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3.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(12): 2565-2566, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245600

ABSTRACT

Adult vaccination is an accepted part of health care and diabetes care. In spite of evidence regarding the efficacy and utility of vaccination in preventing disease, we continue to encounter vaccine hesitancy and vaccine skepticism. As physicians, it is our duty to encourage the public to get vaccinated. In this article, we create a simple framework which helps assess the barriers to vaccine acceptance, and create bridges to overcome vaccine hesitancy and skepticism. We use an interesting mnemonic, NARCO, to remind ourselves, and our readers, of the appropriate hierarchy of interviewing related to vaccine acceptance.


Subject(s)
Physicians , Vaccination Hesitancy , Adult , Humans , Health Facilities , Memory , Vaccination , Primary Health Care
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(7): 2843-2857, 2021 Jul.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240553

ABSTRACT

We conducted an integrated literature review aimed at reflecting on the challenges related to primary care-based health surveillance actions in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in selected countries. The study included countries with different PHC models that adopted surveillance as an approach to control the transmission of COVID-19. We performed a search in October 2020 for relevant literature and norms and guidelines related to the organization of primary health care (PHC) in response to the pandemic on official government websites and the databases Web of Science and Science Direct. The integrated health surveillance actions demonstrated that efforts were more focused on risks, with some countries adopting innovative and effective measures to respond to COVID-19, considering emerging needs within PHC. However, in addition to ethical controversies and operational difficulties, access to technology was a challenge in actions developed by some countries due to social inequalities.


Trata-se de uma revisão de síntese integrativa com objetivo de refletir sobre os desafios atinentes às ações de vigilância em saúde no enfrentamento da COVID-19, no âmbito da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS), em sistemas de saúde de países selecionados. Foram incluídos, no estudo, países com modelos de APS distintos, mas que adotaram a vigilância nos territórios como premissa para o controle da transmissão da COVID-19. Houve a revisão bibliográfica da literatura científica e a análise documental de normas e diretrizes relacionadas à organização da APS para enfrentamento da pandemia. A produção dos dados ocorreu no período entre abril e julho de 2020 e envolveu a busca de documentos sobre o enfrentamento da COVID-19, no que se refere à APS, nos sites oficiais governamentais de cada país e nas bases de dados científicas Web of Science e Science Direct. Ações integradas de vigilância em saúde demonstraram atuação mais direcionada sobre riscos, sendo possível respostas inovadoras e mais efetivas para enfrentamento da COVID-19, considerando necessidades emergentes no âmbito da APS. Contudo, experiências desenvolvidas por alguns países apresentaram controvérsias éticas e operacionais além dos desafios de acesso às tecnologias decorrente das desigualdades sociais.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Government , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
6.
West Afr J Med ; 40(5): 562-564, 2023 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239716

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of healthcare systems during this COVID-19 pandemic will largely depend on their resilience in the face of untold challenges. Hence, we share the ongoing experience of the response of a primary care facility to challenges of the increasing number of undifferentiated patient load in the context of rising COVID-19 cases, infrastructural gap, limited personal protective equipment, and the health workforce in a densely populated town.


L'efficacité des systèmes de soins de santé au cours de la pandémie de COVID-19 dépendra en grande partie de leur résistance face à des défis incalculables. Nous partageons donc l'expérience en cours de la réponse d'un établissement de soins primaires aux défis posés par le nombre croissant de patients indifférenciés dans le contexte de l'augmentation des cas de COVID-19, des lacunes infrastructurelles, de l'équipement de protection individuelle limité et du personnel de santé dans une ville densément peuplée. Mots-clés : COVID-19, Résilience du système de santé, Patients ambulatoires, Pandémie, Soins primaires.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Nigeria/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Primary Health Care
7.
Pediatr Ann ; 52(6): e198-e199, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238869
8.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286295, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237690

