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1.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 139, 2022 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35449060

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Higher dietary fibre intakes are associated with a reduced risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), and increasing intake has been shown to reduce blood pressure and other cardiometabolic risk factors. The extent to which dietary fibre can further reduce risk for those with CVD and treated with cardioprotective drugs has not been clearly established. We have examined the evidence for dietary fibre as adjunct therapy in those with CVD or hypertension. METHODS: Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and CENTRAL were searched to June 2021. Prospective observational studies reporting on fibre intakes and mortality in those with pre-existing CVD and controlled trials of increasing fibre intakes on cardiometabolic risk factors in those with CVD or hypertension were eligible. Outcomes were mortality (studies) and cardiometabolic risk factors (trials). Data synthesis was with random effects and dose response. Certainty of evidence was assessed using GRADE. RESULTS: Three prospective studies including 7469 adults with CVD, and 12 trials of 878 adults with CVD or hypertension were identified. Moderate certainty evidence indicates reduced all-cause mortality (relative risk, RR0.75 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.58-0.97)) when comparing higher with lower fibre intakes. Low certainty evidence from trials of adults with cardiovascular disease indicates increasing fibre intakes reduced total (mean difference, MD - 0.42 mmol/L (95%CI - 0.78 to - 0.05) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (MD - 0.47mmol/L (95%CI - 0.85 to - 0.10)). High certainty evidence from trials of adults with hypertension indicates increasing fibre intakes reduces systolic (MD 4.3 mmHg (95% CI 2.2 to 5.8)) and diastolic blood pressure (MD 3.1 mmHg (95% CI 1.7 to 4.4)). Moderate and low certainty evidence indicated improvements in fasting blood glucose (MD 0.48 mmol/L (- 0.91 to - 0.05)) and LDL cholesterol (MD 0.29 mmol/L (95% CI 0.17 to 0.40)). Benefits were observed irrespective of cardioprotective drug use. CONCLUSIONS: These findings emphasise the likely benefits of promoting greater dietary fibre intakes for patients with CVD and hypertension. Further trials and cohort analyses in this area would increase confidence in these results.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Hypertension , Adult , Dietary Fiber , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Observational Studies as Topic , Primary Prevention/methods , Prospective Studies
2.
Trials ; 23(1): 331, 2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35449015

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a very common long-term condition and powerful risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Low-dose aspirin is of proven benefit in the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke in people with pre-existing CVD. However, in people without CVD, the rates of MI and stroke are much lower, and the benefits of aspirin in the primary prevention of CVD are largely balanced by an increased risk of bleeding. People with CKD are at greatly increased risk of CVD and so the absolute benefits of aspirin are likely to be greater than in lower-risk groups, even if the relative benefits are the same. Post hoc evidence suggests the relative benefits may be greater in the CKD population but the risk of bleeding may also be higher. A definitive study of aspirin for primary prevention in this high-risk group, recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in 2014, has never been conducted. The question has global significance given the rising burden of CKD worldwide and the low cost of aspirin. METHODS: ATTACK is a pragmatic multicentre, prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded endpoint adjudication superiority trial of aspirin 75 mg daily vs. standard care for the primary prevention of CVD in 25,210 people aged 18 years and over with CKD recruited from UK Primary Care. Participants aged 18 years and over with CKD (GFR category G1-G4) will be identified in Primary Care and followed up using routinely collected data and annual questionnaires for an average of 5 years. The primary outcome is the time to first major vascular event (composite of non-fatal MI, non-fatal stroke and cardiovascular death [excluding confirmed intracranial haemorrhage and other fatal cardiovascular haemorrhage]). Deaths from other causes (including fatal bleeding) will be treated as competing events. The study will continue until 1827 major vascular events have occurred. The principal safety outcome is major intracranial and extracranial bleeding; this is hypothesised to be increased in those randomised to take aspirin. The key consideration is then whether and to what extent the benefits of aspirin from the expected reduction in CVD events exceed the risks of major bleeding. DISCUSSION: This will be the first definitive trial of aspirin for primary CVD prevention in CKD patients. The research will be of great interest to clinicians, guideline groups and policy-makers, in the UK and globally, particularly given the high and rising prevalence of CKD that is driven by population ageing and epidemics of obesity and diabetes. The low cost of aspirin means that a positive result would be of relevance to low- and middle-income countries and the impact in the developed world less diluted by any inequalities in health care access. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN: ISRCTN40920200 . EudraCT: 2018-000644-26 . CLINICALTRIALS: gov: NCT03796156.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Myocardial Infarction , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Stroke , Adolescent , Adult , Aspirin/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Primary Prevention/methods , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Stroke/drug therapy
3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(8): e023995, 2022 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35411788

