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1.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2): 226-233, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643027

ABSTRACT

For more than 30 years, the network of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-funded Prevention Research Centers (PRCs) has worked with local communities and partners to implement and evaluate public health interventions and policies for the prevention of disease and promotion of health. The COVID-19 pandemic tested the PRC network's ability to rapidly respond to multiple, simultaneous public health crises. On April 28, 2020, to assess the network's engagement with activities undertaken in response to the early phase of the pandemic, PRC network leadership distributed an online survey to the directors of 34 currently or formerly funded PRCs, asking them to report their PRCs' engagement with predetermined activities across 9 topical areas and provide case studies exemplifying that engagement. We received responses from 24 PRCs, all of which reported engagement with at least 1 of the 9 topical areas (mean, 5). The topical areas with which the greatest number of PRCs reported engagement were support of frontline agencies (21 of 24, 88%) and support of activities related to health care (21 of 24, 88%). The mean number of activities with which PRCs reported engagement was 11. The PRCs provided more than 90 case studies exemplifying their work. The results of the survey indicated that the PRCs mobilized their personnel and resources to support the COVID-19 response in less than 6 weeks. We posit that the speed of this response was due, in part, to the broad and diverse expertise of PRC personnel and long-standing partnerships between PRCs and the communities in which they work.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Community Participation , Health Services Research/organization & administration , Preventive Health Services/organization & administration , Public Health , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Health Services Research/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intersectoral Collaboration , Organizational Case Studies , Preventive Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
2.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr (Engl Ed) ; 50(3): 199-213, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347802

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to compare the emotional effects of COVID-19 among three different groups, namely: health personnel, medical students, and a sample of the general population. METHODS: 375 participants were recruited for this study, of which 125 were medical students (preclinical studies, 59; clinical studies, 66), 125 were health personnel (COVID-19 frontline personnel, 59; personnel not related with COVID-19, 66), and 125 belonged to the general population. The PHQ-9, GAD-7, and CPDI scales were used to assess the emotional impact. A multinomial logistic regression was performed to measure differences between groups, considering potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Regarding CPDI values, all other groups showed reduced values compared to COVID-19 frontline personnel. However, the general population, preclinical and clinical medical students showed increased PHQ-9 values compared to COVID-19 frontline personnel. Finally, confounding factors, gender and age correlated negatively with higher CPDI and PHQ-9 scores. CONCLUSIONS: Being frontline personnel is associated with increased COVID-19-related stress. Depression is associated, however, with other groups not directly involved with the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Female gender and younger age correlated with COVID-19-related depression and stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health Services , Preventive Health Services/methods , Student Health Services/methods , Students/psychology , Teaching/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Promotion/methods , Health Promotion/organization & administration , Humans , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Health , Mental Health Services/organization & administration , Preventive Health Services/organization & administration , Student Health Services/organization & administration , Universities , Young Adult
4.
Western Pac Surveill Response J ; 12(1): 61-68, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259713

ABSTRACT

International borders to Vanuatu closed on 23 March 2020 due to the global COVID-19 pandemic. In May-July 2020, the Government of Vanuatu focused on the safe and timely return of citizens and residents while ensuring Vanuatu remained COVID-19 free. Under Phase 1 of repatriation, between 27 May and 23 June 2020, 1522 people arrived in the capital, Port Vila, and were placed in compulsory government-mandated 14-day quarantine in 15 hotels. Pre-arrival health operations included collection of repatriate information, quarantine facility assessments, training for personnel supporting the process, and tabletop and functional exercises with live scenario simulations. During quarantine, health monitoring, mental health assessments and psychosocial support were provided. All repatriates completed 14 days of quarantine. One person developed symptoms consistent with COVID-19 during quarantine but tested negative. Overall health operations were considered a success despite logistical and resource challenges. Lessons learnt were documented during a health sector after-action review held on 22 July 2020. Key recommendations for improvement were to obtain timely receipt of repatriate information before travel, limit the number of repatriates received and avoid the mixing of "travel cohorts," ensure sufficient human resources are available to support operations while maintaining other essential services, establish a command and control structure for health operations, develop training packages and deliver them to all personnel supporting operations, and coordinate better with other sectors to ensure health aspects are considered. These recommendations were applied to further improve health operations for subsequent repatriation and quarantine, with Phase 2 commencing on 1 August 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Health Policy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Preventive Health Services/organization & administration , Preventive Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vanuatu/epidemiology
6.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(3): 987-992, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The success of the COVID-19 vaccination program is dependent on people's knowledge and attitude regarding the vaccination program. Higher vaccine acceptance can be ensured by strengthening the facilitators and limiting the barriers being observed among the general population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Indexed study is a cross-sectional web-based survey using a pre-validated questionnaire to assess knowledge, barriers and facilitators of COVID-19 vaccine and vaccination programme administered on adults across India using a Google online survey platform. RESULTS: A total of 1294 responses (age: 38.02 ± 13.34 years) were collected. Most of the participants had limited knowledge regarding the eligibility of vaccines in vulnerable population groups such as people with allergies (57.89%) and immune-compromised patients (62.98%), pregnant and lactating women (41.89%) and patients with chronic illness (34.78%). Older participants (>45 years) were more willing to take the COVID-19 vaccine (p < 0.001) as they believed the vaccine is not harmful and considered it as societal responsibility. Younger participants (<45 years) and those residing in urban settings raised concerns on the availability of the vaccine and authenticity of the vaccine (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: There is a scope for improvement in people's knowledge regarding COVID-19 vaccine and the vaccination programme by addressing the barriers and facilitators which can improve the participants' turnover at vaccination centres.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communication Barriers , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Literacy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Literacy/organization & administration , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Preventive Health Services/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
10.
Inquiry ; 58: 46958021997337, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120253

