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1.
Gut ; 71(5): 950-960, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784858

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Implementation of faecal immunochemical tests (FIT) as a triage test in primary healthcare may improve the efficiency of referrals without missing cases of colorectal cancer (CRC). We aim to summarise the performance characteristics of FITs for CRC in symptomatic patients presenting to primary healthcare. DESIGN: We performed a systematic literature review of Medline and EMBASE databases from May 2018 to November 2020. Previous related systematic searches were also adapted to this aim and completed with reference screening. We identified studies performed on adult patients consulting for abdominal symptoms in primary care which reported data such that the FIT diagnostic performance parameters for CRC could be obtained. Bivariate models were used to synthesise available evidence. Meta-regression analysis was performed to evaluate the causes of heterogeneity. RESULTS: Twenty-three studies (69 536 participants) were included (CRC prevalence 0.3%-6.2%). Six studies (n=34 691) assessed FIT as rule in test (threshold of ≥150 µg Hb/g faeces) showing a sensitivity of 64.1% (95% CI 57.8% to 69.9%) and a specificity of 95.0% (95% CI 91.2% to 97.2%). A threshold of 10 µg/g (15 studies; n=48 872) resulted in a sensitivity of 87.2% (95% CI 81.0% to 91.6%) and a specificity of 84.4% (95% CI 79.4% to 88.3%) for CRC. At a 20 µg Hb/g faeces threshold (five studies; n=24 187) less than one additional CRC would be missed per 1000 patients investigated compared with 10 µg Hb/g faeces threshold (CRC prevalence 2%). CONCLUSION: FIT is the test of choice to evaluate patients with new-onset lower gastrointestinal symptoms in primary healthcare.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Adult , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Feces/chemistry , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Occult Blood , Primary Health Care/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(3): e390-e397, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Universal health coverage is one of the WHO End TB Strategy priority interventions and could be achieved-particularly in low-income and middle-income countries-through the expansion of primary health care. We evaluated the effects of one of the largest primary health-care programmes in the world, the Brazilian Family Health Strategy (FHS), on tuberculosis morbidity and mortality using a nationwide cohort of 7·3 million individuals over a 10-year study period. METHODS: We analysed individuals who entered the 100 Million Brazilians Cohort during the period Jan 1, 2004, to Dec 31, 2013, and compared residents in municipalities with no FHS coverage with residents in municipalities with full FHS coverage. We used a cohort design with multivariable Poisson regressions, adjusted for all relevant demographic and socioeconomic variables and weighted with inverse probability of treatment weighting, to estimate the effect of FHS on tuberculosis incidence, mortality, cure, and case fatality. We also performed a range of stratifications and sensitivity analyses. FINDINGS: FHS exposure was associated with lower tuberculosis incidence (rate ratio [RR] 0·78, 95% CI 0·72-0·84) and mortality (0·72, 0·55-0·94), and was positively associated with tuberculosis cure rates (1·04, 1·00-1·08). FHS was also associated with a decrease in tuberculosis case-fatality rates, although this was not statistically significant (RR 0·84, 95% CI 0·55-1·30). FHS associations were stronger among the poorest individuals for all the tuberculosis indicators. INTERPRETATION: Community-based primary health care could strongly reduce tuberculosis morbidity and mortality and decrease the unequal distribution of the tuberculosis burden in the most vulnerable populations. During the current marked rise in global poverty due to the COVID-19 pandemic, investments in primary health care could help protect against the expected increases in tuberculosis incidence worldwide and contribute to the attainment of the End TB Strategy goals. FUNDING: TB Modelling and Analysis Consortium (Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation), Wellcome Trust, and Brazilian Ministry of Health. TRANSLATION: For the Portuguese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Community Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/therapy , Universal Health Insurance/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Community Health Services/methods , Female , Humans , Incidence , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Primary Health Care/methods , Young Adult
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e058247, 2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731281