ABSTRACT

Background Aspirin is widely administered to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, appropriate use of aspirin depends on patient understanding of its risks, benefits, and indications, especially where aspirin is available over the counter (OTC). Methods and Results We did a survey of patient-reported 10-year cardiovascular risk; aspirin therapy status; form of aspirin access (OTC versus prescription); and knowledge of the risks, benefits, and role of aspirin in CVD prevention. Consecutive adults aged ≥50 years with ≥1 cardiovascular risk factor attending outpatient clinics in America and Europe were recruited. We also systematically reviewed national policies regulating access to low-dose aspirin for CVD prevention. At each site, 150 responses were obtained (300 total). Mean±SD age was 65±10 years, 40% were women, and 41% were secondary prevention patients. More than half of the participants at both sites did not know (1) their own level of 10-year CVD risk, (2) the expected magnitude of reduction in CVD risk with aspirin, or (3) aspirin's bleeding risks. Only 62% of all participants reported that aspirin was routinely indicated for secondary prevention, whereas 47% believed it was routinely indicated for primary prevention (P=0.048). In America, 83.5% participants obtained aspirin OTC compared with 2.5% in Europe (P<0.001). Finally, our review of European national policies found only 2 countries where low-dose aspirin was available OTC. Conclusions Many patients have poor insight into their objectively calculated 10-year cardiovascular risk and do not know the risks, benefits, and role of aspirin in CVD prevention. Aspirin is mainly obtained OTC in America in contrast to Europe, where most countries restrict access to low-dose aspirin.


Subject(s)
Cardiology , Cardiovascular Diseases , Adult , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Policy , Primary Prevention/methods
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD013556, 2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35199850