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine whether the COVID-19 pandemic had an impact on essential primary healthcare services at public primary healthcare facilities. METHODS: The number of weekly consultations for antenatal care (ANC), outpatient (OPD), immunisations (EPI), family planning (FP) and HIV services, between January 2018 and December 2020, were collected from 25 facilities in Masaka district, Uganda, 21 in Goma, and 29 in Kambia district, Sierra Leone. Negative binomial regression models accounting for clustering and season were used to analyse changes in activity levels between 2018, 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: In Goma, we found no change in OPD, EPI or ANC consultations, FP was 17% lower in March-July 2020 compared to 2019, but this recovered by December 2020. New diagnoses of HIV were 34% lower throughout 2020 compared to 2019. In Sierra Leone, compared to the same periods in 2019, facilities had 18-29% fewer OPD consultations throughout 2020, and 27% fewer DTP3 doses in March-July 2020. There was no evidence of differences in other services. In Uganda there were 20-35% fewer under-5 OPD consultations, 21-66% fewer MCV1 doses, and 48-51% fewer new diagnoses of HIV throughout 2020, compared to 2019. There was no difference in the number of HPV doses delivered. CONCLUSIONS: The level of disruption varied across the different settings and qualitatively appeared to correlate with the strength of lockdown measures and reported attitudes towards the risk posed by COVID-19. Mitigation strategies such as health communications campaigns and outreach services may be important to limit the impact of lockdowns on primary healthcare services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sierra Leone/epidemiology , Uganda/epidemiology , Democratic Republic of the Congo , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Prenatal Care , Primary Health Care
9.
Aust J Gen Pract ; 52(6): 345-357, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237045

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patient harm resulting from drug interactions between conventional and traditional or complementary medicines (CM) are avoidable. OBJECTIVE: To provide a clinical overview of a selection of CM interactions with drugs commonly used in Australian general practice or in the management of COVID-19. DISCUSSION: Many herb constituents are substrates for cytochrome P450 enzymes, and inducers and/or inhibitors of transporters such as P-glycoprotein. Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort), Hydrastis canadensis (golden seal), Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo) and Allium sativum (garlic) are reported to interact with many drugs. Simultaneous administration of certain anti-viral drugs with zinc compounds and several herbs should also be avoided. Preventing and identifying unwanted CM-drug interactions in primary care requires vigilance, access to CM-drug interaction checkers and excellent communication skills. Potential risks from interactions should be balanced against the potential benefits of continuing the drug and/or CM and involve shared decision making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Garlic , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Herb-Drug Interactions , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Australia , Primary Health Care
10.
South Med J ; 116(6): 511-517, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236810

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: As a result of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, many Internal Medicine (IM) residency programs converted to telehealth for primary care. Our objectives in this study were to better understand resident past and present telehealth education, their perceived barriers to telehealth practice, and their perceived solutions to improving telehealth use and education. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional needs assessment survey between November 2020 and February 2021 among residents at 10 IM residency programs across the United States. Our primary measures were telehealth use in resident continuity clinics before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, telehealth training, and confidence and barriers in using telehealth. RESULTS: Of 857 residents contacted, 314 (36.6%) responded. Residents reported low rates of education in telehealth prepandemic with significant improvements after the start of the pandemic across all visit domains (range of 10.7%-19.6% prepandemic compared with 25.6%-55.7% postpandemic, all P < 0.001). Resident confidence levels were significantly lower (P < 0.001) for video visits and telephone visits compared with in-person visiting across domains of communication, history taking, using an interpreter, making a diagnosis, counseling patients, providing psychosocial support, performing medical management, and coordinating after-visit care. Reported barriers included patient resources, clinic resources, lack of preceptor feedback, and lack of observation. Reported resources for improvement included tutorials on physical examination techniques, clinical space for telehealth, and patient resources for telehealth. CONCLUSIONS: To effectively address the educational needs for telehealth practice by IM residents, educators must consider not only curricular needs but also clinical, preceptor, and patient barriers to the high-quality use of telehealth for primary care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Telemedicine , Humans , United States , COVID-19/epidemiology , Needs Assessment , Cross-Sectional Studies , Primary Health Care
11.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 56(3): 248-254, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236418