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We explored use and usability of general practitioner (GP) online services. SETTING: Devon and Cornwall, England. DESIGN: Mixed-methods sequential study based on qualitative interviews, analysis of routine eConsult usage and feedback data, and assessment of GP websites. METHODS: First, we interviewed 32 staff and 18 patients from seven practices in June 2018. Second, we used routinely collected consultation meta-data and, third, patient feedback data for all practices using eConsult from June 2018 to March 2021. Lastly, we examined GP websites' usability in January 2020 and September 2021. RESULTS: Interviews suggested practices infrequently involved patients in eConsult implementation. Some patients 'gamed' the system to achieve what they wanted. Usage data showed a major increase in eConsult resulting from COVID-19. Women used eConsult twice as much as men. Older had similar eConsult consultation rates to younger patients. Patient feedback forms were completed for fewer than 3% of consultations. Patients were mostly satisfied with eConsult but some had concerns about its length and repetitiveness, lack of continuity over time and between eConsult and medical records. We did not find clear evidence that patients' suggested improvements were acted on. Finally, few GP websites met accessibility guidelines and may hinder access to online national services such as eConsult. CONCLUSION: Given that, face to face, older people consult more, usage data suggest that older people have reduced online access. That the female-to-male ratio of eConsult use use was even greater than 'traditional' face-to-face ratio was unexpected and needs further research. Although eConsult collects and uses routine patient feedback to improve the system, more open systems for patient feedback, such as Care Opinion, may be more effective in helping online systems evolve. Lastly, we question the need for GP websites and suggest that national or regional services are better placed to maintain accessible services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Practitioners , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , England , Feedback , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Primary Health Care/methods , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715308

ABSTRACT

There is increasing evidence supporting the effectiveness of psychological interventions in low- and middle-income countries. However, primary care providers (PCPs) may prefer treating patients with medication. A secondary exploratory analysis of a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate psychological vs. pharmacological treatment preferences among PCPs. Thirty-four health facilities, including 205 PCPs, participated in the study, with PCPs in 17 facilities assigned to a standard version of the mental health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) training delivered by mental health specialists. PCPs in the other 17 facilities received mhGAP instruction delivered by specialists and people with lived experience of mental illness (PWLE), using a training strategy entitled Reducing Stigma among HealthcAre ProvidErs (RESHAPE). Pre- and post- intervention attitudes were measured through quantitative and qualitative tools. Qualitative interviews with 49 participants revealed that PCPs in both arms endorsed counseling's benefits and collaboration within the health system to provide counseling. In the RESHAPE arm, PCPs were more likely to increase endorsement of statements such as "depression improves without medication" (F = 9.83, p < 0.001), "not all people with depression must be treated with antidepressants" (χ2 = 17.62, p < 0.001), and "providing counseling to people who have alcohol abuse problems is effective" (χ2 = 26.20, p < 0.001). These mixed-method secondary findings from a pilot trial suggest that in-person participation of PWLE in training PCPs may not only reduce stigma but also increase PCPs' support of psychological interventions. This requires further investigation in a full-scale trial.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Psychosocial Intervention , Humans , Nepal , Primary Health Care/methods , Social Stigma
6.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(3): 323-326, may.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1552052

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los pacientes con diabetes experimentan dificultades para mantener el control glucémico durante el confinamiento por la pandemia de COVID-19, con el riesgo de presentar complicaciones crónicas de la diabetes y COVID-19 grave. Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la conversión de un centro de atención primaria presencial de diabetes a un servicio de telemedicina por llamada telefónica. Métodos: Se realizaron consultas médicas por llamada telefónica durante la etapa inicial del confinamiento (abril a junio de 2020), para continuar el seguimiento de pacientes ingresados a un programa de atención multicomponente en diabetes. Resultados: Se realizaron 1118 consultas por llamada telefónica para continuar el seguimiento de 192 pacientes con diabetes tipo 2. Participaron diferentes profesionales de distintas áreas de la salud: atención médica, educación en diabetes, nutrición, psicología y podología. Conclusiones: La atención multicomponente en diabetes se transformó con éxito de un esquema de atención presencial a un servicio de telemedicina. Numerosos pacientes de atención primaria pueden ser candidatos a telemedicina. Se debe considerar un rediseño del modelo de atención que incorpore la telemedicina para mitigar la carga de morbimortalidad en enfermedades crónicas impuesta por la pandemia de COVID-19, pero también para la era pos-COVID-19.