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a major cause of disability and the leading cause of death worldwide. To reduce mortality and morbidity, prevention strategies such as following an optimal diet are crucial. In recent years, low-gluten and gluten-free diets have gained strong popularity in the general population. However, study results on the benefits of a gluten-reduced or gluten-free diet are conflicting, and it is unclear whether a gluten-reduced diet has an effect on the primary prevention of CVD. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of a gluten-reduced or gluten-free diet for the primary prevention of CVD in the general population. SEARCH METHODS: We systematically searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and Web of Science up to June 2021 without language restrictions or restrictions regarding publication status. Additionally, we searched ClinicalTrials.gov for ongoing or unpublished trials and checked reference lists of included studies as well as relevant systematic reviews for additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We planned to include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised studies of interventions (NRSIs), such as prospective cohort studies, comparing a low-gluten or gluten-free diet or providing advice to decrease gluten consumption with no intervention, diet as usual, or a reference gluten-intake category. The population of interest comprised adults from the general population, including those at increased risk for CVD (primary prevention). We excluded cluster-RCTs, case-control studies, studies focusing on participants with a previous myocardial infarction and/or stroke, participants who have undergone a revascularisation procedure as well as participants with angina or angiographically-defined coronary heart disease, with a confirmed diagnosis of coeliac disease or with type 1 diabetes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed eligibility of studies in a two-step procedure following Cochrane methods. Risk of bias (RoB) was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool (RoB2) and the 'Risk Of Bias In Non-randomised Studies - of Interventions' (ROBINS-I) tool, and the certainty of evidence was rated using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: One RCT and three NRSIs (with an observational design reporting data on four cohorts: Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS), Nurses' Health Study (NHS-I), NHS-II, UK Biobank) met the inclusion criteria. The RCT was conducted in Italy (60 participants, mean age 41 ± 12.1 years), two NRSIs (three cohorts, HPFS, NHS-I, NHS II) were conducted across the USA (269,282 health professionals aged 24 to 75 years) and one NRSI (Biobank cohort) was conducted across the UK (159,265 participants aged 49 to 62 years). Two NRSIs reported that the lowest gluten intake ranged between 0.0 g/day and 3.4 g/day and the highest gluten intake between 6.2 g/day and 38.4 g/day. The NRSI reporting data from the UK Biobank referred to a median gluten intake of 8.5 g/day with an interquartile range from 5.1 g/day to 12.4 g/day without providing low- and high-intake categories. Cardiovascular mortality From a total of 269,282 participants, 3364 (1.3%) died due to cardiovascular events during 26 years of follow-up. Low-certainty evidence may show no association between gluten intake and cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for low- versus high-gluten intake 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95 to 1.06; 2 NRSIs (3 cohorts)). All-cause mortality From a total of 159,265 participants, 6259 (3.9%) died during 11.1 years of follow-up. Very low-certainty evidence suggested that it is unclear whether gluten intake is associated with all-cause mortality (adjusted HR for low vs high gluten intake 1.00, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.01; 1 NRSI (1 cohort)). Myocardial infarction  From a total of 110,017 participants, 4243 (3.9%) participants developed non-fatal myocardial infarction within 26 years. Low-certainty evidence suggested that gluten intake may not be associated with the development of non-fatal myocardial infarction (adjusted HR for low versus high gluten intake 0.99, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.10; 1 NRSI (2 cohorts)). Lowering gluten intake by 5 g/day also showed no association on the primary prevention of non-fatal and fatal myocardial infarction (composite endpoint) in linear dose-response meta-analyses (adjusted HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.06; 1 NRSI (2 cohorts)). Coronary risk factors  Type 2 diabetes From a total of 202,114 participants, 15,947 (8.0%) developed type 2 diabetes after a follow-up between 22 and 28 years. There was low-certainty evidence that a lower compared with a higher gluten intake may be associated with a slightly increased risk to develop type 2 diabetes (adjusted HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.22; 1 NRSI (3 cohorts)). Furthermore, lowering gluten intake by 5 g/day may be associated with a slightly increased risk to develop type 2 diabetes in linear dose-response meta-analyses (adjusted HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.16; 1 NRSI (3 cohorts)). Blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein level, body mass index (BMI) After six months of follow-up, very low-certainty evidence suggested that it is unclear whether gluten intake affects systolic blood pressure (mean difference (MD) -6.9, 95% CI -17.1 to 3.3 mmHg). There was also no difference between the interventions for diastolic blood pressure (MD -0.8, 95% CI -5.9 to 4.3 mmHg), low-density lipoprotein levels (MD -0.1, 95% CI -0.5 to 0.3 mmol/L) and BMI (MD -0.1, 95% CI -3.3 to 3.1 kg/m²).  No study reported data on adverse events or on other outcomes. Funding sources did not appear to have distorted the results in any of the studies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Very low-certainty evidence suggested that it is unclear whether gluten intake is associated with all-cause mortality. Our findings also indicate that low-certainty evidence may show little or no association between gluten intake and cardiovascular mortality and non-fatal myocardial infarction. Low-certainty evidence suggested that a lower compared with a higher gluten intake may be associated with a slightly increased risk to develop type 2 diabetes - a major cardiovascular risk factor. For other cardiovascular risk factors it is unclear whether there is a difference between a gluten-free and normal diet. Given the limited findings from this review predominantly based on observational studies, no recommendations for practice can be made.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Diet, Gluten-Free , Adult , Aged , Blood Pressure , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Glutens/adverse effects , Humans , Middle Aged , Primary Prevention/methods , Young Adult
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Feb 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163772

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic caused a massive health and societal crisis, although the fast development of effective vaccines reduced some of the impact. To prepare for future respiratory virus pandemics, a pan-viral prophylaxis could be used to control the initial virus outbreak in the period prior to vaccine approval. The liposomal vaccine adjuvant CAF®09b contains the TLR3 agonist polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, which induces a type I interferon (IFN-I) response and an antiviral state in the affected tissues. When testing CAF09b liposomes as a potential pan-viral prophylaxis, we observed that intranasal administration of CAF09b liposomes to mice resulted in an influx of innate immune cells into the nose and lungs and upregulation of IFN-I-related gene expression. When CAF09b liposomes were administered prior to challenge with mouse-adapted influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 virus, it protected from severe disease, although the virus was still detectable in the lungs. However, when CAF09b liposomes were administered after influenza challenge, the mice had a similar disease course to controls. In conclusion, CAF09b may be a suitable candidate as a pan-viral prophylactic treatment for epidemic viruses, but must be administered prior to virus exposure to be effective.


