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4.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(6): JC62, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841673

ABSTRACT

SOURCE CITATION: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, Krist AH, Davidson KW, et al. Screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2021;325:476-81. 33528542.


Subject(s)
Carotid Stenosis , Adult , Advisory Committees , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Mass Screening , Preventive Health Services
5.
Fam Med ; 54(5): 350-361, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1836317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Stay-at-home orders, social isolation recommendations, and fear of COVID-19 exposure have led to delays in children's preventive health services during the pandemic. Delays can lead to missed opportunities for early screening and detection of health problems, and increased risks for outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Understanding prevalence of and reasons for missed, delayed, or skipped preventive health services is important for developing strategies to achieve rapid catch-up of essential health services. METHODS: Using the Household Pulse Survey (n=37,064), a large, nationally-representative household survey fielded from April 14 to May 10, 2021, we examined prevalence of households with children who have missed, delayed, or skipped preventive health services, and factors associated with and reasons contributing to missed, delayed, or skipped preventive health services. RESULTS: About one-quarter of parents had children who missed, delayed, or skipped preventive check-ups in the past year. Delays in children's preventive health services were more common among respondents with higher education, households with greater numbers of children, and children who learned remotely or did not participate in formal education. Main reasons attributed to delayed preventive health services were limited appointments at health providers' offices (42.9%), concern about COVID-19 exposure at health providers' offices (42.2%), and closed health providers' offices due to the pandemic (29.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Physician office closures and concern about COVID-19 exposure resulted in over one-quarter of parents delaying preventive services for their children since the pandemic began. Coordinated efforts are needed to achieve rapid catch-up of preventive services and routine vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Parents , Prevalence , Preventive Health Services
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820261

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to identify factors affecting preventive health behaviors and to provide basic data for developing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevention and education programs. The participants were 218 students enrolled in two nursing colleges located near Gyeongsang and Jeolla province, Republic of Korea. Data were collected in December 2020 and analyses were conducted using t- and Scheffé tests, analysis of variance, Pearson correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression with the SPSS/WIN 25.0 program (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). The factors affecting preventive health behaviors were fear of infection (ß = 0.26, p < 0.001), perceived benefits of COVID-19 infection control (ß = 0.20, p = 0.002), educational needs concerning COVID-19 infection control (ß = 0.18, p = 0.004), and perceived barriers to COVID-19 infection control (ß = 0.16, p = 0.011). To improve preventive health behaviors of nursing students against COVID-19, effective and practical education is required, and a systematic infection prevention education program should be developed considering the fear of COVID-19 infection and the perceived benefits and barriers in infection control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Nursing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Behavior , Humans , Preventive Health Services , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785645

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, it is estimated that at least one in four adults suffers from hypertension, and this number is expected to increase as populations grow and age. Blood pressure (BP) possesses substantial heritability, but is also heavily modulated by lifestyle factors. As such, digital, lifestyle-based interventions are a promising alternative to standard care for hypertension prevention and management. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of elevated and high BP in a Dutch general population cohort undergoing a health screening, and observed the effects of a subsequent self-initiated, digitally-enabled lifestyle program on BP regulation. Baseline data were available for 348 participants, of which 56 had partaken in a BP-focused lifestyle program and got remeasured 10 months after the intervention. Participants with elevated SBP and DBP at baseline showed a mean decrease of 7.2 mmHg and 5.4 mmHg, respectively. Additionally, 70% and 72.5% of participants showed an improvement in systolic and diastolic BP at remeasurement. These improvements in BP are superior to those seen in other recent studies. The long-term sustainability and the efficacy of this and similar digital lifestyle interventions will need to be established in additional, larger studies.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Adult , Blood Pressure , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/prevention & control , Pilot Projects , Preventive Health Services
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 727668, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775852

ABSTRACT

The leadership of the Semmelweis University as a leading institution of higher education in Hungary and the Central Eastern European region within the area of medicine and health sciences has decided to reflect on the unfavorable public health situation in the country as well as the deteriorating health behavior and health status indicators in the Hungarian population by the development of an occupational setting-based personalized public health model program targeting its about 8500 employees. Based on its infrastructure and human resources the core element of the program is the establishment of the Center of Preventive Services (CPS) with units providing health risk assessment for each employee, and whenever necessary consultation with medical specialist in preventive medicine and public health, as well as counseling with dietician, physiotherapist and/or health psychologist. The service providers are the staff members of the relevant faculties in collaboration with partner primary and occupational care physicians. The units of the CPS can also serve as practical training sites for students at various levels of medical and health sciences training, and strongly contribute to the development and improvement of their skills to be able for working as a team in service provision. The employees are not only beneficiaries of health risk assessment and screening repeated on a regular basis and adequate interventions at the right time, but they also serve as a sample for a longitudinal cohort study and further ad hoc surveys for defining and implementing interventions to support health protection, disease prevention and healthy aging among them.