Abstract Introduction: Patients with diabetes experience difficulties to maintain glycemic control during the confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic, with the risk of developing diabetes chronic complications and severe COVID-19. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the conversion of an outpatient diabetes primary care center from a face-to-face care modality to a telemedicine care service by telephone. Methods: Medical consultations were made by telephone during the initial phase of confinement (April to June 2020), to then continue the follow-up of patients admitted to a multicomponent diabetes care program. Results: A total of 1,118 consultations were made by telephone and follow-up was subsequently continued in 192 patients with type 2 diabetes. Different professionals from different health areas participated, including medical care, diabetes education, nutrition, psychology and podiatry. Conclusions: Multicomponent diabetes care was successfully transformed from a face-to-face care modality to a telemedicine service. Many primary care patients may be candidates for telemedicine. A redesign of the care model that incorporates telemedicine should be considered to mitigate chronic diseases burden of morbidity and mortality imposed by COVID-19 pandemic, but also for the post-COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Telemedicine/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Ambulatory Care/methods , COVID-19 , Primary Health Care/methods , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data
7.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260228, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Treatment burden is the effort required of patients to look after their health and the impact this has on their functioning and wellbeing. It is likely treatment burden changes over time as circumstances change for patients and health services. However, there are a lack of population-level studies of treatment burden change and factors associated with this change over time. Furthermore, there are currently no practical screening tools for treatment burden in time-pressured clinical settings or at population level. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a three-year follow-up of a cross-sectional survey of 723 people with multimorbidity (defined as three or more long-term conditions; LTCs) registered at GP practices in in Dorset, England. The survey will repeat collection of information on treatment burden (using the 10-item Multimorbidity Treatment Burden Questionnaire (MTBQ) and a novel single-item screening tool), sociodemographics, medications, LTCs, health literacy and financial resource, as at baseline. Descriptive statistics will be used to compare change in treatment burden since the baseline survey in 2019 and associations of treatment burden change will be assessed using regression methods. Diagnostic test accuracy metrics will be used to evaluate the single-item treatment burden screening tool using the MTBQ as the gold-standard. Routine primary care data (including demographics, medications, LTCs, and healthcare usage data) will be extracted from medical records for consenting participants. A forward-stepwise, likelihood-ratio logistic regression model building approach will be employed in order to assess the utility of routine data metrics in quantifying treatment burden in comparison to self-reported treatment burden using the MTBQ. IMPACT: To the authors' knowledge, this will be the first study investigating longitudinal aspects of treatment burden. Findings will improve understanding of the extent to which treatment burden changes over time for people with multimorbidity and factors contributing to this change, as well as allowing better identification of people at risk of high treatment burden.


Subject(s)
Multimorbidity , Primary Health Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Management , England , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Logistic Models , Primary Health Care/methods , Self Care , Socioeconomic Factors
8.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(12): 2044-2054, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536167

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the results of five weight-loss interventions in primary care settings in underserved patients and to compare the level of pragmatism across the interventions using the Pragmatic Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary (PRECIS-2) tool. METHODS: Data from 54 primary care clinics (2,210 patients) were pooled from the Promoting Successful Weight Loss in Primary Care in Louisiana (PROPEL) and Rural Engagement in Primary Care for Optimizing Weight Reduction (REPOWER) cluster-randomized trials. Clinics were randomized to one of five comparators: PROPEL usual care, PROPEL combination of in-clinic and telephone visits, REPOWER in-clinic individual visits, REPOWER in-clinic group visits, or REPOWER telephone group visits. RESULTS: At 24 months, weight loss (kilograms) was -0.50 (95% CI: -1.77 to 0.76), -3.05 (-4.10 to -2.01), -4.30 (-5.35 to -3.26), -4.79 (-5.83 to -3.75), and -4.80 (-5.96 to -3.64) in the PROPEL usual care, REPOWER in-clinic individual visits, REPOWER telephone group visits, REPOWER in-clinic group visits, and PROPEL in-clinic and telephone visits arms, respectively. At 24 months, percentage of weight loss was -0.360 (-1.60 to 0.88), -3.00 (-4.02 to -1.98), -4.23 (-5.25 to -3.20), -4.67 (-5.69 to -3.65), and -4.69 (-5.82 to -3.56), respectively, in the five arms. The REPOWER in-clinic individual visits intervention was the most pragmatic and reflects the current Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services funding model, although this intervention produced the least weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically significant weight loss over 6 months in primary care settings is achievable using a variety of lifestyle-based treatment approaches. Longer-term weight-loss maintenance is more difficult to achieve.