Subject(s)
/therapeutic use , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , /methods , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , /chemistry , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemical synthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cells, Cultured , Chick Embryo , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza Vaccines/chemistry , Influenza Vaccines/pharmacology , Interferon Type I/genetics , Liposomes/chemistry , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Primary Prevention/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 554, 2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35087051

ABSTRACT

We aim to identify those measures that effectively control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Austrian schools. Using cluster tracing data we calibrate an agent-based epidemiological model and consider situations where the B1.617.2 (delta) virus strain is dominant and parts of the population are vaccinated to quantify the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) such as room ventilation, reduction of class size, wearing of masks during lessons, vaccinations, and school entry testing by SARS-CoV2-antigen tests. In the data we find that 40% of all clusters involved no more than two cases, and 3% of the clusters only had more than 20 cases. The model shows that combinations of NPIs together with vaccinations are necessary to allow for a controlled opening of schools under sustained community transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant. For plausible vaccination rates, primary (secondary) schools require a combination of at least two (three) of the above NPIs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Primary Prevention/methods , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Austria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Child , Contact Tracing , Disease Hotspot , Humans , Masks , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Ventilation
7.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(1): 102391, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35030453

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of this meta-analysis was to analyze the risks and benefits of low-dose aspirin in patients with T2D without cardiovascular conditions according to the baseline cardiovascular risk. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis including randomized clinical trials that evaluated the use of low-dose aspirin (75-100 mg/day) versus placebo/usual care in patients with T2D. Studies were classified as low, moderate and high risk based on the number of events in the placebo/control arms or by cardiovascular risk score when reported. The incidence of MACE, cardiovascular mortality and bleeding were evaluated. RESULTS: Ten eligible trials (34069 patients) were considered eligible for the analyses. According to the stratified analysis, low-dose aspirin use was associated with reduced risk for MACE in the moderate/high-risk group (OR: 0.88; 95% CI, 0.80-0.97; I2 = 0%) but not in the low-risk group (OR: 0.89; 95% CI, 0.77-1.01; I2 = 0%). Likewise, low-dose aspirin use was associated with more bleeding in the low-risk group, showing a non-significant trend in the moderate/high-risk group. There was no reduction in cardiovascular mortality in either group. Beyond the different findings in each stratum, the differences between the subgroups were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: This study showed that low-dose aspirin in patients with T2D reduces MACE and increases bleeding. Based on the within-subgroups results, the baseline cardiovascular risk does not modify the effect of aspirin therapy. However, few studies were included and the comparison between subgroups showed a trend in favor to the highest risk group, these results should be confirmed in future studies.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Aspirin/adverse effects , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Primary Prevention/methods , Risk Factors
8.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(2): e15, 2022 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the incidence of rhinovirus (RV) is inversely related to the intensity of non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs), such as universal mask wearing and physical distancing. METHODS: Using RV surveillance data, changes in the effect of NPIs were investigated in South Korea during the pandemic. The time to the first visible effect of NPIs after the onset of NPIs (T1), time to the maximum effect (T2), and duration of the maximum effect (T3) were measured for each surge. For each week, the RVdiff [(RV incidence during the pandemic) - (RV incidence within 5 years before the pandemic)] was calculated, and number of weeks for RVdiff to be below zero after NPIs (time to RVdiff ≤ 0) and number of weeks RVdiff remains below zero after NPIs (duration of RVdiff ≤ 0) were measured for each surge. RESULTS: During the study period, four surges of COVID-19 were reported. As the pandemic progressed, T1 and T2 increased, but T3 decreased. Additionally, the "time to RVdiff of ≤ 0" increased and "duration of RVdiff of ≤ 0" decreased. These changes became more pronounced during the third surge (mid-November 2020), before the introduction of the COVID-19 vaccine, and from the emergence of the delta variant. CONCLUSION: The effect of NPIs appears slower, the duration of the effect becomes shorter, and the intensity also decreases less than a year after the onset of the pandemic owing to people's exhaustion in implementing NPIs. These findings suggest that the COVID-19 response strategy must be completely overhauled.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Common Cold/epidemiology , Primary Prevention/methods , Adenoviridae/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Human bocavirus/isolation & purification , Humans , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Quarantine , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Rhinovirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(1): e0010094, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007298

ABSTRACT

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a zoonosis characterized by clinical features of high fever, hemorrhage, and renal damage. China has the largest number of HFRS cases worldwide, accounting for over 90% of the total reported cases. In this paper, we used surveyed HFRS data and satellite imagery to conduct geostatistical analysis for investigating the associations of rapid urbanization, water bodies, and other factors on the spatiotemporal dynamics of HFRS from year 2005 to 2018 in Xi'an City, Northwest China. The results revealed an evident epidemic aggregation in the incidence of HFRS within Xi'an City with a phenomenal fluctuation in periodic time series. Rapid urbanization was found to greatly affect the HFRS incidence in two different time phases. HFRS caused by urbanization influences farmers to a lesser extent than it does to non-farmers. The association of water bodies with the HFRS incidence rate was found to be higher within the radii of 696.15 m and 1575.39 m, which represented significant thresholds. The results also showed that geomatics approaches can be used for spatiotemporally investigating the HFRS dynamic characteristics and supporting effective allocations of resources to formulate strategies for preventing epidemics.