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Measuring the quality of care is paramount to inform policies for healthcare services. Nevertheless, little is known about the quality of primary care and acute care provided in Korea. This study investigated trends in the quality of primary care and acute care. METHODS: Case-fatality rates and avoidable hospitalization rates were used as performance indicators to assess the quality of primary care and acute care. Admission data for the period 2008 to 2020 were extracted from the National Health Insurance Claims Database. Case-fatality rates and avoidable hospitalization rates were standardized by age and sex to adjust for patients' characteristics over time, and significant changes in the rates were identified by joinpoint regression. RESULTS: The average annual percent change in age-/sex-standardized case-fatality rates for acute myocardial infarction was -2.3% (95% confidence interval, -4.6 to 0.0). For hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, the age-/sex-standardized case-fatality rates were 21.8% and 5.9%, respectively in 2020; these rates decreased since 2008 (27.1 and 8.7%, respectively). The average annual percent change in age-/sex-standardized avoidable hospitalization rates ranged from -9.4% to -3.0%, with statistically significant changes between 2008 and 2020. In 2020, the avoidable hospitalization rates decreased considerably compared with the 2019 rate because of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The avoidable hospitalization rates and case-fatality rates decreased overall during the past decade, but they were relatively high compared with other countries. Strengthening primary care is an essential requirement to improve patient health outcomes in the rapidly aging Korean population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Primary Health Care , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
12.
J Urban Health ; 100(3): 468-477, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234044

ABSTRACT

Understanding patient characteristics associated with scheduling and completing telehealth visits can identify potential biases or latent preferences related to telehealth usage. We describe patient characteristics associated with being scheduled for and completing audio and video visits. We used data from patients at 17 adult primary care departments in a large, urban public healthcare system from August 1, 2020 to July 31, 2021. We used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression to generate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for patient characteristics associated with having been scheduled for and completed telehealth (vs in-person) visits and for video (vs audio) scheduling and completion during two time periods: a telehealth transition period (N = 190,949) and a telehealth elective period (N = 181,808). Patient characteristics were significantly associated with scheduling and completion of telehealth visits. Many associations were similar across time periods, but others changed over time. Patients who were older (≥ 65 years old vs 18-44 years old: aOR for scheduling 0.53/completion 0.48), Black (0.86/0.71), Hispanic (0.76/0.62), or had Medicaid (0.93/0.84) were among those less likely to be scheduled for or complete video (vs audio) visits. Patients with activated patient portals (1.97/3.34) or more visits (≥ 3 scheduled visits vs 1 visit: 2.40/1.52) were more likely to be scheduled for or complete video visits. Variation in scheduling/completion explained by patient characteristics was 7.2%/7.5%, clustering by provider 37.2%/34.9%, and clustering by facility 43.1%/37.4%. Stable and dynamic associations suggest persistent gaps in access and evolving preferences/biases. Variation explained by patient characteristics was relatively low compared with that explained by provider and facility clustering.


Subject(s)
Telemedicine , Adult , United States , Humans , Aged , Adolescent , Young Adult , Medicaid , Primary Health Care , Pandemics
13.
Med J Malaysia ; 78(3): 301-307, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233137

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Depression in the elderly constitutes 7.3% of the total Malaysian national prevalence of depression. However, depression is commonly underdiagnosed by primary care physicians, which may impact coexisting comorbid conditions and general well-being. As depression in the elderly increases with age, its prevalence is expected to become even more significant due to the increased life expectancy and isolation during the pandemic. This study aims to determine the perceptions, views and barriers encountered among primary care physicians on screening for depression among the elderly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This qualitative study involved five public healthcare clinics in the Kuching district with indepth interviews (IDI) conducted on 14 primary care doctors (PCDs). Semi-structured interviews and in-depth discussions were conducted via videoconferencing. One representative was selected from each clinic at initiation, followed by snowball method for subsequent subject selection until saturation of themes. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and analysis based on framework analysis principles via NVivo software. Themes were analysed deductively according to study objectives and evidence from literature. RESULTS: Three main themes emerged from the IDI: (1) The perception of depression in elderly patients, (2) The perceived barriers to screening, and (3) The screening processes. Majority of the PCDs perceived depression as part of ageing process. Time constraints, lack of privacy in consultation rooms, dominant caregivers and failure to recognise recurrent somatic symptoms as part of depression influenced PCDs decision to screen. Screening was technically challenging for PCDs to use the DASS-21, which was not socio-culturally validated for local native population. Only 21.4% of respondents (3/14) reported screening at least three out 10 elderly patients seen over 1- month period. During the covid pandemic, due to the same human resource support and practices, most participants thought their screening for depression in elderlies had not changed. CONCLUSION: Awareness of depression among PCDs needs to be re-enforced via continuous medical education programs to use appropriate screening tools, address infrastructure related barriers to optimise screening practices. The use of appropriate locally validated and socio-culturally adapted tool is vital to correctly interpret the screening test for patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Humans , Aged , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Primary Health Care , Delivery of Health Care , Perception
14.
Br J Gen Pract ; 73(731): 244-245, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232638
15.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1141433, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244746