Subject(s)
Medicare , Weight Loss , Aged , Humans , Life Style , Primary Health Care/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , United States
9.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 309-312, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1535086

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with diabetes experience difficulties to maintain glycemic control during the confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic, with the risk of developing diabetes chronic complications and severe COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the conversion of an outpatient diabetes primary care center from a face-to-face care modality to a telemedicine care service by telephone. METHODS: Medical consultations were made by telephone during the initial phase of confinement (April to June 2020), to then continue the follow-up of patients admitted to a multicomponent diabetes care program. RESULTS: A total of 1,118 consultations were made by telephone and follow-up was subsequently continued in 192 patients with type 2 diabetes. Different professionals from different health areas participated, including medical care, diabetes education, nutrition, psychology and podiatry. CONCLUSIONS: Multicomponent diabetes care was successfully transformed from a face-to-face care modality to a telemedicine service. Many primary care patients may be candidates for telemedicine. A redesign of the care model that incorporates telemedicine should be considered to mitigate chronic diseases burden of morbidity and mortality imposed by COVID-19 pandemic, but also for the post-COVID-19 era.


INTRODUCCIÓN: Los pacientes con diabetes experimentan dificultades para mantener el control glucémico durante el confinamiento por la pandemia de COVID-19, con el riesgo de presentar complicaciones crónicas de la diabetes y COVID-19 grave. OBJETIVO: El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la conversión de un centro de atención primaria presencial de diabetes a un servicio de telemedicina por llamada telefónica. MÉTODOS: Se realizaron consultas médicas por llamada telefónica durante la etapa inicial del confinamiento (abril a junio de 2020), para continuar el seguimiento de pacientes ingresados a un programa de atención multicomponente en diabetes. RESULTADOS: Se realizaron 1118 consultas por llamada telefónica para continuar el seguimiento de 192 pacientes con diabetes tipo 2. Participaron diferentes profesionales de distintas áreas de la salud: atención médica, educación en diabetes, nutrición, psicología y podología. CONCLUSIONES: La atención multicomponente en diabetes se transformó con éxito de un esquema de atención presencial a un servicio de telemedicina. Numerosos pacientes de atención primaria pueden ser candidatos a telemedicina. Se debe considerar un rediseño del modelo de atención que incorpore la telemedicina para mitigar la carga de morbimortalidad en enfermedades crónicas impuesta por la pandemia de COVID-19, pero también para la era pos-COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/methods , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Health Care/methods , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data
10.
Pediatrics ; 148(1)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Depression is common, and suicide rates are increasing. Adolescent depression screening might miss those with unidentified suicide risk. Our primary objective in this study was to compare the magnitude of positive screen results across different approaches. METHODS: From June 2019 to October 2020, 803 mostly Medicaid-enrolled adolescents aged ≥12 years with no recent history of depression or self-harm were screened with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Modified for Adolescents (PHQ-9A) and the Ask Suicide-Screening Questions (ASQ) across 12 primary care practices. Two PHQ-9A screening strategies were evaluated: screening for any type of depression or other mental illness (positive on any item) or screening for major depressive disorder (MDD) (total score ≥10). RESULTS: Overall, 56.4% of patients screened positive for any type of depression, 24.7% screened positive for MDD, and 21.1% screened positive for suicide risk. Regardless of PHQ-9A screening strategy, the ASQ identified additional subjects (eg, 2.2% additional cases compared with screening for any type of depression or other mental illness and 8.3% additional cases compared with screening positive for MDD). Of those with ≥6 month follow-up, 22.9% screened positive for any type of depression (n = 205), 35.6% screened positive for MDD (n = 90), and 42.7% with a positive ASQ result (n = 75) had a depression or self-harm diagnosis or an antidepressant prescription. CONCLUSIONS: Suicide risk screening identifies cases not identified by depression screening. In this study, we underscore opportunities and challenges in primary care related to the high prevalence of depression and suicide risk. Research is needed regarding optimal screening strategies and to help clinicians manage the expected number of screening-identified adolescents.