Subject(s)
Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome/prevention & control , Primary Prevention/methods , Animals , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Disease Vectors , Geography , Hantavirus/classification , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome/mortality , Humans , Incidence , Murinae/virology , Rats , Retrospective Studies , Satellite Imagery , Seasons , Urbanization
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(1): e0010048, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986169

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first community transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Delta variant of concern (VOC) in Guangzhou, China occurred between May and June 2021. Herein, we describe the epidemiological characteristics of this outbreak and evaluate the implemented containment measures against this outbreak. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention provided the data on SARS-CoV-2 infections reported between 21 May and 24 June 2021. We estimated the incubation period distribution by fitting a gamma distribution to the data, while the serial interval distribution was estimated by fitting a normal distribution. The instantaneous effective reproductive number (Rt) was estimated to reflect the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2. Clinical severity was compared for cases with different vaccination statuses using an ordinal regression model after controlling for age. Of the reported local cases, 7/153 (4.6%) were asymptomatic. The median incubation period was 6.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.42-6.71) days and the means of serial intervals decreased from 5.19 (95% CI: 4.29-6.11) to 3.78 (95% CI: 2.74-4.81) days. The incubation period increased with age (P<0.001). A hierarchical prevention and control strategy against COVID-19 was implemented in Guangzhou, with Rt decreasing from 6.83 (95% credible interval [CrI]: 3.98-10.44) for the 7-day time window ending on 27 May 2021 to below 1 for the time window ending on 8 June and thereafter. Individuals with partial or full vaccination schedules with BBIBP-CorV or CoronaVac accounted for 15.3% of the COVID-19 cases. Clinical symptoms were milder in partially or fully vaccinated cases than in unvaccinated cases (odds ratio [OR] = 0.26 [95% CI: 0.07-0.94]). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The hierarchical prevention and control strategy against COVID-19 in Guangzhou was timely and effective. Authorised inactivated vaccines are likely to contribute to reducing the probability of developing severe disease. Our findings have important implications for the containment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Prevention/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
12.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 28(17): 1953-1960, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448849