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease pandemic has created a crisis for patients with chronic kidney disease, as far as getting treatment facilities are concerned. The crisis is more intense in developing countries where the health system is more vulnerable due to poor infrastructures and insufficient health professionals. Bangladesh, being a developing nation, is also facing similar challenges to provide sufficient services to patients with chronic kidney disease. In this short report, we have discussed the challenges and barriers non-COVID chronic kidney disease patients are facing in terms of healthcare access along with getting proper medical interventions and suggested probable strategies to minimize the suffering.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Needs and Demand/organization & administration , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Bangladesh , Developing Countries , Humans , Preventive Health Services/organization & administration , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Health Educ Behav ; 48(1): 29-33, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978878

ABSTRACT

Decreased engagement in preventive services, including vaccination, during the COVID-19 pandemic represents a grave threat to global health. We use the case of the Bom Retiro Public Health Clinic in São Paulo, Brazil, to underscore how continuity of care is not only feasible, but a crucial part of health as a human right. The long-standing relationship between the clinic and neighborhood residents has facilitated ongoing management of physical and mental health conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the clinic's history of confronting infectious diseases has equipped it to adapt preventive services to meet patients' needs during the pandemic. Our academic-community partnership used a multidisciplinary approach, relying on analysis of historical data, ethnographic data, and direct clinical experience. We identify specific prevention strategies alongside areas for improvement. We conclude that the clinic serves as a model for continuity of care in urban settings during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Preventive Health Services/organization & administration , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Urban Health Services/organization & administration , Brazil/epidemiology , Community-Institutional Relations , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Universities/organization & administration
17.
Prev Sci ; 22(1): 94-99, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-935308

ABSTRACT

Never before has the value of prevention science become so apparent to the populace, particularly in simultaneous fashion across all nations. A general understanding of what prevention represents in true form has lagged well behind the science and, in fact, few outside of the field recognize that there is actually a significant body of research that undergirds preventative practices, programs and policies. The current pandemic and the uneven impacts on underserved and marginalized populations has highlighted the need for proactive approaches to prevent underlying conditions that increase risk for infection, worsen the wide ranging harms from the virus, and significantly exacerbate disparities that characterize many nations. To ensure uptake of the science by end-users (e.g., community stakeholders, practitioners, policymakers), who operate the levers that determine whether resources and services are distributed equitably across societies' sectors, prevention scientists have a unique and powerful role to play. This commentary on the special issue, focused on the "culture of prevention," considers the broader issues covered in the set of original articles in light of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Toward that end, I also outline two interrelated "calls to action" for prevention scientists. The first call is to concertedly apply a race equity lens to all aspects of our research, a need that is particularly critical given that our field is inherently actionable and, as such, evidence amassed has potential to equalize the playing field for disadvantaged and marginalized groups. The second acknowledges the need for prevention scientists to learn how to effectively communicate scientific knowledge to the public and policymakers to compellingly advocate for reforms guided by the science. A powerful, research-backed collective advocacy can effectively sway action of governing bodies in addressing disparities and inequities for constituents who have no voice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Preventive Health Services/organization & administration , Social Marginalization , Syndemic , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Pediatr Res ; 89(5): 1078-1086, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796715

ABSTRACT

Zero to 19 year-old children in sub-Saharan Africa bear a disproportionate proportion of the global burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Significant public health gains have been made in the fight against these diseases, however, factors such as underequipped health systems, disease outbreaks, conflict, and political instability continue to challenge prevention and control. The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) introduces new challenges to public health programs in sub-Saharan Africa. Of particular concern are programs targeting major conditions among children, such as undernutrition, vaccine-preventable pneumonia and diarrhea, malaria, tuberculosis, HIV, and sickle cell disease. This article focuses on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on child health in sub-Saharan Africa. We review the epidemiology of major pediatric diseases and, referencing modeling projections, discuss the short- and long-term impact of the pandemic on major disease control. We deliberate on potential complications of SARS-CoV-2 co-infections/co-morbidities and identify critical social and ethical issues. Furthermore, we highlight the paucity of COVID-19 data and clinical trials in this region and the lack of child participants in ongoing studies. Lastly, approaches and interventions to mitigate the pandemic's impact on child health outcomes are discussed. IMPACT: Children in sub-Saharan Africa bear a disproportionate burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases globally; this remains true even as the COVID-19 pandemic persists. Amidst the fast-expanding COVID-19 literature, there is little comprehensive coverage of the pandemic's indirect impact on child health in sub-Saharan Africa. This article comprehensively outlines the threat that the pandemic poses to major disease prevention and control for children in sub-Saharan Africa. It discusses the potential impact of SARS-CoV-2 co-infections/co-morbidities, highlights research gaps, and advocates for data and action to mitigate the ripple effects of the pandemic on this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Child Health Services/trends , Child Health , Delivery of Health Care , Pandemics , Preventive Health Services/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology , Child , Child Abuse/prevention & control , Child Health Services/organization & administration , Child, Preschool , Clinical Trials as Topic , Comorbidity , Cost of Illness , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Male , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Patient Selection , Preventive Health Services/organization & administration , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Young Adult
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