ABSTRACT

Background: With the outbreak of COVID-19, government measures including social distancing and restrictions of social contacts were imposed to slow the spread of the virus. Since older adults are at increased risk of severe disease, they were particularly affected by these restrictions. These may negatively affect mental health by loneliness and social isolation, which constitute risk factors for depressiveness. We aimed to analyse the impact of perceived restriction due to government measures on depressive symptoms and investigated stress as mediator in an at-risk-population in Germany. Methods: Data were collected in April 2020 from the population of the AgeWell.de-study, including individuals with a Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Incidence of Dementia (CAIDE) score ≥9, using the depression subscale of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-18) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4). Feeling restricted due to COVID-19 government measures was surveyed with a standardized questionnaire. Stepwise multivariate regressions using zero-inflated negative binomial models were applied to analyse depressive symptoms, followed by a general structural equation model to assess stress as mediator. Analysis were controlled for sociodemographic factors as well as social support. Results: We analysed data from 810 older adults (mean age = 69.9, SD = 5). Feeling restricted due to COVID-19 government measures was linked to increased depressiveness (b = 0.19; p < 0.001). The association was no longer significant when adding stress and covariates (b = 0.04; p = 0.43), while stress was linked to increased depressive symptoms (b = 0.22; p < 0.001). A final model confirms the assumption that the feeling of restriction is mediated by stress (total effect: b = 0.26; p < 0.001). Conclusion: We found evidence that feeling restricted due to COVID-19 government measures is associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms in older adults at increased risk for dementia. The association is mediated by perceived stress. Furthermore, social support was significantly associated with less depressive symptoms. Thus, it is of high relevance to consider possible adverse effects of government measures related to COVID-19 on mental health of older people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Government , Primary Health Care
16.
Hong Kong Med J ; 29(2): 96-98, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244434
17.
BMJ Open ; 13(6): e071098, 2023 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244342

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Long COVID is a prevalent condition with many multisystemic symptoms, such as fatigue, dyspnoea, muscle weakness, anxiety, depression and sleep difficulties, impacting daily life and (social and physical) functioning. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) may improve physical status and symptoms of patients with long COVID, yet the evidence is limited. Therefore, this trial aims to study the effect of primary care PR on exercise capacity, symptoms, physical activity and sleep in patients with long COVID. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: PuRe-COVID is a prospective, pragmatic, open-label, randomised controlled trial. A sample of 134 adult patients with long COVID will be randomised to a 12 week PR programme in primary care, supervised by a physiotherapist or to a control group, following no PR. A 3 month and 6 month follow-up period is foreseen. The primary endpoint will be the change in exercise capacity measured by 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) at 12 weeks, hypothesising a more significant improvement in the PR group. Other parameters, such as pulmonary function tests (including maximal inspiratory pressure/maximal expiratory pressure), patient-reported outcomes (COPD Assessment Test, modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale, Checklist Individual Strength, post-COVID-19 Functional Status, Nijmegen questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire and EuroQol-5D-5L), physical activity measured by an activity tracker, hand grip strength and sleep efficiency, are secondary and exploratory outcomes.The recruitment started on 19 April 2022, and 52 patients were included as of 14 December 2022. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained in Belgium from the relevant institutional review boards on 21 February 2022 (Antwerp University Hospital, approval number 2022-3067) and on 1 April 2022 (Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg in Genk, approval number Z-2022-01). Findings from this randomised controlled trial will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications and presentations at international scientific meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05244044.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Hand Strength , Belgium , Exercise Tolerance , Prospective Studies , Exercise , Dyspnea/etiology , Dyspnea/rehabilitation , Primary Health Care , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
19.
Am Heart J ; 262: 119-130, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243384