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study assessed the risks and benefits of aspirin in the primary prevention of CVD in individuals with CKD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ovid MEDLINE was searched from 2015 to 15th of September 2020 to include randomized controlled trials that assessed aspirin versus placebo in adults with non-end stage CKD without a previous diagnosis of CVD. A pre-specified protocol was registered with PROSPERO (identification number CRD42014008860). A random effects model was used to calculate a pooled hazard ratio (HR), pooled risk difference, and the number needed to treat or harm (NNT/NNH). The primary endpoint was CVD. Secondary endpoints included: all-cause mortality; coronary heart disease; stroke; and major and minor bleeding events. Five trials were identified (n = 7852 total, n = 3935 aspirin, n = 3917 placebo). Overall, 434 CVD events occurred. There was no statistically significant reduction in CVD events (HR 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54-1.08; P = 0.13, I2 = 63%), all-cause mortality (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.74-1.19; P = 0.60, I2 = 21%), coronary heart disease events (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.27-1.63; P = 0.37, I2 = 64%) or stroke (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.6-1.27; P = 0.48, I2 = 24%) from aspirin therapy. The risk of major bleeding events were increased by approximately 50% (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.13-2.05; P = 0.01, I2 = 0%) and minor bleeding events were more than doubled (HR 2.64, 95% CI 1.64-4.23; P < 0.01, I2 = 0%). CONCLUSIONS: Aspirin cannot be routinely recommended for the primary prevention of CVD in individuals with CKD as there is no evidence for its benefit but there is an increased risk of bleeding.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Adult , Aspirin/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Humans , Primary Prevention/methods , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/chemically induced , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis
13.
Heart Rhythm ; 19(5): 782-789, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The sudden death (SD) risk stratification algorithm in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has evolved, underscored recently by novel cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-based risk markers (left ventricular apical aneurysm, extensive late gadolinium enhancement, and end-stage disease with systolic dysfunction) incorporated into the 2020 American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) HCM guidelines. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the specific impact of newer, predominantly CMR-based risk markers in a large multicenter HCM population that underwent primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implants. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 1149 consecutive HCM patients from 6 North American and European HCM centers prospectively judged to be at high SD risk based on ≥1 AHA/ACC individual risk markers and prophylactically implanted with an ICD was performed. European Society of Cardiology (ESC) risk score was retrospectively analyzed with respect to the known clinical outcome. RESULTS: Of 1149 patients with an ICD, 162 (14%) experienced device therapy terminating ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation 4.6 ± 4.2 years after implant. CMR-based markers solely or in combination led to ICD implantation in 49 of the 162 patients (30%) experiencing device therapy. Particularly low ESC scores (<4%/5 years) would have excluded an ESC ICD recommendation for 67 patients who nevertheless experienced appropriate ICD therapy, including 26 with the CMR-based risk markers not part of the ESC formula. CONCLUSION: Identification and incorporation of novel guideline-supported CMR-based risk markers enhance selection of HCM patients for SD prevention with ICDs. Absence of CMR-based markers from the ESC risk score accounts, in part, for it not identifying many HCM patients with SD events. These data support inclusion of CMR as a routine part of HCM patient evaluation and risk stratification.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic , Defibrillators, Implantable , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/complications , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/diagnosis , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/therapy , Contrast Media , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/epidemiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Defibrillators, Implantable/adverse effects , Gadolinium , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Primary Prevention/methods , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors , Ventricular Fibrillation/etiology
14.
Circulation ; 145(10): 742-753, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Regulatory authorities of most industrialized countries recommend 6 months of private driving restriction after implantation of a secondary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). These driving restrictions result in significant inconvenience and social implications. This study aimed to assess the incidence rate of appropriate device therapies in contemporary recipients of a secondary prevention ICD. METHODS: This retrospective study at 3 Canadian tertiary care centers enrolled consecutive patients with new secondary prevention ICD implants between 2016 and 2020. RESULTS: For a median of 760 days (324, 1190 days), 721 patients were followed up. The risk of recurrent ventricular arrhythmia was highest during the first 3 months after device insertion (34.4%) and decreased over time (10.6% between 3 and 6 months, 11.7% between 6 and 12 months). The corresponding incidence rate per 100 patient-days was 0.48 (95% CI, 0.35-0.64) at 90 days, 0.28 (95% CI, 0.17-0.45) at 180 days, and 0.21 (95% CI, 0.13-0.33) between 181 and 365 days after ICD insertion (P<0.001). The cumulative incidence of arrhythmic syncope resulting in sudden cardiac incapacitation was 1.8% within the first 90 days and subsequently dropped to 0.4% between 91 and 180 days (P<0.001) after ICD insertion. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of appropriate therapies resulting in sudden cardiac incapacitation in contemporary recipients of a secondary prevention ICD is much lower than previously reported and declines significantly after the first 3 months. Lowering driving restrictions to 3 months after the index cardiac event seems safe, and revision of existing guidelines should be considered in countries still adhering to a 6-month period. Existing restrictions for private driving after implantation of a secondary prevention ICD should be reconsidered.


Subject(s)
Defibrillators, Implantable , Canada , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/epidemiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Defibrillators, Implantable/adverse effects , Humans , Primary Prevention/methods , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors
15.
Drugs Aging ; 39(1): 97-106, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34866173