Subject(s)
Depression/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Primary Health Care/methods , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Suicide/prevention & control , Young Adult
11.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(7): 527-535, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526994

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic spurred health systems across the world to quickly shift from in-person visits to safer video visits. OBJECTIVE: To seek stakeholder perspectives on video visits' acceptability and effect 3 weeks after near-total transition to video visits. DESIGN: Semistructured qualitative interviews. SETTING: 6 Stanford general primary care and express care clinics at 6 northern California sites, with 81 providers, 123 staff, and 97 614 patient visits in 2019. PARTICIPANTS: 53 program participants (overlapping roles as medical providers [n = 20], medical assistants [n = 16], nurses [n = 4], technologists [n = 4], and administrators [n = 13]) were interviewed about video visit transition and challenges. INTERVENTION: In 3 weeks, express care and primary care video visits increased from less than 10% to greater than 80% and from less than 10% to greater than 75%, respectively. New video visit providers received video visit training and care quality feedback. New system workflows were created to accommodate the new visit method. MEASUREMENTS: 9 faculty, trained in qualitative research methods, conducted 53 stakeholder interviews in 4 days using purposeful (administrators and technologists) and convenience (medical assistant, nurses, and providers) sampling. A rapid qualitative analytic approach for thematic analysis was used. RESULTS: The analysis revealed 12 themes, including Pandemic as Catalyst; Joy in Medicine; Safety in Medicine; Slipping Through the Cracks; My Role, Redefined; and The New Normal. Themes were analyzed using the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) framework to identify critical issues for continued program utilization. LIMITATIONS: Evaluation was done immediately after deployment. Although viewpoints may have evolved later, immediate evaluation allowed for prompt program changes and identified broader issues to address for program sustainability. CONCLUSION: After pandemic-related systems transformation at Stanford, critical issues to sustain video visit long-term viability were identified. Specifically, technology ease of use must improve and support multiparty videoconferencing. Providers should be able to care for their patients, regardless of geography. Providers need decision-making support with virtual examination training and home-based patient diagnostics. Finally, ongoing video visit reimbursement should be commensurate with value to the patients' health and well-being. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Stanford Department of Medicine and Stanford Health Care.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Primary Health Care/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , California/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Ann Fam Med ; 19(5): 457-459, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416847

ABSTRACT

Health care organizations in the United States have transformed at an unprecedented rate since March 2020 due to COVID-19, most notably with a shift to telemedicine. Despite rapidly adapting health care delivery in light of new safety considerations and a shifting insurance landscape, primary care offices across the country are facing drastic decreases in revenue and potential bankruptcy. To survive, primary care's adaptations will need to go beyond virtual versions of traditional office visits. Primary care is faced with a chance to redefine what it means to care for and support patients wherever they are. This opportunity to shape the "new normal" is a critical step for primary care to meet its full potential to lead a paradigm shift to patient-centered health care reform in America during this time when we need it most.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Primary Health Care/methods , Telemedicine , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Primary Health Care/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
14.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 61(1): 26-33, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405264