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) are highly prevalent in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), and the proportion of patients with uncontrolled diseases is higher than in high-income countries. Innovative strategies are required to surpass barriers of low sources, distance and quality of health care. Our aim is to assess the uptake and effectiveness of the implementation of an integrated multidimensional strategy in the primary care setting, for the management of people with hypertension and diabetes mellitus in Brazil. METHODS: This scale up implementation study called Control of Hypertension and diAbetes in MINas Gerais (CHArMING) Project has mixed-methods, and comprehends 4 steps: (1) needs assessment, including a standardized structured questionnaire and focus groups with health care practitioners; (2) baseline period, 3 months before the implementation of the intervention; (3) cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a 12-months follow-up period; and (4) a qualitative study after the end of follow-up. The cluster RCT will randomize 35 centers to intervention (n = 18) or usual care (n = 17). Patients ≥18 years old, with diagnosis of hypertension and/or DM, of 5 Brazilian cities in a resource-constrained area will be enrolled. The intervention consists of a multifaceted strategy, with a multidisciplinary approach, including telehealth tools (decision support systems, short message service, telediagnosis), continued education with an approach to issues related to the care of people with hypertension and diabetes in primary care, including pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment and behavioral change. The project has actions focused on professionals and patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study consists of a multidimensional strategy with multidisciplinary approach using digital health to improve the control of hypertension and/or DM in the primary health care setting. We expect to provide the basis for implementing an innovative management program for hypertension and DM in Brazil, aiming to reduce the present and future burden of these diseases in Brazil and other LMICs. CLINICAL TRIAL IDENTIFIER: This study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. (NCT05660928).


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Humans , Adolescent , Brazil/epidemiology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Delivery of Health Care , Primary Health Care/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
20.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0286014, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The COVID-19 pandemic situation poses new challenges for research. Ethical issues might arise if especially vulnerable individuals for severe COVID-19 course expose themselves because of participation in studies to a higher risk of infection for study purposes. How is the feasibility and acceptance of self-organized blood sample collections to measure anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike IgG antibodies in persons with a high risk for a severe COVID-19 disease progression? METHODS: Persons with a high risk for a severe COVID-19 disease progression (immunocompromised, oncology patients or over 80 years old) were recruited between January and September 2021 to send in blood samples (at least 500 µl) 1 month and 6 months after second COVID-19 vaccination. Participants were given the choice of drawing capillary or venous blood themselves or having blood drawn by health professionals belonging to either the study's own research team or the personnel found in local practices or clinics. Participants were surveyed via a telephone interview in December 2021 and January 2022 about their choice of blood sampling methods and influence of blood collection choice upon study participation. RESULTS: Data from 360 participants was collected via telephone follow-up. First blood samples were collected by the participants themselves (35.8%), local practices or clinics (31.9%) and the research team (22.5%). Second blood samples were mostly collected in local practices or clinics (35.6%) followed by participants themselves (25.9%) and the research team (11.5%). Blood samples were not collected in 2.5% and 19.1% of persons during first and second blood draw, respectively. Only 2% of blood samples did not reach the laboratory or were not analyzable. About one-fourth (26%) of participants stated that they would not have participated in the study if it would have been required to travel to the university hospital to give their blood sample. CONCLUSIONS: Participants were able to self-organize blood collection, making use of several different blood sample methods. Nearly all blood samples were analyzable when self-collected and sent in by post. One-fourth of the participants would not have participated in the study if required to give their blood sample in the study location. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trial Registry, DRKS00021152.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Feasibility Studies , Antibodies, Viral , Disease Progression , Primary Health Care
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