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) prevents stroke and myocardial infarction in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but whether it should be used for primary CVD prevention in older Chinese adults remains unclear. METHODS: This prospective study investigated Chinese people aged > 70 years participating in the Kadoorie Study of Chronic Disease. The subjects were grouped as aspirin users and nonusers. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to achieve balanced baseline characteristics. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). The secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular and/or cerebrovascular disease (CCVD) mortality, and bleeding events. Survival curves were used to compare the outcomes between groups. Cox regression was used to identify the risk factors for the outcomes. RESULTS: In total, 4791 participants were categorized as aspirin users (n = 257) or nonusers (n = 4534). PSM resulted in 252 and 951 participants in the aspirin user and nonuser groups, respectively. Median follow-up was 8.6 years. Aspirin did not influence MACCE, all-cause mortality, or bleeding events, but it did influence CCVD deaths (p = 0.019). Male sex (hazard ratio [HR] 1.652; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.217-2.243; p = 0.001), body mass index (BMI) (HR 1.053; 95% CI 1.008-1.100; p = 0.021), and systolic blood pressure (HR 1.009; 95% CI 1.003-1.016; p = 0.004) were independent risk factors for MACCE. Survival analysis showed higher rates of CCVD mortality among aspirin users (HR 1.363; 95% CI 1.040-1.786; p = 0.025), but this was not significant in the regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant benefits from using aspirin as primary prevention for MACCE in older Chinese adults.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Myocardial Infarction , Aged , Aspirin/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , China/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Primary Prevention/methods , Prospective Studies
16.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259884, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals (HCPs) play a pivotal role in ensuring access to quality healthcare of patients. However, their role in health promotion (HP) and disease prevention (DP) has not been fully explored. This study aimed at determining how training, attitude, and practice (TAP) of HCPs influence their practice of HP and DP. METHODS: Data on TAP regarding HP and DP were collected from 495 HCPs from twenty-three hospitals in the study area using a standardized questionnaire. Bivariate, univariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted to describe how the TAP of HCPs influence their HP and DP practices. The analysis was further desegregated at the three levels of healthcare (primary, secondary and tertiary levels). RESULTS: Most of the medical doctors 36.12% (n = 173), registered nurses 28.39% (n = 136), and allied health professionals (AHPs) 11.27% (n = 54) indicated the absence of coordinated HP training for staff in their facilities. Similarly, 32.93% (n = 193) of the HCPs, indicated having participated in HP or DP training. Among those that had participated in HP and DP training, benefits of training were positive behaviour, attributions, and emotional responses. When compared at the different levels of healthcare, enhanced staff satisfaction and continuing professional development for HP were statistically significant only at the tertiary healthcare level. Multivariate analysis showed a likelihood of reduced coordinated HP training for staff among medical doctors (Coef 0.15; 95% CI 0.07-0.32) and AHPs (Coef 0.24; 95% CI 0.10-0.59) compared to nurses. Furthermore, medical doctors (Coeff: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.94) were less likely to agree that HCPs should model good health behavior to render HP services as compared to nurses. CONCLUSION: Training in HP and DP empowers HCPs with the requisite knowledge and attitude necessary for effective practice. Several HCPs at different levels of care had limited knowledge of HP and DP because of inadequate training. We recommend a strategy aimed at addressing the knowledge and attitudinal gaps of HCPs to ensure effective HP and DP services to patients.


Subject(s)
Education/methods , Health Personnel/education , Health Promotion/trends , Allied Health Personnel , Attitude , Delivery of Health Care , Health Facilities , Hospitals , Humans , Knowledge , Multivariate Analysis , Personal Satisfaction , Physicians , Primary Prevention/methods , Primary Prevention/trends , Quality of Health Care , Social Perception , South Africa
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22683, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811411

ABSTRACT

Better models to identify individuals at low risk of ventricular arrhythmia (VA) are needed for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) candidates to mitigate the risk of ICD-related complications. We designed the CERTAINTY study (CinE caRdiac magneTic resonAnce to predIct veNTricular arrhYthmia) with deep learning for VA risk prediction from cine cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Using a training cohort of primary prevention ICD recipients (n = 350, 97 women, median age 59 years, 178 ischemic cardiomyopathy) who underwent CMR immediately prior to ICD implantation, we developed two neural networks: Cine Fingerprint Extractor and Risk Predictor. The former extracts cardiac structure and function features from cine CMR in a form of cine fingerprint in a fully unsupervised fashion, and the latter takes in the cine fingerprint and outputs disease outcomes as a cine risk score. Patients with VA (n = 96) had a significantly higher cine risk score than those without VA. Multivariate analysis showed that the cine risk score was significantly associated with VA after adjusting for clinical characteristics, cardiac structure and function including CMR-derived scar extent. These findings indicate that non-contrast, cine CMR inherently contains features to improve VA risk prediction in primary prevention ICD candidates. We solicit participation from multiple centers for external validation.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/prevention & control , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging , Cardiomyopathies/therapy , Defibrillators, Implantable/adverse effects , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Ischemia/therapy , Primary Prevention/methods , Aged , Cicatrix/diagnostic imaging , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Deep Learning , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Function, Left
18.
Am J Cardiol ; 161: 36-41, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794616