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic brought rapid expansion of pediatric telehealth to maintain patient access to care while decreasing COVID-19 community spread. We designed a retrospective, serial, cross-sectional study to investigate if telehealth implementation at an academic pediatric practice led to disparities in health care access. Significant differences were found in pre-COVID-19 versus during COVID-19 patient demographics. Patients seen during COVID-19 were more likely to be younger, White/Caucasian or Asian, English speaking, and have private insurance. They were less likely to be Black/African American or Latinx and request interpreters. Age was the only significant difference in patient demographics between in-person and telehealth visits during COVID-19. A multivariate regression showed older age as a significant positive predictor of having a video visit and public insurance as a significant negative predictor. Our study demonstrates telehealth disparities based on insurance existed at our clinic as did inequities in who was seen before versus during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/standards , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Ambulatory Care Facilities/organization & administration , Ambulatory Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , California , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Primary Health Care/methods , Primary Health Care/standards , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data
15.
South Med J ; 114(9): 593-596, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395358

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many US clinics have shifted some or all of their practice from in-person to virtual visits. In this study, we assessed the use of telehealth among primary care and specialty clinics, by targeting healthcare administrators via multiple channels. METHODS: Using an online survey, we assessed the use of, barriers to, and reimbursement for telehealth. Respondents included clinic administrators (chief executive officers, vice presidents, directors, and senior-level managers). RESULTS: A total of 85 complete responses were recorded, 79% of which represented solo or group practices and 63% reported a daily patient census >50. The proportion of clinics that delivered ≥50% of their consults using telehealth increased from 16% in March to 42% in April, 35% in May, and 30% in June. Clinics identified problems with telehealth reimbursement; although 63% of clinics reported that ≥75% of their telehealth consults were reimbursed, only 51% indicated that ≥75% of their telehealth visits were reimbursed at par with in-person office visits. Sixty-five percent of clinics reported having basic or foundational telehealth services, whereas only 9% of clinics reported advanced telehealth maturity. Value-based care participating clinics were more likely to report advanced telehealth services (27%), compared with non-value-based care clinics (3%). CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the adaptability of clinics to quickly transition and adopt telehealth. Uncertainty about reimbursement and policy changes may make the shift temporal, however.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Medicine/methods , Primary Health Care/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods , Texas
16.
Eur J Gen Pract ; 27(1): 241-247, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371665

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Telemedicine, once defined merely as the treatment of certain conditions remotely, has now often been supplanted in use by broader terms such as 'virtual care', in recognition of its increasing capability to deliver a diverse range of healthcare services from afar. With the unexpected onset of COVID-19, virtual care (e.g. telephone, video, online) has become essential to facilitating the continuation of primary care globally. Over several short weeks, existing healthcare policies have adapted quickly and empowered clinicians to use digital means to fulfil a wide range of clinical responsibilities, which until then have required face-to-face consultations. OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to explore the virtual care policies and guidance material published during the initial months of the pandemic and examine their potential limitations and impact on transforming the delivery of primary care in high-income countries. METHODS: A rapid review of publicly available national policies guiding the use of virtual care in General Practice was conducted. Documents were included if issued in the first six months of the pandemic (March to August of 2020) and focussed primarily on high-income countries. Documents must have been issued by a national health authority, accreditation body, or professional organisation, and directly refer to the delivery of primary care. RESULTS: We extracted six areas of relevance: primary care transformation during COVID-19, the continued delivery of preventative care, the delivery of acute care, remote triaging, funding & reimbursement, and security standards. CONCLUSION: Virtual care use in primary care saw a transformative change during the pandemic. However, despite the advances in the various governmental guidance offered, much work remains in addressing the shortcomings exposed during COVID-19 and strengthening viable policies to better incorporate novel technologies into the modern primary care clinical environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Primary Health Care/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Developed Countries , Digital Technology/methods , Health Policy , Humans , Primary Health Care/trends , Telemedicine/trends
17.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 60(11-12): 452-458, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354635

