospitalized COVID-19 patients suffer from kidney damage, in the form of proteinuria, hematuria or acute kidney injury (AKI). AKI is especially prevalent among severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients and is a predictor of mortality. The pathophysiology of AKI in COVID-19 is unclear. Early reports of histopathologic examination from autopsied kidney tissue show SARS-CoV-2 viral particles in renal tubular cells and podocytes, suggesting direct viral infection, as well as findings of acute tubular necrosis, while rhabdomyolysis-associated AKI and glomerulopathies may also occur. As of today, only remdesivir has been authorized to treat COVID-19. Ongoing research investigates potential of anti-viral and anti-inflammatory agents along with safety and efficacy of commonly prescribed drugs such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers. This review discusses the prevalence of AKI and its association with outcome, while highlighting possible mechanisms of AKI and suggesting organ protective measures to prevent the development of kidney damage.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , /epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Global Health , Humans , Prevalence
14.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 37(4): 314-321, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153088

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the psychological implications of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on people with HIV. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of COVID-19 among men and women with HIV in Miami, Florida. We hypothesized that the burden of the COVID-19 pandemic will be higher for women, and psychological factors will increase COVID-19 burden among them. People with (n = 231) and without HIV (n = 42) residing in Miami, Florida completed a survey assessing psychological outcomes such as loneliness, depression, and stress, as well as the burden of COVID-19, on their daily lives. t-Tests and chi-square analyses were used to assess sex differences in study variables. Logistic regression was used to compare the interaction effects predicting stress and loneliness by COVID-19 burden and sex. A total of 273 completed the survey; the outcomes of the study, loneliness, and stress did not differ by HIV status (p = .458 and p = .922). Overall, men and women reported similar prevalence of COVID-19 burden. However, a greater proportion of women reported losing childcare than men (18% vs. 9%, p = .029, respectively), as well as losing mental health care (15% vs. 7%, p = .049, respectively). There was a significant interaction between COVID-19 burden and sex for loneliness and stress such that the association between COVID-19 burden and loneliness was greater for women (p < .001) than for men (p = .353) and the association between COVID-19 burden and stress was greater for women (p = .013) than men (p = .628). Both men and women with HIV are impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, but women may experience higher levels of stress and loneliness than men. Sex differences may require tailored interventions to more effectively mitigate the impact of the pandemic on mental health.


Subject(s)
/complications , HIV Infections/complications , Loneliness , Sex Factors , Adult , /psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , United States/epidemiology
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(15)2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152938

ABSTRACT

We estimate the effects of shelter-in-place (SIP) orders during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. We do not find detectable effects of these policies on disease spread or deaths. We find small but measurable effects on mobility that dissipate over time. And we find small, delayed effects on unemployment. We conduct additional analyses that separately assess the effects of expanding versus withdrawing SIP orders and test whether there are spillover effects in other states. Our results are consistent with prior studies showing that SIP orders have accounted for a relatively small share of the mobility trends and economic disruptions associated with the pandemic. We reanalyze two prior studies purporting to show that SIP orders caused large reductions in disease prevalence, and show that those results are not reliable. Our results do not imply that social distancing behavior by individuals, as distinct from SIP policy, is ineffective.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Emergency Shelter , /prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Emergency Shelter/economics , Emergency Shelter/trends , Humans , Pandemics , Policy , Prevalence , Time Factors , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD013879, 2021 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1151840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A small minority of people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) develop a severe illness, characterised by inflammation, microvascular damage and coagulopathy, potentially leading to myocardial injury, venous thromboembolism (VTE) and arterial occlusive events. People with risk factors for or pre-existing cardiovascular disease may be at greater risk. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of pre-existing cardiovascular comorbidities associated with suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19 in a variety of settings, including the community, care homes and hospitals. We also assessed the nature and rate of subsequent cardiovascular complications and clinical events in people with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. SEARCH METHODS: We conducted an electronic search from December 2019 to 24 July 2020 in the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, covid-19.cochrane.org, ClinicalTrials.gov and EU Clinical Trial Register. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective and retrospective cohort studies, controlled before-and-after, case-control and cross-sectional studies, and randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We analysed controlled trials as cohorts, disregarding treatment allocation. We only included peer-reviewed studies with 100 or more participants, and excluded articles not written in English or only published in pre-print servers. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened the search results and extracted data. Given substantial variation in study designs, reported outcomes and outcome metrics, we undertook a narrative synthesis of data, without conducting a meta-analysis. We critically appraised all included studies using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) checklist for prevalence studies and the JBI checklist for case series. MAIN RESULTS: We included 220 studies. Most of the studies originated from China (47.7%) or the USA (20.9%); 9.5% were from Italy. A large proportion of the studies were retrospective (89.5%), but three (1.4%) were RCTs and 20 (9.1%) were prospective. Using JBI's critical appraisal checklist tool for prevalence studies, 75 studies attained a full score of 9, 57 studies a score of 8, 31 studies a score of 7, 5 studies a score of 6, three studies a score of 5 and one a score of 3; using JBI's checklist tool for case series, 30 studies received a full score of 10, six studies a score of 9, 11 studies a score of 8, and one study a score of 5 We found that hypertension (189 studies, n = 174,414, weighted mean prevalence (WMP): 36.1%), diabetes (197 studies, n = 569,188, WMP: 22.1%) and ischaemic heart disease (94 studies, n = 100,765, WMP: 10.5%)  are highly prevalent in people hospitalised with COVID-19, and are associated with an increased risk of death. In those admitted to hospital, biomarkers of cardiac stress or injury are often abnormal, and the incidence of a wide range of cardiovascular complications is substantial, particularly arrhythmias (22 studies, n = 13,115, weighted mean incidence (WMI) 9.3%), heart failure (20 studies, n = 29,317, WMI: 6.8%) and thrombotic complications (VTE: 16 studies, n = 7700, WMI: 7.4%). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This systematic literature review indicates that cardiometabolic comorbidities are common in people who are hospitalised with a COVID-19 infection, and cardiovascular complications are frequent. We plan to update this review and to conduct a formal meta-analysis of outcomes based on a more homogeneous selected subsample of high-certainty studies.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Incidence , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence , Thrombosis/epidemiology
18.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248783, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 test sensitivity and specificity have been widely examined and discussed, yet optimal use of these tests will depend on the goals of testing, the population or setting, and the anticipated underlying disease prevalence. We model various combinations of key variables to identify and compare a range of effective and practical surveillance strategies for schools and businesses. METHODS: We coupled a simulated data set incorporating actual community prevalence and test performance characteristics to a susceptible, infectious, removed (SIR) compartmental model, modeling the impact of base and tunable variables including test sensitivity, testing frequency, results lag, sample pooling, disease prevalence, externally-acquired infections, symptom checking, and test cost on outcomes including case reduction and false positives. FINDINGS: Increasing testing frequency was associated with a non-linear positive effect on cases averted over 100 days. While precise reductions in cumulative number of infections depended on community disease prevalence, testing every 3 days versus every 14 days (even with a lower sensitivity test) reduces the disease burden substantially. Pooling provided cost savings and made a high-frequency approach practical; one high-performing strategy, testing every 3 days, yielded per person per day costs as low as $1.32. INTERPRETATION: A range of practically viable testing strategies emerged for schools and businesses. Key characteristics of these strategies include high frequency testing with a moderate or high sensitivity test and minimal results delay. Sample pooling allowed for operational efficiency and cost savings with minimal loss of model performance.