Subject(s)
Preventive Health Services , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Universities
10.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 27(10): 1703-1705, 2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740876

ABSTRACT

The recent emergency use authorization of a third COVID-19 vaccine means that most patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) will soon be eligible to be vaccinated. Gastroenterology clinicians should be prepared to address patients' concerns regarding safety and efficacy of vaccines. They should also strongly recommend that all their patients be vaccinated with a COVID-19 vaccine. Additionally, they should be prepared to educate patients about logistics that will result in successful vaccination completion. All these measures will be crucial to ensure high uptake among their patients with IBD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Gastroenterologists , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Vaccination , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/psychology , Patient Participation/methods , Patient Participation/psychology , Physician's Role , Preventive Health Services , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination Coverage/methods
11.
Issues Ment Health Nurs ; 43(3): 288-292, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721828
12.
J Adolesc Health ; 70(5): 729-735, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676791

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Preventive health behavior during COVID-19 protects not only oneself but also the welfare of others. However, little attention has been paid to prosocial motivation in adolescents, who are often viewed as selfish and egocentric. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore the role of empathy in adolescents' preventive health behavior using longitudinal data. METHODS: A total of 442 Chinese adolescents (mean age of youth = 13.35 years; 49.5% girls and 50.5% boys) completed two-wave longitudinal surveys over the span of two months during the pandemic (Time 1: July 2020; Time 2: September 2020). At T1, participants reported on their empathic concern, perspective taking, and concern for personal health. At both T1 and T2, participants reported on their preventive health behavior and COVID-related worry. RESULTS: Adolescents who showed greater empathic concern tend to engage in more preventive health behavior over time (p < .01). However, greater empathic concern also predicted adolescents' greater worry about COVID-19 over time (p < .01). In comparison, adolescents' perspective-taking and concern for personal health did not predict their health behavior or worry over time. Notably, the longitudinal effect of empathic concern on preventive health behavior and COVID-related worry remained (ps < .05) after taking into account adolescents' perspective-taking and concern for personal health. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight adolescents' prosocial motivation in engaging in preventive health behavior during the pandemic and also point out the potential negative influence of empathic concern on adolescent mental health.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China , Empathy , Female , Humans , Male , Preventive Health Services
13.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2): 226-233, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643027

ABSTRACT

For more than 30 years, the network of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-funded Prevention Research Centers (PRCs) has worked with local communities and partners to implement and evaluate public health interventions and policies for the prevention of disease and promotion of health. The COVID-19 pandemic tested the PRC network's ability to rapidly respond to multiple, simultaneous public health crises. On April 28, 2020, to assess the network's engagement with activities undertaken in response to the early phase of the pandemic, PRC network leadership distributed an online survey to the directors of 34 currently or formerly funded PRCs, asking them to report their PRCs' engagement with predetermined activities across 9 topical areas and provide case studies exemplifying that engagement. We received responses from 24 PRCs, all of which reported engagement with at least 1 of the 9 topical areas (mean, 5). The topical areas with which the greatest number of PRCs reported engagement were support of frontline agencies (21 of 24, 88%) and support of activities related to health care (21 of 24, 88%). The mean number of activities with which PRCs reported engagement was 11. The PRCs provided more than 90 case studies exemplifying their work. The results of the survey indicated that the PRCs mobilized their personnel and resources to support the COVID-19 response in less than 6 weeks. We posit that the speed of this response was due, in part, to the broad and diverse expertise of PRC personnel and long-standing partnerships between PRCs and the communities in which they work.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Community Participation , Health Services Research/organization & administration , Preventive Health Services/organization & administration , Public Health , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Health Services Research/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intersectoral Collaboration , Organizational Case Studies , Preventive Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
16.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2): 336-343, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582748