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine, more novel in provision of pediatric care, rapidly expanded due to the recent coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of telemedicine for acute and chronic care provision in an underserved pediatric primary care center. Items assessed included patient demographic data, chief complaint, and alternative care locations if telemedicine was not available. In our setting, 62% of telemedicine visits were for acute concerns and 38% for chronic concerns. Of acute telemedicine visits, 16.5% of families would have sought care in the Emergency Department/Urgent Care, and 11.3% would have opted for no care had telemedicine not been offered. The most common chronic issues addressed were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (80.3%) and asthma (16.9%). Racial disparities existed among our telemedicine visits with Black patients utilizing telemedicine services less frequently than non-Black patients. Telemedicine is feasible for pediatric acute and chronic care, but systems must be designed to mitigate widening racial disparities.


Subject(s)
Medically Underserved Area , Pediatrics/methods , Primary Health Care/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Child , Child, Preschool , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Retrospective Studies
19.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e931467, 2021 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344552

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Effective identification of patients with suspected COVID-19 is vital for the management. This study aimed to establish a simple clinical prediction model for COVID-19 in primary care. MATERIAL AND METHODS We consecutively enrolled 60 confirmed cases and 152 suspected cases with COVID-19 into the study. The training cohort consisted of 30 confirmed and 78 suspected cases, whereas the validation cohort consisted of 30 confirmed and 74 suspected cases. Four clinical variables - epidemiological history (E), body temperature (T), leukocytes count (L), and chest computed tomography (C) - were collected to construct a preliminary prediction model (model A). By integerizing coefficients of model A, a clinical prediction model (model B) was constructed. Finally, the scores of each variable in model B were summed up to build the ETLC score. RESULTS The preliminary prediction model A was Logit (YA)=2.657X1+1.153X2+2.125X3+2.828X4-10.771, while the model B was Logit (YB)=2.5X1+1X2+2X3+3X4-10. No significant difference was found between the area under the curve (AUC) of model A (0.920, 95% CI: 0.875-0.953) and model B (0.919, 95% CI: 0.874-0.952) (Z=0.035, P=0.972). When ETLC score was more than or equal to 9.5, the sensitivity and specificity for COVID-19 was 76.7% (46/60) and 90.1% (137/152), respectively, and the positive and negative predictive values were 75.4% (46/61) and 90.7% (137/151), respectively. CONCLUSIONS The ETLC score is helpful for efficiently identifying patients with suspected COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted/methods , Primary Health Care/methods , Body Temperature , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Logistic Models , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255594, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344156

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Implementation of evidence-based care for heavy drinking and depression remains low in global health systems. We tested the impact of providing community support, training, and clinical packages of varied intensity on depression screening and management for heavy drinking patients in Latin American primary healthcare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quasi-experimental study involving 58 primary healthcare units in Colombia, Mexico and Peru randomized to receive: (1) usual care (control); (2) training using a brief clinical package; (3) community support plus training using a brief clinical package; (4) community support plus training using a standard clinical package. Outcomes were proportion of: (1) heavy drinking patients screened for depression; (2) screen-positive patients receiving appropriate support; (3) all consulting patients screened for depression, irrespective of drinking status. RESULTS: 550/615 identified heavy drinkers were screened for depression (89.4%). 147/230 patients screening positive for depression received appropriate support (64%). Amongst identified heavy drinkers, adjusting for country, sex, age and provider profession, provision of community support and training had no impact on depression activity rates. Intensity of clinical package also did not affect delivery rates, with comparable performance for brief and standard versions. However, amongst all consulting patients, training providers resulted in significantly higher rates of alcohol measurement and in turn higher depression screening rates; 2.7 times higher compared to those not trained. CONCLUSIONS: Training using a brief clinical package increased depression screening rates in Latin American primary healthcare. It is not possible to determine the effectiveness of community support on depression activity rates due to the impact of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcoholics/psychology , Depression/therapy , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Alcoholic Intoxication/psychology , Alcoholism/diagnosis , Colombia/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Delivery of Health Care , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Depressive Disorder/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Peru/epidemiology , Primary Health Care/methods , Primary Health Care/trends , Referral and Consultation , Substance Abuse Detection/methods
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