Subject(s)
/economics , /diagnosis , /virology , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Delayed Diagnosis , Humans , Mass Screening/economics , Prevalence , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , /isolation & purification , Schools , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248509, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150544

ABSTRACT

As the world grapples with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, a particularly thorny set of questions surrounds the reopening of primary and secondary (K-12) schools. The benefits of in-person learning are numerous, in terms of education quality, mental health, emotional well-being, equity and access to food and shelter. Early reports suggested that children might have reduced susceptibility to COVID-19, and children have been shown to experience fewer complications than older adults. Over the past few months, our understanding of COVID-19 has been further shaped by emerging data, and it is now understood that children are as susceptible to infection as adults and have a similar viral load during infection, even if asymptomatic. Based on this updated understanding of the disease, we have used epidemiological modeling to explore the feasibility and consequences of school reopening in the face of differing rates of COVID-19 prevalence and transmission. We focused our analysis on the United States, but the results are applicable to other countries as well. We demonstrate the potential for a large discrepancy between detected cases and true infections in schools due to the combination of high asymptomatic rates in children coupled with delays in seeking testing and receiving results from diagnostic tests. Our findings indicate that, regardless of the initial prevalence of the disease, and in the absence of robust surveillance testing and contact-tracing, most schools in the United States can expect to remain open for 20-60 days without the emergence of sizeable disease clusters. At this point, even if schools choose to close after outbreaks occur, COVID-19 cases will be seeded from these school clusters and amplified into the community. Thus, our findings suggest that the debate between the risks to student safety and benefits of in-person learning frames a false dual choice. Reopening schools without surveillance testing and contact tracing measures in place will lead to spread within the schools and within the communities that eventually forces a return to remote learning and leaves a trail of infection in its wake.


Subject(s)
/pathology , Models, Theoretical , /epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Schools , United States/epidemiology
20.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0246454, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150517

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed health care workers under psychological stress. Previous reviews show a high prevalence of mental disorders among health care workers, but these need updating and inclusion of studies written in Chinese. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to provide updated prevalence estimates for depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic, benefitting from the inclusion of studies published in Chinese. METHODS: Systematic search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Global Health, Web of Science, CINAHL, Google Scholar and the Chinese databases SinoMed, WanfangMed, CNKI and CQVIP, for studies conducted between December 2019 and August 2020 on the prevalence of depression, anxiety and PTSD in health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Studies published in both English and Chinese were included. RESULTS: Data on the prevalence of moderate depression, anxiety and PTSD was pooled across 65 studies involving 97,333 health care workers across 21 countries. The pooled prevalence of depression was 21.7% (95% CI, 18.3%-25.2%), of anxiety 22.1% (95% CI, 18.2%-26.3%), and of PTSD 21.5% (95% CI, 10.5%-34.9%). Prevalence estimates are also provided for a mild classification of each disorder. Pooled prevalence estimates of depression and anxiety were highest in studies conducted in the Middle-East (34.6%; 28.9%). Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were conducted across covariates, including sampling method and outcome measure. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and meta-analysis has identified a high prevalence of moderate depression, anxiety and PTSD among health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Appropriate support is urgently needed. The response would benefit from additional research on which interventions are effective at mitigating these risks.


Subject(s)
/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Prevalence , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
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