ABSTRACT

The 2018 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol recommends statin therapy for eligible patients to reduce the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). We extracted electronic health record data for patients with at least one primary care or cardiology visit between October 2018 and January 2020 at an urban, academic medical center in New York City. Clinical and demographic data were used to identify patients eligible for primary prevention statin therapy. Statin prescription status was extracted from the electronic health record, and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between statin prescription and age, gender, race, ethnicity, and other clinical and demographic covariables. In 7,550 patients eligible for primary prevention statin therapy, 3,994 (52.9%) were prescribed statins on at least 1 visit. Statin prescription was highest in patients with diabetes mellitus (73.6%) and with a 10-year ASCVD risk ≥20% (60.6%) and was lowest for those with a 10-year ASCVD risk between 5% and 7.5% (18.7%). Compared with those never prescribed statins, patients prescribed statins were less likely to be women, mainly driven by lower statin prescription rates for women with diabetes. In a fully adjusted model, women remained less likely to be prescribed statin therapy (adjusted odds ratios 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.88). In conclusion, primary prevention statin therapy remains underutilized.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/organization & administration , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Primary Prevention/methods , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prescription Drugs/pharmacology , Retrospective Studies
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27467, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intra-hospital falls have become an important public health problem globally. The use of movement sensors with alarms has been studied as elements with predictive capacity for falls at hospital level. However, in spite of their use in some hospitals throughout the world, evidence is lacking about their effectiveness in reducing intra-hospital falls. Therefore, this study aims to develop a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing scientific literature exploring the impact of using sensors for fall prevention in hospitalized adults and the elderly population. METHODS: We explored literature based on clinical trials in Spanish, English, and Portuguese, assessing the impact of devices used for hospital fall prevention in adult and elderly populations. The search included databases such as IEEE Xplore, the Cochrane Library, Scopus, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Science Direct databases. The critical appraisal was performed independently by two researchers. Methodological quality was assessed based on the ratings of individual biases. We performed the sum of the results, generating an estimation of the grouped effect (Relative Risk, 95% CI) for the outcome first fall for each patient. We assessed heterogeneity and publication bias. The study followed PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS: Results were assessed in three randomized controlled clinical trials, including 29,691 patients. A total of 351 (3%) patients fell among 11,769 patients assigned to the intervention group, compared with 426 (2.4%) patients who fell among 17,922 patients assigned to the control group (general estimation RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.04, 1.37, P = .02, I2 = 0%; Moderate GRADE). CONCLUSION: Our results show an increase of 19% in falls among elderly patients who are users of sensors located in their bed, bed-chair, or chair among their hospitalizations. Other types of sensors such as wearable sensors can be explored as coadjutants for fall prevention care in hospitals.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Hospital Design and Construction/instrumentation , Primary Prevention/instrumentation , Protective Devices/adverse effects , Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Data Management , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Prevention/methods , Protective Devices/statistics & numerical data , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
20.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 22(9): 680-685, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714258

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Despite the well established role of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) as a diagnostic gatekeeper, the yield of subsequent invasive coronary angiographies (ICA) remains low. We evaluated the adherence of CCTA integration in clinical management and primary prevention therapy. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients referred for ICA after CCTA without known coronary artery disease (CAD) or structural cardiac pathologies. Based on computed tomography (CT) findings, patients were classified as appropriately or inappropriately referred to ICA, equaling Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS) categories 0-2 (<50% stenosis) and 3-5 (>50% stenosis), respectively. CT exams were compared regarding invasive findings and revascularizations. Integration of CT results into primary prevention measures was analyzed and compared to measures taken after ICA. RESULTS: Of 1005 patients referred for ICA, 81 (8.1%) had no obstructive CT findings and therefore no ICA indication. ICA inappropriate patients did not differ in symptom characteristics, but had a significantly lower revascularization rate (3.7% vs. 42.1%, P < 0.0001) compared with patients appropriately referred to ICA. In patients with indication for lipid-lowering therapy after the CCTA statin rate was 53.1% and significantly increased after ICA to 76.4% (P < 0.0001). In CCTA, obstructive findings in proximal-only lesions did not increase the revascularization rate (45.6% vs. 42.1%, P = 0.11) but missed nonproximal relevant stenoses (15.0% vs. 2.5%, P < 0.0001) compared with obstructive findings in all segments. CONCLUSION: The overall rate of inappropriateness was low, but there is relevant statin underutilization in eligible patients due to a lack of CT findings integration. Both ICA referrals and primary preventive therapy could be improved by the implementation of CT results based on CAD-RADS recommendations.


Subject(s)
Computed Tomography Angiography , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Medical Overuse , Primary Prevention , Austria/epidemiology , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Computed Tomography Angiography/statistics & numerical data , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Angiography/statistics & numerical data , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/prevention & control , Female , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Male , Medical Overuse/prevention & control , Medical Overuse/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , Primary Prevention/methods , Primary Prevention/standards , Primary Prevention/statistics & numerical data , Referral and Consultation/standards , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data
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