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic led to a substantial drop in US children's preventive care, which had not fully rebounded by the end of 2020. We sought to estimate the overall prevalence of missed, skipped, or delayed preventive checkups among households with children in the last 12 months because of the pandemic. METHODS: We used data from the US Census Bureau's Household Pulse Survey, Phase 3.1 (collected April-May 2021). The analytic sample included 48 824 households with ≥1 child or adolescent aged <18 years. We estimated both national and state-level prevalences, examined associations with sociodemographic and household characteristics, and described reasons for missed or delayed preventive visits. RESULTS: Overall, 26.4% (95% CI, 25.5%-27.2%) of households reported that ≥1 child or adolescent had missed or delayed a preventive visit because of COVID-19; percentages varied by state, from 17.9% in Wyoming to 37.0% in Vermont. The prevalence of missed or delayed preventive visits was significantly higher among respondents who reported material hardships (ie, not caught up on rent/mortgage, difficulty paying usual household expenses, children not eating enough because of lack of affordability) than among respondents who did not report material hardships. The most common reasons for missing or delaying preventive visits were concern about visiting a health care provider, limited appointment availability, and the provider's location being closed. CONCLUSIONS: Programs and policies could reduce gaps in children's preventive care caused by the pandemic, with a particular focus on addressing social determinants of health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Child Health Services , Health Services Misuse/statistics & numerical data , Preventive Health Services , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Family Characteristics , Humans , Infant , Prevalence , Social Determinants of Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
17.
Prev Med ; 154: 106901, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541025

ABSTRACT

The Health Insurance Marketplace has offered access to private health insurance coverage for over 10 million Americans, including previously uninsured women. Per Affordable Care Act requirements, Marketplace plans must cover preventive services without patient cost-sharing in the same way as in employer-sponsored insurance (ESI). However, no study has evaluated whether the utilization of preventive services is similar between Marketplace enrollees and ESI enrollees. Using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data for 2014-2016, we identified working-age women with Marketplace plans (n = 792, N = 2,567,292) and ESI (n = 13,100, N = 52,557,779). We compared the two groups' receipt rates of five evidence-based preventive services: blood pressure screening, influenza vaccine, Pap test, mammogram, and colorectal cancer screening. Unadjusted results showed marketplace enrolled women had significantly lower odds of influenza vaccination, Pap test, and mammogram. However, after controlling for other factors, Marketplace insurance was not associated with lower receipt rates of preventive services, except for influenza vaccination (Adjusted OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.50-0.82). Regardless of an individual's private insurance type, higher educational attainment and having a usual source of medical care showed the strongest association with the receipt of all investigated preventive services. With the increased role of the Marketplace as a safety net in the COVID-19 pandemic, more research and outreach efforts should be made to facilitate access to preventive services for its enrollees.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Insurance Exchanges , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Insurance Coverage , Insurance, Health , Pandemics , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Preventive Health Services , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
19.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr (Engl Ed) ; 50(3): 225-231, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401810

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The crisis situation generated by COVID-19 and the measures adopted have generated social changes in the normal dynamics of the general population and especially for health workers, who find themselves caring for patients with suspected or confirmed infection. Recent studies have detected in them depression and anxiety symptoms and burnout syndrome, with personal and social conditions impacting their response capacity during the health emergency. Our aim was to generate recommendations for the promotion and protection of the mental health of health workers and teams in the first line of care in the health emergency due to COVID-19. METHODS: A rapid literature search was carried out in PubMed and Google Scholar, and an iterative expert consensus and through electronic consultation, with 13 participants from the areas of psychology, psychiatry and medicine; the grading of its strength and directionality was carried out according to the international standards of the Joanna Briggs Institute. RESULTS: Thirty-one recommendations were generated on self-care of health workers, community care among health teams, screening for alarm signs in mental health and for health institutions. CONCLUSIONS: The promotion and protection activities in mental health to face the health emergency generated by COVID-19 worldwide can include coordinated actions between workers, health teams and health institutions as part of a comprehensive, community care, co-responsible and sustained over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/therapy , Occupational Diseases/diagnosis , Occupational Diseases/therapy , Occupational Health Services/methods , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Mass Screening/standards , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Diseases/psychology , Occupational Health Services/standards , Preventive Health Services/methods , Preventive Health Services/standards , Self Care/methods , Self Care/standards
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